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Australia's population and major cities are concentrated along the coastal fringes, mostly on estuaries. As these cities developed, extensive clearing of estuarine/marine wetlands occurred and often all that remains today are isolated stands of wetlands. Their importance is discussed in terms of how these remnants function in the estuarine ecosystem. In addition, they have aesthetic, recreational and educational values. To illustrate these values, the wetlands of Bicentennial Park and Newington at Homebush Bay on the Parramatta River in Sydney are used. These wetlands, which are adjacent to the Sydney Olympic Site, have been well studied since the 1980s and probably are the best-studied urban wetlands in New South Wales.

Adam, P., Wilson, N. C. and Huntley, B. 1988. The phytosociology of coastal saltmarsh vegetation in New South Wales. Wetlands (Australia) 7(2): 35-85.
Adam, P. 1990 Saltmarsh Ecology. Cambridge Studies in Ecology. University Press Cambridge UK.
Alongi, D. M. 2002. Present state and future of the world's mangrove forests. Environmental Conservation 29(3): 331-349.
Alongi, D. M., Wattayakorn, G., Pfitzner, J., Tirendi, F., Zagorskis, I., Brunskill, G. J., Davidson, A. and Clough, B. F. 2001. Organic carbon accumulation and metabolic pathways in sediments of mangrove forests in southern Thailand. Marine Geology 179: 85-103.
Berents, P. B. 1996. Wetlands and Benthos 1996. Homebush Bay Ecological Studies 1993-1995. Olympic Coordination Authority and CSIRO, Collingwood, Vol. 2: 95-110.
Burchett, M. D. and Pulkownik, A. 1996. Wetlands study. Homebush Bay Ecological Studies 1993-1995. Olympic Coordination Authority and CSIRO, Collingwood, Vol. 1: 145 - 187.
Burchett, M. D., Pulkownik, A., Grant, C. and Macfarlane, G. 1998. Rehabilitation of Saline Wetlands, Olympics 2000 Site, Sydney (Australia)- 1: Management Strategies Based on Ecological Needs Assessment. Marine Pollution Bulletin 37: 515-525.
Burchett, M. D., Pulkownik, A. and Seychell, O. 2000. Homebush Bay Wetlands Ecology Project. Final Report to Olympic Coordination Authority, September, 2000. University of Technology, Sydney, Sydney.
Barnes, P. B. and Chapman, M. G. 1998. Effects of the larvicide (Vectobac) on assemblages of benthic invertebrates in Bicentennial Park. Final report to Bicentennial Park, Sydney.
Barnes, P. B. and Chapman, M. G. 2001. Changes to benthic fauna in the Newington mangroves in response to restoration of tidal flushing. Final Report to the Olympic Co-ordination Authority, Sydney.
Bucher, D. and Saenger P. 1991. An inventory of Australian estuaries and enclosed marine waters: an overview of results. Australian Geographic Studies 29: 370-381.
Chapman, M. G. 1998. Relationships between spatial patterns of benthic assemblages in a mangrove forest using different levels of taxonomic resolution. Marine Ecology Progress Series 162: 71-78.
Chapman, M. G. and Underwood, A. J. 1997a. Concepts and issues in restoration of mangrove forests in urban environments. Pp 103-114 in Frontiers in ecology: building the links, edited by N. Klomp & I. Lunt, Elsevier Science, Oxford.
Chapman, M. G. and Underwood, A. J. 1997b. Environmental studies of benthic assemblages in wetlands in Homebush Bay, Report No. 1: Assemblages in Bicentennial Park and reference locations. Report to the Olympic Co-ordination Authority, Sydney.
Chapman, M. G., Underwood, A. J. and McCune, S. 1997. Environmental studies of benthic assemblages in wetlands in Homebush Bay, Report No. 2: Assemblages in patchy and isolated mangrove forests, Report to the Olympic Co-ordination Authority, Sydney.
Clarke, P. and Benson, D 1988. The natural vegetation of Homebush Bay- two hundred years of change. Wetlands (Australia) 8: 3-15.
Clough, B. F., Ong, J. E. and Gong, W. K. 1997. Estimating leaf area index and photosynthetic production in canopies of the mangrove Rhizophora apiculata. Marine Ecology Progress Series 159: 285-29.
Cogger, H. 1996. Fauna Impact Study. Ecological Studies 1993-1995. Olympic Coordination Authority and CSIRO, Collingwood, Vol. 2: 157-201.
Duarte, C. M. and Cebrian, J. 1996. The fate of marine autotrophic production. Limnology and Oceanography 41: 1758-1766.
Duke, N. C., Burns, K. A., Swannell, R. P. J., Dalhaus, O. and Rupp, R. J. 2000. Dispersant Use and a Bioremediation Strategy as Alternate Means of Reducing Impacts of Large Oil Spills on Mangroves: The Gladstone Field Trials. Marine Pollution Bulletin 41 (7-12): 403-412.
Ellison, A. M. and Farnsworth, E. J. 2000. Mangrove communities. Pp. 423-442 in Marine Community Ecology, edited by M. D. Barnes, S. D. Gaines and M. E. Hay. Sinauaer Associates, New York, USA.
Field, C. D. 1998. Rehabilitation of mangrove ecosystems: an overview. Marine Pollution Bulletin 37: 383-392.
Gibbs, P. 2004. Fish in Urban environments. Pp 82-92 in Urban Wildlife: more than meets the eye, edited by D. Lunney and S. Burgin. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Hogarth, P. J. 1999 The Biology of Mangroves. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Hutchings, P. A. 1983. The wetlands of Fullerton Cove, Hunter River, N. S. W. Coast and Wetlands 3: 12-21.
Hutchings, P. A. 2001 Anthropogenic changes to coastal marshes. Wiley & Sons. Ed. Ian Douglas. Encyclopedia of Global Environmental Change pp. 451-454
Hutchings, P. A., Pickard, J., Recher, H. F. and Weate, P. B. 1977. A survey of mangroves at Brooklyn, Hawkesbury River, New South Wales. Operculum Jan. 1977: 105-112.
Hutchings, P. A. and Recher, H. F. 1974. The fauna of Careel Bay with comments on the ecology of mangroves and seagrass communities. Australian Zoologist 18: 99-128.
Hutchings, P. A. and Recher, H. F. 1982. The fauna of Australian Mangroves. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of N. S. W. 106: 83-121.
Hutchings, P. A. and Saenger, P. 1987 Australian Wetlands. Queensland University Press, 388 pp.
Kachka, A. 1992. Vegetation survey of Homebush Bay. A report to the Property Services Group.
Kathireson, K. and Bingham, B. L. 2001. Biology of mangroves and mangrove ecosystems. Advances in Marine Biology 40: 81-251.
Kent, A. C. and Day, R. W. 1983. Population dynamics of an infaunal polychaete: the effect of predators and an adult-recruit interaction. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 73: 185-203
Lincoln Smith, M., White, G. A. and Hawes, P. M. H. 1996. Homebush Bay Ecological Studies 1993-1995. Olympic Coordination Authority and CSIRO, Collingwood, Vol. 2: 3-20.
Lindegarth, M., Barnes, P. B. and Chapman, M. G. 1999. Changes to benthic fauna in Wharf Marsh in response to water-drainage to provide habitat for the Japanese Snipe ( Gallinago hardwickii), Final report to the Olympic Co-ordination Authority, Sydney.
Meredith, C. 1844 Notes and sketches of New South Wales. John Murray, London, Fascimile ed Penguin Books 1973.
Saenger, P. 1996. Estuaries and enclosed waters. Chapter 6 Pp. 29-32 in The State of the Marine Environment Report for Australia. Technical Summary compiled by L. P. Zann. Ocean Rescue 2000. Department of the Environment, Sport and Territories, Canberra.
Ronnback, P. 1999. The ecological basis for economic value of seafood production supported by mangrove ecosystems. Ecological Economics 29: 235-252.
Straw, P. 1996. Waterbirds. Homebush Bay Ecological Studies 1993-1995. Olympic Coordination Authority and CSIRO, Collingwood Vol 2: 25-66.
Taylor, I (edited by Hutchings, P.A) 1996. The ecology and management of Shorebirds (Aves; Charadrii). Homebush Bay Ecological Studies 1993-1995. Olympic Coordination Authority and CSIRO, Collingwood, Vol. 1. pp. 55-142.
Tench, Watkins 1789. Chapter XV: The face of the country; its productions and climate, In A Narrative of the Expedition to Botany Bay; with an account of New South Wales and its Productions, Inhabitants, to which is subjoined, A list of the Civil and Military Establishments at Port Jackson. London: Printed for J. Debrett, opposite Burlington-House, Piccadilly.
Tench, Watkins 1793. Sydney's First Four Years, a reprint of A Narrative of the Expedition to Botany Bay (1789) and A Complete Account of the Settlement at Port Jackson. Angus and Robertson, 1961.
Turner, R. K., Pearce, D. and Bateman, I. 1993 Environmental Economics: An Elementary Introduction. Baltimore, USA: John Hopkins University Press 328pp.
Williams, R. and Meeham, A. J. in press. Focussing management needs at a sub-catchment level by assessment of changes in the cover of estuarine vegetation, Port Hacking, NSW, Australia. Wetlands Ecology and Management.
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References

Adam, P., Wilson, N. C. and Huntley, B. 1988. The phytosociology of coastal saltmarsh vegetation in New South Wales. Wetlands (Australia) 7(2): 35-85.
Adam, P. 1990 Saltmarsh Ecology. Cambridge Studies in Ecology. University Press Cambridge UK.
Alongi, D. M. 2002. Present state and future of the world's mangrove forests. Environmental Conservation 29(3): 331-349.
Alongi, D. M., Wattayakorn, G., Pfitzner, J., Tirendi, F., Zagorskis, I., Brunskill, G. J., Davidson, A. and Clough, B. F. 2001. Organic carbon accumulation and metabolic pathways in sediments of mangrove forests in southern Thailand. Marine Geology 179: 85-103.
Berents, P. B. 1996. Wetlands and Benthos 1996. Homebush Bay Ecological Studies 1993-1995. Olympic Coordination Authority and CSIRO, Collingwood, Vol. 2: 95-110.
Burchett, M. D. and Pulkownik, A. 1996. Wetlands study. Homebush Bay Ecological Studies 1993-1995. Olympic Coordination Authority and CSIRO, Collingwood, Vol. 1: 145 - 187.
Burchett, M. D., Pulkownik, A., Grant, C. and Macfarlane, G. 1998. Rehabilitation of Saline Wetlands, Olympics 2000 Site, Sydney (Australia)- 1: Management Strategies Based on Ecological Needs Assessment. Marine Pollution Bulletin 37: 515-525.
Burchett, M. D., Pulkownik, A. and Seychell, O. 2000. Homebush Bay Wetlands Ecology Project. Final Report to Olympic Coordination Authority, September, 2000. University of Technology, Sydney, Sydney.
Barnes, P. B. and Chapman, M. G. 1998. Effects of the larvicide (Vectobac) on assemblages of benthic invertebrates in Bicentennial Park. Final report to Bicentennial Park, Sydney.
Barnes, P. B. and Chapman, M. G. 2001. Changes to benthic fauna in the Newington mangroves in response to restoration of tidal flushing. Final Report to the Olympic Co-ordination Authority, Sydney.
Bucher, D. and Saenger P. 1991. An inventory of Australian estuaries and enclosed marine waters: an overview of results. Australian Geographic Studies 29: 370-381.
Chapman, M. G. 1998. Relationships between spatial patterns of benthic assemblages in a mangrove forest using different levels of taxonomic resolution. Marine Ecology Progress Series 162: 71-78.
Chapman, M. G. and Underwood, A. J. 1997a. Concepts and issues in restoration of mangrove forests in urban environments. Pp 103-114 in Frontiers in ecology: building the links, edited by N. Klomp & I. Lunt, Elsevier Science, Oxford.
Chapman, M. G. and Underwood, A. J. 1997b. Environmental studies of benthic assemblages in wetlands in Homebush Bay, Report No. 1: Assemblages in Bicentennial Park and reference locations. Report to the Olympic Co-ordination Authority, Sydney.
Chapman, M. G., Underwood, A. J. and McCune, S. 1997. Environmental studies of benthic assemblages in wetlands in Homebush Bay, Report No. 2: Assemblages in patchy and isolated mangrove forests, Report to the Olympic Co-ordination Authority, Sydney.
Clarke, P. and Benson, D 1988. The natural vegetation of Homebush Bay- two hundred years of change. Wetlands (Australia) 8: 3-15.
Clough, B. F., Ong, J. E. and Gong, W. K. 1997. Estimating leaf area index and photosynthetic production in canopies of the mangrove Rhizophora apiculata. Marine Ecology Progress Series 159: 285-29.
Cogger, H. 1996. Fauna Impact Study. Ecological Studies 1993-1995. Olympic Coordination Authority and CSIRO, Collingwood, Vol. 2: 157-201.
Duarte, C. M. and Cebrian, J. 1996. The fate of marine autotrophic production. Limnology and Oceanography 41: 1758-1766.
Duke, N. C., Burns, K. A., Swannell, R. P. J., Dalhaus, O. and Rupp, R. J. 2000. Dispersant Use and a Bioremediation Strategy as Alternate Means of Reducing Impacts of Large Oil Spills on Mangroves: The Gladstone Field Trials. Marine Pollution Bulletin 41 (7-12): 403-412.
Ellison, A. M. and Farnsworth, E. J. 2000. Mangrove communities. Pp. 423-442 in Marine Community Ecology, edited by M. D. Barnes, S. D. Gaines and M. E. Hay. Sinauaer Associates, New York, USA.
Field, C. D. 1998. Rehabilitation of mangrove ecosystems: an overview. Marine Pollution Bulletin 37: 383-392.
Gibbs, P. 2004. Fish in Urban environments. Pp 82-92 in Urban Wildlife: more than meets the eye, edited by D. Lunney and S. Burgin. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Hogarth, P. J. 1999 The Biology of Mangroves. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Hutchings, P. A. 1983. The wetlands of Fullerton Cove, Hunter River, N. S. W. Coast and Wetlands 3: 12-21.
Hutchings, P. A. 2001 Anthropogenic changes to coastal marshes. Wiley & Sons. Ed. Ian Douglas. Encyclopedia of Global Environmental Change pp. 451-454
Hutchings, P. A., Pickard, J., Recher, H. F. and Weate, P. B. 1977. A survey of mangroves at Brooklyn, Hawkesbury River, New South Wales. Operculum Jan. 1977: 105-112.
Hutchings, P. A. and Recher, H. F. 1974. The fauna of Careel Bay with comments on the ecology of mangroves and seagrass communities. Australian Zoologist 18: 99-128.
Hutchings, P. A. and Recher, H. F. 1982. The fauna of Australian Mangroves. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of N. S. W. 106: 83-121.
Hutchings, P. A. and Saenger, P. 1987 Australian Wetlands. Queensland University Press, 388 pp.
Kachka, A. 1992. Vegetation survey of Homebush Bay. A report to the Property Services Group.
Kathireson, K. and Bingham, B. L. 2001. Biology of mangroves and mangrove ecosystems. Advances in Marine Biology 40: 81-251.
Kent, A. C. and Day, R. W. 1983. Population dynamics of an infaunal polychaete: the effect of predators and an adult-recruit interaction. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 73: 185-203
Lincoln Smith, M., White, G. A. and Hawes, P. M. H. 1996. Homebush Bay Ecological Studies 1993-1995. Olympic Coordination Authority and CSIRO, Collingwood, Vol. 2: 3-20.
Lindegarth, M., Barnes, P. B. and Chapman, M. G. 1999. Changes to benthic fauna in Wharf Marsh in response to water-drainage to provide habitat for the Japanese Snipe ( Gallinago hardwickii), Final report to the Olympic Co-ordination Authority, Sydney.
Meredith, C. 1844 Notes and sketches of New South Wales. John Murray, London, Fascimile ed Penguin Books 1973.
Saenger, P. 1996. Estuaries and enclosed waters. Chapter 6 Pp. 29-32 in The State of the Marine Environment Report for Australia. Technical Summary compiled by L. P. Zann. Ocean Rescue 2000. Department of the Environment, Sport and Territories, Canberra.
Ronnback, P. 1999. The ecological basis for economic value of seafood production supported by mangrove ecosystems. Ecological Economics 29: 235-252.
Straw, P. 1996. Waterbirds. Homebush Bay Ecological Studies 1993-1995. Olympic Coordination Authority and CSIRO, Collingwood Vol 2: 25-66.
Taylor, I (edited by Hutchings, P.A) 1996. The ecology and management of Shorebirds (Aves; Charadrii). Homebush Bay Ecological Studies 1993-1995. Olympic Coordination Authority and CSIRO, Collingwood, Vol. 1. pp. 55-142.
Tench, Watkins 1789. Chapter XV: The face of the country; its productions and climate, In A Narrative of the Expedition to Botany Bay; with an account of New South Wales and its Productions, Inhabitants, to which is subjoined, A list of the Civil and Military Establishments at Port Jackson. London: Printed for J. Debrett, opposite Burlington-House, Piccadilly.
Tench, Watkins 1793. Sydney's First Four Years, a reprint of A Narrative of the Expedition to Botany Bay (1789) and A Complete Account of the Settlement at Port Jackson. Angus and Robertson, 1961.
Turner, R. K., Pearce, D. and Bateman, I. 1993 Environmental Economics: An Elementary Introduction. Baltimore, USA: John Hopkins University Press 328pp.
Williams, R. and Meeham, A. J. in press. Focussing management needs at a sub-catchment level by assessment of changes in the cover of estuarine vegetation, Port Hacking, NSW, Australia. Wetlands Ecology and Management.
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