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Estuarine habitats along Australia's temperate shores generally comprise saltmarsh, mangrove forests and seagrass habitats. In urban areas these habitats have been progressively fragmented due to human population increase and industrial expansion. Saltmarshes are particularly vulnerable to urban expansion because of their close proximity to densely populated areas. However, there is limited understanding of what effect the reclamation of saltmarsh habitats has on the macrofauna in adjacent mangrove forests. We examined the importance of saltmarshes on adjacent mangrove forests at nine locations on the Parramatta River, Sydney, New South Wales. The habitats examined consisted of mangrove forests with and without an adjacent saltmarsh habitat. The diversity and abundance of macrofauna were sampled during spring 1999 and summer 2000. Overall, there was a trend for the diversity of macrofauna to be greater in mangrove forests with an adjacent saltmarsh compared to those with an adjacent park or bund wall. Macrofaunal diversity was 36% lower in mangrove forests without adjacent saltmarsh habitats. In addition, the diversity of macrofauna in mangrove forests adjacent to a saltmarsh showed the least variability, while those adjacent to a bund wall showed the greatest variability. This study has shown that the diversity and abundance of macrofauna in urban mangrove forests was correlated with the adjacent habitat, thus it is important to conserve remnant patches of saltmarsh in our urban environment.

Adam, P. 1990 Saltmarsh Ecology. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge. 461pp.
Adam, P. 1996. Saltmarsh Vegetation Study. In Homebush Bay Ecological Studies 1993-1995, OCA and Dept. of Defence Sydney, Australia. Vol. 2, p115.
Berents, P. 1996. Wetlands and benthos. In: Homebush Bay ecological studies: 1993-1995. Vol. 2. Olympic Co-ordination Authority, CSIRO Publishing, Victoria, Australia.
Bingham, B. L. 1992. Life histories in an epifaunal community: coupling of adult and larval processes. Ecology 73(6): 2244-2259.
Bridgewater, P. B. 1985. Phytosociology of coastal saltmarshes in the Mediterranean climatic region of Australia. Phytocoenologia 10(3): 257-296.
Cambridge, M. L. and Hocking, P. J. 1997. Annual primary production and nutrient dynamics of the seagrasses Posidonia sinuosa and Posidonia australis in south-western Australia. Aquatic Botany 59: 277-295.
Chapman, M. G. 1998. Relationships between spatial patterns of benthic assemblages in a mangrove forest using different levels of taxonomic resolution. Marine Ecology Progress Series 162: 71-78.
Chapman, M. G. and Underwood, A. J. 1997. Concepts and issues in restoration of mangrove forests in urban environments. In: Frontiers in Ecology, edited by N. Klomp, and I. Lunt. Elsievier Science.
Clarke, P. J. 1983. Nitrogen pools in a mangrove-saltmarsh system. Wetlands 3(2): 85-93.
Clarke, K. R. and Ainsworth, M. 1993. A method of linking multivariate community structure to environmental variables. Marine Ecology Progress Series 92: 205-220.
Clarke, K. R. and Warwick, R. M. 1994. Similarity-based testing for community pattern: the 2-way layout with no replication. Marine Biology 118: 167-176.
Clarke, L. D. and Hannon, N. J. 1967. The mangrove swamp and saltmarsh communities of the Sydney district. II. The holocoenotic complex with particular reference to physiology. Journal of Ecology 57: 213-234.
Childers, D. L. and Day Jr., J. W. 1988. A flow-through technique for quantifying nutrient and materials fluxes in microtidal estuaries. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 27: 483-494.
Congdon, R. A. and McComb, A. J. 1980. Productivity and nutrient content of Juncus Krausii in an estuarine marsh in southwestern Australia. Australian Journal of Ecology 5: 221-234.
Dean, R. L. & Connell, J. H. 1987. Marine invertebrates in algal succession. III. Mechanisms linking habitat complexity with diversity. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 109: 249-273
Fairweather P. G. 1990. Ecological changes due to our use of the coast: research needs versus effort. Proceedings of the Ecological Society of Australia 16: 71-77.
Grosberg, R. K. 1982. Intertidal zonation of barnacles: the influence of planktonic zonation of larvae on vertical distribution of adults. Ecology 63(4): 894-899.
Hettler Jr, W. F. 1989. Nekton use of regularly-flooded saltmarsh cordgrass habitat in North Carolina, USA. Marine Ecology Progress Series 56: 111-118.
Hogarth, P. J. 1999 The Biology of Mangroves. Oxford University Press Inc. New York, USA. 228pp.
Hutchings, P. A. and Recher, H. F. 1982. The fauna of Australian mangroves. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales. 106(1): 83-109.
Irlandi, E. A. and Crawford, M. K., 1997. Habitat linkages: the effect of intertidal saltmarshes an adjacent subtidal habitats on abundance, movement, and growth of an estuarine fish. Oecologia 110: 222-230.
Kaly, U. 1988 The ecology of saltmarsh and gastropods in a temperate mangrove forest. Ph.D. thesis, the University of Sydney. 144pp.
Kelaher, B. P., Chapman, M. G., Underwood, A. J. 1998a. Effect of boardwalks on the semaphore crab Heloecius cordiformis in temperate mangrove forests. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 227: 281-300.
Kelaher, B. P., Chapman, M. G., Underwood, A. J. 1998b. Changes in benthic assemblages near boardwalks in temperate urban mangrove forests. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 228: 291-307.
Kemp, W. M. 1989. Estuarine seagrasses. In Estuarine Ecology, edited by J. W Day Jr, C. A. S. Hall, W. M. Kemp, and A. Yanez-Arancibia, John Wiley and Sons Inc.
King, R. J. and Wheeler, M. D. 1984. Composition and Geographic Distribution of Mangrove Macroalgal Communities in New South Wales. Proceedings of The Linnean Society of New South Wales 108(2): 97-117.
Lee, S. Y. 1995. Mangrove outwelling: a review. Hydrobiologia 295: 203-212.
Lynch, L. M. A., Spence, M. M. and Pearson, W. C. 1976 Parrameters for the River. National Trust of Australia (NSW), Sydney.
McGuinness, K. 1989. The ecology of Botany Bay and the effects of man's activities: a critical synthesis. The Institute of Marine Ecology. The University of Sydney. 112pp.
McGuinness, K. 1990. Effects of oil spills on macroinvertebrates of saltmarshes and mangrove forests in Botany Bay, New South Wales, Australia. Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 142: 121-135.
McIvor, C. C. and Odum, W. E. 1988. Food, predation risk, and microhabitat selection in a marine fish assemblage. Ecology 69(5): 1341-1351.
Mitchell, M. L. and Adam, P. 1989. The decline of saltmarsh in Botany Bay. Wetlands 8(2): 55-59.
Morrisey, D. 1995 Coastal Marine Ecology of Temperate Australia, edited by A. J. Underwood. and M. G. Chapman. UNSW Press. Pp 205-220.
Posey, M. H. 1988. Community changes associated with the spread of an introduced seagrass, Zostera japonica.Ecology 69(4): 974-983.
Proches, S., Marshall, D. J., Ugrasen, K., Ramcharan, A. 2001. Mangrove pneumatophores arthropod assemblages and temporal patterns. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the UK 81: 545-552.
Rivera-Monroy, V. R., Day, J. W., Twilley, R. R., Vera- Herrera, F. and Coronado-Molina, C. 1995. Flux of nitrogen and sediment in a fringe mangrove forest in Terminus Lagoon, Mexico. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 40: 139-160.
Robertson, A. I. and Duke, N. C. 1987. Mangroves as nursery sites: comparisons of the abundance and species composition of fish and crustaceans in mangroves and other nearshore habitats in tropical Australia. Marine Biology 96: 193-205.
Robertson, A. I. and Phillips, M. J. 1995. Mangroves as filters of shrimp pond effluent: predictions and biogeochemical research needs. Hydrobiologia 295: 311-321.
Ross, P. M. 2001. Larval supply, settlement and survival of barnacles in a temperate mangrove forest. Marine Ecology Progress Series 215: 237-249.
Saintilan, N and Williams, R. J. 1999. Mangrove transgression into saltmarsh environments in south-eastern Australia. Global Ecology and Biogeography 8: 117-124.
Saintilan, N and Williams, R. J. 2000. Short note: The decline of saltmarsh in southeast Australia: results of recent surveys. Wetlands (Australia) 18(2): 49-54.
Satumanatpan, S and Keough, M. J. 2001. Roles of larval supply and behaviour in determining settlement of barnacles in a temperate mangrove forest. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 260: 133-153.
Skilleter, G. A. 1996. Validation of rapid assessment of damage in urban mangrove forests and relationships with molluscan assemblages. Journal of the Marine and Biological Association of the U.K. 76: 701-706.
Skilleter, G. A. and Warren S. 2000. Effects of habitat modification in mangroves on the structure of mollusc and crab assemblages. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 244: 107-129.
Smith, A. K., Holliday, J. E. and Pollard, D. A. 1997. Management of seagrass habitats in NSW estuaries. Wetlands (Australia) 16(2): 48-55.
State of the Environment Report. 1997. Environmental Protection Authority. Chatswood, N. S. W. 500 pp.
Thomas, B. E. and Connolly, R. M. 2001. Fish use of subtropical saltmarshes in Queensland, Australia: relationships with vegetation, water depth and distance onto the marsh. Marine Ecology Progress Series 209: 275-288.
Twilley, R. R. 1995. The exchange of organic carbon in basin mangrove forests in a south-west Florida estuary. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 20: 543-557.
Underwood, A. J. and Barrett. 1990. Experiments on the influence of oysters on the distribution, abundance and size of the gastropod Bembicium auratum in a mangrove swamp in New South Wales, Australia. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 102: 223-235.
Warren, J. H. 1990. The use of open burrows to estimate abundances of intertidal estuarine crabs. Australian Journal of Ecology 15 (3): 277-280.
Warren, J. H. and Underwood, A. J. 1986. Effects of burrowing crabs on the topography of mangrove swamps in New South Wales. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 102: 223-235.
Woodroffe, C. 1985. Studies of a mangrove basin, Tuff Crater, New Zealand: I, mangrove biomass and production of detritus. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 20: 265-280.
Yerman, M. N. 2003 Habitat Linkages in Temperate Urban Mangrove Forests. MSc (Hons) thesis, University of Western Sydney, Hawkesbury.
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References

Adam, P. 1990 Saltmarsh Ecology. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge. 461pp.
Adam, P. 1996. Saltmarsh Vegetation Study. In Homebush Bay Ecological Studies 1993-1995, OCA and Dept. of Defence Sydney, Australia. Vol. 2, p115.
Berents, P. 1996. Wetlands and benthos. In: Homebush Bay ecological studies: 1993-1995. Vol. 2. Olympic Co-ordination Authority, CSIRO Publishing, Victoria, Australia.
Bingham, B. L. 1992. Life histories in an epifaunal community: coupling of adult and larval processes. Ecology 73(6): 2244-2259.
Bridgewater, P. B. 1985. Phytosociology of coastal saltmarshes in the Mediterranean climatic region of Australia. Phytocoenologia 10(3): 257-296.
Cambridge, M. L. and Hocking, P. J. 1997. Annual primary production and nutrient dynamics of the seagrasses Posidonia sinuosa and Posidonia australis in south-western Australia. Aquatic Botany 59: 277-295.
Chapman, M. G. 1998. Relationships between spatial patterns of benthic assemblages in a mangrove forest using different levels of taxonomic resolution. Marine Ecology Progress Series 162: 71-78.
Chapman, M. G. and Underwood, A. J. 1997. Concepts and issues in restoration of mangrove forests in urban environments. In: Frontiers in Ecology, edited by N. Klomp, and I. Lunt. Elsievier Science.
Clarke, P. J. 1983. Nitrogen pools in a mangrove-saltmarsh system. Wetlands 3(2): 85-93.
Clarke, K. R. and Ainsworth, M. 1993. A method of linking multivariate community structure to environmental variables. Marine Ecology Progress Series 92: 205-220.
Clarke, K. R. and Warwick, R. M. 1994. Similarity-based testing for community pattern: the 2-way layout with no replication. Marine Biology 118: 167-176.
Clarke, L. D. and Hannon, N. J. 1967. The mangrove swamp and saltmarsh communities of the Sydney district. II. The holocoenotic complex with particular reference to physiology. Journal of Ecology 57: 213-234.
Childers, D. L. and Day Jr., J. W. 1988. A flow-through technique for quantifying nutrient and materials fluxes in microtidal estuaries. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 27: 483-494.
Congdon, R. A. and McComb, A. J. 1980. Productivity and nutrient content of Juncus Krausii in an estuarine marsh in southwestern Australia. Australian Journal of Ecology 5: 221-234.
Dean, R. L. & Connell, J. H. 1987. Marine invertebrates in algal succession. III. Mechanisms linking habitat complexity with diversity. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 109: 249-273
Fairweather P. G. 1990. Ecological changes due to our use of the coast: research needs versus effort. Proceedings of the Ecological Society of Australia 16: 71-77.
Grosberg, R. K. 1982. Intertidal zonation of barnacles: the influence of planktonic zonation of larvae on vertical distribution of adults. Ecology 63(4): 894-899.
Hettler Jr, W. F. 1989. Nekton use of regularly-flooded saltmarsh cordgrass habitat in North Carolina, USA. Marine Ecology Progress Series 56: 111-118.
Hogarth, P. J. 1999 The Biology of Mangroves. Oxford University Press Inc. New York, USA. 228pp.
Hutchings, P. A. and Recher, H. F. 1982. The fauna of Australian mangroves. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales. 106(1): 83-109.
Irlandi, E. A. and Crawford, M. K., 1997. Habitat linkages: the effect of intertidal saltmarshes an adjacent subtidal habitats on abundance, movement, and growth of an estuarine fish. Oecologia 110: 222-230.
Kaly, U. 1988 The ecology of saltmarsh and gastropods in a temperate mangrove forest. Ph.D. thesis, the University of Sydney. 144pp.
Kelaher, B. P., Chapman, M. G., Underwood, A. J. 1998a. Effect of boardwalks on the semaphore crab Heloecius cordiformis in temperate mangrove forests. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 227: 281-300.
Kelaher, B. P., Chapman, M. G., Underwood, A. J. 1998b. Changes in benthic assemblages near boardwalks in temperate urban mangrove forests. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 228: 291-307.
Kemp, W. M. 1989. Estuarine seagrasses. In Estuarine Ecology, edited by J. W Day Jr, C. A. S. Hall, W. M. Kemp, and A. Yanez-Arancibia, John Wiley and Sons Inc.
King, R. J. and Wheeler, M. D. 1984. Composition and Geographic Distribution of Mangrove Macroalgal Communities in New South Wales. Proceedings of The Linnean Society of New South Wales 108(2): 97-117.
Lee, S. Y. 1995. Mangrove outwelling: a review. Hydrobiologia 295: 203-212.
Lynch, L. M. A., Spence, M. M. and Pearson, W. C. 1976 Parrameters for the River. National Trust of Australia (NSW), Sydney.
McGuinness, K. 1989. The ecology of Botany Bay and the effects of man's activities: a critical synthesis. The Institute of Marine Ecology. The University of Sydney. 112pp.
McGuinness, K. 1990. Effects of oil spills on macroinvertebrates of saltmarshes and mangrove forests in Botany Bay, New South Wales, Australia. Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 142: 121-135.
McIvor, C. C. and Odum, W. E. 1988. Food, predation risk, and microhabitat selection in a marine fish assemblage. Ecology 69(5): 1341-1351.
Mitchell, M. L. and Adam, P. 1989. The decline of saltmarsh in Botany Bay. Wetlands 8(2): 55-59.
Morrisey, D. 1995 Coastal Marine Ecology of Temperate Australia, edited by A. J. Underwood. and M. G. Chapman. UNSW Press. Pp 205-220.
Posey, M. H. 1988. Community changes associated with the spread of an introduced seagrass, Zostera japonica.Ecology 69(4): 974-983.
Proches, S., Marshall, D. J., Ugrasen, K., Ramcharan, A. 2001. Mangrove pneumatophores arthropod assemblages and temporal patterns. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the UK 81: 545-552.
Rivera-Monroy, V. R., Day, J. W., Twilley, R. R., Vera- Herrera, F. and Coronado-Molina, C. 1995. Flux of nitrogen and sediment in a fringe mangrove forest in Terminus Lagoon, Mexico. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 40: 139-160.
Robertson, A. I. and Duke, N. C. 1987. Mangroves as nursery sites: comparisons of the abundance and species composition of fish and crustaceans in mangroves and other nearshore habitats in tropical Australia. Marine Biology 96: 193-205.
Robertson, A. I. and Phillips, M. J. 1995. Mangroves as filters of shrimp pond effluent: predictions and biogeochemical research needs. Hydrobiologia 295: 311-321.
Ross, P. M. 2001. Larval supply, settlement and survival of barnacles in a temperate mangrove forest. Marine Ecology Progress Series 215: 237-249.
Saintilan, N and Williams, R. J. 1999. Mangrove transgression into saltmarsh environments in south-eastern Australia. Global Ecology and Biogeography 8: 117-124.
Saintilan, N and Williams, R. J. 2000. Short note: The decline of saltmarsh in southeast Australia: results of recent surveys. Wetlands (Australia) 18(2): 49-54.
Satumanatpan, S and Keough, M. J. 2001. Roles of larval supply and behaviour in determining settlement of barnacles in a temperate mangrove forest. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 260: 133-153.
Skilleter, G. A. 1996. Validation of rapid assessment of damage in urban mangrove forests and relationships with molluscan assemblages. Journal of the Marine and Biological Association of the U.K. 76: 701-706.
Skilleter, G. A. and Warren S. 2000. Effects of habitat modification in mangroves on the structure of mollusc and crab assemblages. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 244: 107-129.
Smith, A. K., Holliday, J. E. and Pollard, D. A. 1997. Management of seagrass habitats in NSW estuaries. Wetlands (Australia) 16(2): 48-55.
State of the Environment Report. 1997. Environmental Protection Authority. Chatswood, N. S. W. 500 pp.
Thomas, B. E. and Connolly, R. M. 2001. Fish use of subtropical saltmarshes in Queensland, Australia: relationships with vegetation, water depth and distance onto the marsh. Marine Ecology Progress Series 209: 275-288.
Twilley, R. R. 1995. The exchange of organic carbon in basin mangrove forests in a south-west Florida estuary. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 20: 543-557.
Underwood, A. J. and Barrett. 1990. Experiments on the influence of oysters on the distribution, abundance and size of the gastropod Bembicium auratum in a mangrove swamp in New South Wales, Australia. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 102: 223-235.
Warren, J. H. 1990. The use of open burrows to estimate abundances of intertidal estuarine crabs. Australian Journal of Ecology 15 (3): 277-280.
Warren, J. H. and Underwood, A. J. 1986. Effects of burrowing crabs on the topography of mangrove swamps in New South Wales. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 102: 223-235.
Woodroffe, C. 1985. Studies of a mangrove basin, Tuff Crater, New Zealand: I, mangrove biomass and production of detritus. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 20: 265-280.
Yerman, M. N. 2003 Habitat Linkages in Temperate Urban Mangrove Forests. MSc (Hons) thesis, University of Western Sydney, Hawkesbury.
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