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Past urban development and gardening practices have had a devastating impact on native wildlife in the suburbs. In this paper the reader is invited to envisage a future where the urban community has embraced the concept of gardens as indigenous wildlife habitat, generally free of lawns and with lower inputs of chemicals and water. In the year 2020 it is envisioned that there is a focus on vegetation from local provenance species and gardens are structured to mimic natural ecosystems to maximise benefits for wildlife. Gardens based on European aesthetic concepts are out of fashion and there is seldom the noise of a motor mower to drown the sounds of native birds. Such a future is within our reach. The vision is clear but the details of how to achieve the desired outcomes are hazy but they are sufficiently complex to develop into a new and exciting discipline.

Allen, F. R. 1989 Freshwater Fishes of Australia. T. H. F. Publications, Neptune City.
Archer, M. 2002. Confronting crises in conservation: a talk on the wild side. Pp. 12-52 in A Zoological Revolution: Using Native Fauna to Assist in its Own Survival, edited by D. Lunney and C. Dickman. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman and Australian Museum, Sydney, NSW.
Benson, D. and Howell, J. 1995 Taken for Granted. The bushland of Sydney and its suburbs. Kangaroo Press, Kenthurst.
Burgin, S. 2002. Tragic consequences for conservation of misdefining the term ‘community’. Pp. 1-7 in A Clash of Paradigms: Community and Research-based Conservation, edited by D. Lunney, C. Dickman and S. Burgin. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
Burgin, S., Carson, J. and Maheshwari, B. 2003. Conservation through Landcare: what is the knowledge base? Submitted manuscript.
Carson, R. 1963 Silent Spring. Hamish Hamilton, London.
Catterall, C. 2004. Birds, garden plants and suburban bushlots: where good intentionsmeet unexpected outcomes. Pp. 21-31 in Urban Wildlife: more than meets the eye, edited by D. Lunney and S. Burgin. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
Clancy, G. P. 2002. Vertebrate fauna and its management on an urban block in northern New South Wales. Pp. 155-162 in A Zoological Revolution: Using Native Fauna to Assist in its Own Survival edited by D. Lunney and C. Dickman. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman and Australian Museum, Sydney.
Ferraro, T. and Burgin, S. 1993. Amphibian decline: a case study in Western Sydney. Pp. 197-204 in Herpetology in Australia: A Diverse Discipline edited by D. Lunney and D. Ayers. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman and Surrey Beatty and Sons, Chipping Norton.
Flannery, T. F. 1998 Future Eaters: An Ecological History of the Australasian Lands and People. Braziller, New York.
Gale, C., 2000. Welcome to country. Pp. 6-7 in Treading Softly on the Land: The Place of Indigenous Knowledge in Natural Resource Management, Proceedings of a conference held 10 December, 1999, University of Western Sydney, Richmond.
Harris, G. P., 1988. Demography of Australian bass, Macquaria novemaculata (Perciformes, Percichthyidae) in the Sydney Basin. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research. 39: 355 - 369.
Harris, G. P., 1998. New South Wales rivers survey of declining fish and degraded streams. Australian Water and Waster Water Association Journal, May/June: 1 - 36.
Hochuli, D. F., Gibb, H., Burrows, S. E. and Christie, F. J. 2004. Ecology of Sydney's urban fragments: has fragmentation taken the sting out of insect herbivory? Pp. 63-69 in Urban Wildlife: more than meets the eye, edited by D. Lunney and S. Burgin. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
Howard, P. and Jones, D. N. 2004. The meaning of feeding: a qualitative investigation of motivations and practices associated with feeding wildlife in urban south-east Queensland. Pp. 155- 62 in Urban Wildlife: more than meets the eye, edited by D. Lunney and S. Burgin. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
Jenkins, A. C. 1982 Wildlife in the City: Animals, Birds, Reptiles, Insects and Plants in an Urban Landscape. Webb and Bower (Publishers) Limited, Exeter.
Keast, A. 1995. Habitat loss and species loss: the birds of Sydney 50 years ago and now. Australian Zoologist 30: 3 - 25.
Lunney, D. and Dickman, C. (eds). 2002 A Zoological Revolution: Using Native Fauna to Assist in its Own Survival. Royal Zoological Society New South Wales, Mosman and Australian Museum, Sydney.
Lunney, D., Dickman, C. and Burgin, S. 2002. A bizarre and threatening process: the by-passing of ecological research when tackling environmental issues. Pp. 97-101 in A Clash of Paradigms: Community and Research-based Conservation edited by D. Lunney, C. Dickman and S. Burgin. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman.
Lunney, D. and Burgin, S. 2004. Urban wildlife management: forming an Australian synthesis. Pp. 230-47 in Urban Wildlife: more than meets the eye, edited by D. Lunney and S. Burgin. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
Matthews, A., Lunney, D., Waples, K. and Hardy, J. 2004. Brushtail possums: “Champion of the suburbs” or “Our Tormentors”? Pp 159-68 in Urban Wildlife: more than meets the eye, edited by D. Lunney and S. Burgin. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
Morgan, L. A. and Buttemer, W. A. 1996. Predation by the nobn-native fish Gambusia holbrooki on small Litoria aurea and L. dentata tadpoles. Australian Zoologist 30:143 - 149.
Parsons, H. M. and Major, R. E. 2004. Bird interactions in Sydney gardens: some initial findings of the Birds in Backyards program. Pp. 211-15 in Urban Wildlife: more than meets the eye, edited by D. Lunney and S. Burgin. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
Pidgeon, I. M. 1937. The ecology of the central coast area of New South Wales. I. The environment and general features of the vegetation. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 62: 315-340.
Recher, H. F. 2002. What revolution? Pp. 116-129 in A Zoological Revolution: Using Native Fauna to Assist in its Own Survival edited by D. Lunney and C. Dickman. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman and Australian Museum.
Recher, H. F., Hutchings, P. A. and Rosen, S. 1993. The biota of the Hawkesbury - Nepean catchment: reconstruction and restoration. Australian Zoologist 29: 3 - 41.
Reed, P. 1991. An historical analysis of the changes to the forests and woodlands of New south Wales. Pp. 393 - 406 in Conservation of Australia's Forest Fauna, edited by D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman.
Sloane, R. D. 1984a. Invasion and upstream migration by glass eels of Anguilla australis australis Richardson and A. reinhardtii Steindacher in Tasmanian freshwater streams. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 35: 47 - 59.
Sloane, R. D. 1984b. Upstream migration by young pigmented freshwater eels ( Anguilla australis australis Richardson) in Tasmania. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 35: 61-73.
Underwood, A. J. and Chapman, M. G. 2002. Conservation of coastal organisms depends on scientific realism, not community ‘monitoring’ Pp. 1-7 in A Clash of Paradigms: Community and Research-based Conservation edited by D. Lunney, C. Dickman and S. Burgin. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman.
Yerman, M. N. and Ross, P. M. 2004. Landscape issues in temperate urban mangrove forests. Pp. 205-10 in Urban Wildlife: more than meets the eye, edited by D. Lunney and S. Burgin. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
White, A. W. and Burgin, S., 2004. Current status and future prospects of reptiles and frogs in Sydney's urban-impacted bushland reserves. Pp. 109-23 in Urban Wildlife: more than meets the eye, edited by D. Lunney and S. Burgin. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
Wong, P. and Burgin, S., 1997. Preliminary observations of the freshwater turtle, Chelodina longicollis (Shaw) in the Longneck Lagoon catchment (Hawkesbury - Nepean River, New South Wales). Herpetofauna 27: 17-21.
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References

Allen, F. R. 1989 Freshwater Fishes of Australia. T. H. F. Publications, Neptune City.
Archer, M. 2002. Confronting crises in conservation: a talk on the wild side. Pp. 12-52 in A Zoological Revolution: Using Native Fauna to Assist in its Own Survival, edited by D. Lunney and C. Dickman. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman and Australian Museum, Sydney, NSW.
Benson, D. and Howell, J. 1995 Taken for Granted. The bushland of Sydney and its suburbs. Kangaroo Press, Kenthurst.
Burgin, S. 2002. Tragic consequences for conservation of misdefining the term ‘community’. Pp. 1-7 in A Clash of Paradigms: Community and Research-based Conservation, edited by D. Lunney, C. Dickman and S. Burgin. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
Burgin, S., Carson, J. and Maheshwari, B. 2003. Conservation through Landcare: what is the knowledge base? Submitted manuscript.
Carson, R. 1963 Silent Spring. Hamish Hamilton, London.
Catterall, C. 2004. Birds, garden plants and suburban bushlots: where good intentionsmeet unexpected outcomes. Pp. 21-31 in Urban Wildlife: more than meets the eye, edited by D. Lunney and S. Burgin. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
Clancy, G. P. 2002. Vertebrate fauna and its management on an urban block in northern New South Wales. Pp. 155-162 in A Zoological Revolution: Using Native Fauna to Assist in its Own Survival edited by D. Lunney and C. Dickman. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman and Australian Museum, Sydney.
Ferraro, T. and Burgin, S. 1993. Amphibian decline: a case study in Western Sydney. Pp. 197-204 in Herpetology in Australia: A Diverse Discipline edited by D. Lunney and D. Ayers. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman and Surrey Beatty and Sons, Chipping Norton.
Flannery, T. F. 1998 Future Eaters: An Ecological History of the Australasian Lands and People. Braziller, New York.
Gale, C., 2000. Welcome to country. Pp. 6-7 in Treading Softly on the Land: The Place of Indigenous Knowledge in Natural Resource Management, Proceedings of a conference held 10 December, 1999, University of Western Sydney, Richmond.
Harris, G. P., 1988. Demography of Australian bass, Macquaria novemaculata (Perciformes, Percichthyidae) in the Sydney Basin. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research. 39: 355 - 369.
Harris, G. P., 1998. New South Wales rivers survey of declining fish and degraded streams. Australian Water and Waster Water Association Journal, May/June: 1 - 36.
Hochuli, D. F., Gibb, H., Burrows, S. E. and Christie, F. J. 2004. Ecology of Sydney's urban fragments: has fragmentation taken the sting out of insect herbivory? Pp. 63-69 in Urban Wildlife: more than meets the eye, edited by D. Lunney and S. Burgin. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
Howard, P. and Jones, D. N. 2004. The meaning of feeding: a qualitative investigation of motivations and practices associated with feeding wildlife in urban south-east Queensland. Pp. 155- 62 in Urban Wildlife: more than meets the eye, edited by D. Lunney and S. Burgin. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
Jenkins, A. C. 1982 Wildlife in the City: Animals, Birds, Reptiles, Insects and Plants in an Urban Landscape. Webb and Bower (Publishers) Limited, Exeter.
Keast, A. 1995. Habitat loss and species loss: the birds of Sydney 50 years ago and now. Australian Zoologist 30: 3 - 25.
Lunney, D. and Dickman, C. (eds). 2002 A Zoological Revolution: Using Native Fauna to Assist in its Own Survival. Royal Zoological Society New South Wales, Mosman and Australian Museum, Sydney.
Lunney, D., Dickman, C. and Burgin, S. 2002. A bizarre and threatening process: the by-passing of ecological research when tackling environmental issues. Pp. 97-101 in A Clash of Paradigms: Community and Research-based Conservation edited by D. Lunney, C. Dickman and S. Burgin. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman.
Lunney, D. and Burgin, S. 2004. Urban wildlife management: forming an Australian synthesis. Pp. 230-47 in Urban Wildlife: more than meets the eye, edited by D. Lunney and S. Burgin. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
Matthews, A., Lunney, D., Waples, K. and Hardy, J. 2004. Brushtail possums: “Champion of the suburbs” or “Our Tormentors”? Pp 159-68 in Urban Wildlife: more than meets the eye, edited by D. Lunney and S. Burgin. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
Morgan, L. A. and Buttemer, W. A. 1996. Predation by the nobn-native fish Gambusia holbrooki on small Litoria aurea and L. dentata tadpoles. Australian Zoologist 30:143 - 149.
Parsons, H. M. and Major, R. E. 2004. Bird interactions in Sydney gardens: some initial findings of the Birds in Backyards program. Pp. 211-15 in Urban Wildlife: more than meets the eye, edited by D. Lunney and S. Burgin. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
Pidgeon, I. M. 1937. The ecology of the central coast area of New South Wales. I. The environment and general features of the vegetation. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 62: 315-340.
Recher, H. F. 2002. What revolution? Pp. 116-129 in A Zoological Revolution: Using Native Fauna to Assist in its Own Survival edited by D. Lunney and C. Dickman. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman and Australian Museum.
Recher, H. F., Hutchings, P. A. and Rosen, S. 1993. The biota of the Hawkesbury - Nepean catchment: reconstruction and restoration. Australian Zoologist 29: 3 - 41.
Reed, P. 1991. An historical analysis of the changes to the forests and woodlands of New south Wales. Pp. 393 - 406 in Conservation of Australia's Forest Fauna, edited by D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman.
Sloane, R. D. 1984a. Invasion and upstream migration by glass eels of Anguilla australis australis Richardson and A. reinhardtii Steindacher in Tasmanian freshwater streams. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 35: 47 - 59.
Sloane, R. D. 1984b. Upstream migration by young pigmented freshwater eels ( Anguilla australis australis Richardson) in Tasmania. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 35: 61-73.
Underwood, A. J. and Chapman, M. G. 2002. Conservation of coastal organisms depends on scientific realism, not community ‘monitoring’ Pp. 1-7 in A Clash of Paradigms: Community and Research-based Conservation edited by D. Lunney, C. Dickman and S. Burgin. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman.
Yerman, M. N. and Ross, P. M. 2004. Landscape issues in temperate urban mangrove forests. Pp. 205-10 in Urban Wildlife: more than meets the eye, edited by D. Lunney and S. Burgin. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
White, A. W. and Burgin, S., 2004. Current status and future prospects of reptiles and frogs in Sydney's urban-impacted bushland reserves. Pp. 109-23 in Urban Wildlife: more than meets the eye, edited by D. Lunney and S. Burgin. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
Wong, P. and Burgin, S., 1997. Preliminary observations of the freshwater turtle, Chelodina longicollis (Shaw) in the Longneck Lagoon catchment (Hawkesbury - Nepean River, New South Wales). Herpetofauna 27: 17-21.
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