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This chapter is a response to Recher's call that, “somebody needs to pull together those common themes and come up with a common strategy for managing wildlife in the urban environment”. The diversity of chapters herein provided the editors with a rich source that lead into the web of current ideas surrounding the topic. To examine the origin and development of current ideas, we conducted a search of books and journals and found that the content is mainly of a practical, and not theoretical nature, neither is it integrated across the disciplines from art to architecture. Managing urban native species includes managing them as urban pests, such as the common brushtail possum whose populations are literally going through the roof. Birds seem ideally suited to an urban lifestyle because they can fly in and out of backyards and remnant bush, but only some species have become the “winners” in an urban environment while others have become the “losers”. Urban fauna includes endangered populations of animals in specific localities, and in such cases a supportive local community is vital to their long-term survival. Twenty years ago it would have been inconceivable that an insect ecologist be part of a forum on urban bushland fauna. Now it is unimaginable that such a specialist would be absent. There has been a proliferation of studies, ideas, position statements, web pages, courses and a collective recognition of the value of urban wildlife over the last two decades. Many local and species-specific strategies are already taking shape, reflecting a diversity of opinions and viewpoints. We look forward to the next critical decades in the evolution of a thriving discipline of urban wildlife management and offer this book as a contribution towards the formation of an Australian synthesis on the subject.

( Note: the references in the body of the text with a 2004 date that do not appear below refer to the chapters in this book that can be found in the contents page.)
Benson, D. and Howell, J. 1995 Taken for Granted: the bushland of Sydney and its suburbs. Kangaroo Press, Kenthurst, NSW.
Blair, T. L. 1974 The International Urban Crisis. Paladin, St Albans, Herts, UK.
Clyne, D. 1982 Wildlife in the Suburbs. Oxford University Press, Melbourne.
Clyne, D. 1984 More Wildlife in the Suburbs. Angus and Robertson, Australia.
Clyne, D. 1993 The Best of Wildlife in the Suburbs. Oxford University Press, South Melbourne.
Dickman, C. and Lunney, D. (eds). 2001 A Symposium on the Dingo. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Eby, P. and Lunney, D. (eds). 2002 Managing the Grey-headed Flying-fox as a threatened species in NSW. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Fallding, M., Kelly, A. H. H., Bateson, P. and Donovan, I. 2001 Biodiversity Planning Guide for NSW Local Government. NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service, Hurstville, NSW.
Field, H. 2002. The role of Grey-headed Flying-foxes in the ecology of Hendra virus and Australian bat lyssavirus. Pp 139-141 in Managing the Grey-headed Flying-fox as a threatened species in NSW, edited by P. Eby and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Fox, M. 1983 Possum Magic. Omnibus Books, Adelaide.
Gittens, C. and Grant, M. 1998. Urban creeks form corridors of green. Land for Wildlife News 3 (9): 10. Victorian Department of Natural Resources and Environment, edited by S. Platt.
Grigg, G. 2002. Conservation benefit from harvesting kangaroos: status report at the start of the new millennium. Pp. 53-76 in A Zoological Revolution. Using native fauna to assist in its own survival, edited by D. Lunney and C. Dickman. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman and Australian Museum, Sydney.
Hengl, T. J. and Burgin, S. 2002. Reproduction and larval development of the urban dwelling Brown Striped Marsh Frog Limnodynastes peronii. Australian Zoologist 32: 62-68.
Hostetler, M. and Knowles-Yanez, K. 2003. Land use, scale, and bird distributions in the Phoenix metropolitan area. Landscape and Urban Planning 62 (2): 55-68. Also available on line www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=Article
Howell, J. and Benson, D. 2000 Sydney's Bushland. More than meets the eye. Royal Botanic Gardens, Sydney.
Hrdina, F. C. 1997. Marsupial destruction in Queensland 1877-1930. Australian Zoologist 30: 272-286.
Hutchings, P. and Lunney, D. (eds). 2003 Conserving Marine Environments. Out of sight, out of mind. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Keast, A. 1995. Habitat loss and species loss: the birds of Sydney 50 years ago and now. Australian Zoologist 30: 3-25.
Kerle, J. A. 2001 Possums: the brushtails, ringtails and greater glider. University of NSW Press Ltd, UNSW, Sydney.
Lingard, J. 1965 The Zoo in My Backyard. A. S. Barnes and Co. New Jersey, USA.
Low, T. 2002 The New Nature. Winners and Losers in Wild Australia. Viking, published by the Penguin group, Camberwell, Victoria.
Lunney, D. 1986. Distribution of animal populations. Pp. 164-188 in A Natural Legacy. Ecology in Australia, edited by H. Recher, D. Lunney, I. Dunn. Pergamon Press, Rushcutters Bay, NSW.
Lunney, D. and Ayers, D. (eds). 1993a Herpetology in Australia: a diverse discipline. Royal Zoological Society NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Lunney, D. and Ayers, D. 1993b. The official status of frogs and reptiles in New South Wales. Pp 404-8 in Herpetology in Australia: a diverse discipline, edited by D. Lunney and D. Ayers. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Lunney, D., Coburn, D., Matthews, A. and C. Moon. 2001. Community perceptions of koala populations and their management in Port Stephens and Coffs Harbour Local Government Areas, New South Wales. Pp. 48-70 in The Research and Management of Nonurban Koala Populations, edited by K. Lyons, A. Melzer, F. Carrick and D. Lamb. Koala Research Centre of Central Queensland, Central Queensland University, Rockhampton.
Lunney, D., Curtin, A. L., Ayers, D., Cogger, H. G., Dickman, C. R., Maitz, W., Law, B. and Fisher, D. 2000a. The threatened and non-threatened native vertebrate fauna of New South Wales: status and ecological attributes. Environmental and Heritage Monograph Series No. 4. Pp. 1-132. NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service, Hurstville.
Lunney, D. Dickman, C. and Burgin, S. (eds). 2002a A clash of paradigms: community and research-based conservation. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Lunney, D., Grant, T. and Matthews, A. 2004. The distribution and habitat of the platypus in the Bellinger river from community and field studies. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of NSW (in press).
Lunney, D., O'Neill, L., Matthews, A. and Coburn, D. 2000b. Contribution of community knowledge of vertebrate fauna to management and planning. Ecological Management and Restoration 1: 175-184.
Lunney, D. and Matthews, A. 2001. The contribution of the community to defining the distribution of a vulnerable species, the spotted-tailed quoll, Dasyurus maculatus.Wildlife Research 28: 537-545.
Lunney, D. and Matthews, A. 2003. “Throw a koala on the barbie” ( Daily Telegraph 15 July 1997): an analysis of wildlife reporting in two daily newspapers. Australian Zoologist 32: 288-297, in the proceedings of the Zoology and the Media forum, edited by D. Lunney, A. Matthews and P. Wilson. Australian Zoologist Vol 32, No 2, 2003.
Lunney, D., Matthews, A., Moon, C. and Turbill, J. 2002b. Achieving fauna conservation on private land: reflections on a ten-year project. Ecological Management and Restoration 3: 90-96.
Lunney, D, Matthews, A. and Wilson, P. (eds). 2003. Zoology and the media. Australian Zoologist 32: 287.
Mabey, R. 1999 The Unofficial Countryside. Pimlico edition, Vauxall Bridge Road, London. First published by William Collins and Sons, 1973.
Martin, L. 2003. On the transmission of bat diseases by the media - a view from the trenches. Australian Zoologist 32: 298-315.
Masters, C. and Shine, R. 2003. Sociality in lizards: family structure in free-living King's Skinks Egernia kingii from southwestern Australia. Australian Zoologist 32: 377-380.
Ponder, W. and Lunney D. (eds). 1999 The Other 99%. The conservation and biodiversity of invertebrates. Transactions of the Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman.
Reed, P. and Lunney D. 1990. Habitat loss: the key problem for the long-term survival of koalas in NSW. Pp. 9-31 in Koala Summit. Managing koalas in NSW, edited by D. Lunney, C. A. Urquhart and P. Reed, NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service, Hurstville.
Sandercock, L. 1976 Cities for Sale. Property, politics, and urban planning in Australia. Heinemann, London.
Schell, C. B. and Burgin, S. 2003. Swimming against the current: the Brown Striped Marsh Frog Limnodynastes peronii success story. Australian Zoologist 32: 401-405.
Shine, R. and Koenig, J. 2001. Snakes in the garden: an analysis of reptiles “rescued” by community-based wildlife carers. Biological Conservation 102: 271-283.
Stretton, H. 1975 Ideas for Australian cities. (Second edition). Georgian House, Middlepark, Melbourne.
Underwood, A. J. and Chapman, M. G. 2002. Conservation of coastal organisms depends on scientific realism, not community “monitoring”. Pp. 20-37 in A clash of Paradigms: community and research-based conservation, edited by D. Lunney, C. Dickman and S. Burgin. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Underwood, A. J. and Chapman, M. G. 2003. Problems of measuring biodiversity in coastal habitats: a summary of issues. Pp. 103-107 in Conserving Marine Environment. Out of sight, out of mind, edited by P. Hutchings and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Williams, J., Read, C., Norton, A., Dovers, S., Burgman, M., Proctor, W. and Anderson, H. 2001 Biodiversity, Australia State of the Environment Report 2001 (Theme Report), CSIRO publishing on behalf of the Department of the Environment and Heritage, Canberra.
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Contents

Figures & Tables

References

( Note: the references in the body of the text with a 2004 date that do not appear below refer to the chapters in this book that can be found in the contents page.)
Benson, D. and Howell, J. 1995 Taken for Granted: the bushland of Sydney and its suburbs. Kangaroo Press, Kenthurst, NSW.
Blair, T. L. 1974 The International Urban Crisis. Paladin, St Albans, Herts, UK.
Clyne, D. 1982 Wildlife in the Suburbs. Oxford University Press, Melbourne.
Clyne, D. 1984 More Wildlife in the Suburbs. Angus and Robertson, Australia.
Clyne, D. 1993 The Best of Wildlife in the Suburbs. Oxford University Press, South Melbourne.
Dickman, C. and Lunney, D. (eds). 2001 A Symposium on the Dingo. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Eby, P. and Lunney, D. (eds). 2002 Managing the Grey-headed Flying-fox as a threatened species in NSW. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Fallding, M., Kelly, A. H. H., Bateson, P. and Donovan, I. 2001 Biodiversity Planning Guide for NSW Local Government. NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service, Hurstville, NSW.
Field, H. 2002. The role of Grey-headed Flying-foxes in the ecology of Hendra virus and Australian bat lyssavirus. Pp 139-141 in Managing the Grey-headed Flying-fox as a threatened species in NSW, edited by P. Eby and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Fox, M. 1983 Possum Magic. Omnibus Books, Adelaide.
Gittens, C. and Grant, M. 1998. Urban creeks form corridors of green. Land for Wildlife News 3 (9): 10. Victorian Department of Natural Resources and Environment, edited by S. Platt.
Grigg, G. 2002. Conservation benefit from harvesting kangaroos: status report at the start of the new millennium. Pp. 53-76 in A Zoological Revolution. Using native fauna to assist in its own survival, edited by D. Lunney and C. Dickman. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman and Australian Museum, Sydney.
Hengl, T. J. and Burgin, S. 2002. Reproduction and larval development of the urban dwelling Brown Striped Marsh Frog Limnodynastes peronii. Australian Zoologist 32: 62-68.
Hostetler, M. and Knowles-Yanez, K. 2003. Land use, scale, and bird distributions in the Phoenix metropolitan area. Landscape and Urban Planning 62 (2): 55-68. Also available on line www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=Article
Howell, J. and Benson, D. 2000 Sydney's Bushland. More than meets the eye. Royal Botanic Gardens, Sydney.
Hrdina, F. C. 1997. Marsupial destruction in Queensland 1877-1930. Australian Zoologist 30: 272-286.
Hutchings, P. and Lunney, D. (eds). 2003 Conserving Marine Environments. Out of sight, out of mind. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Keast, A. 1995. Habitat loss and species loss: the birds of Sydney 50 years ago and now. Australian Zoologist 30: 3-25.
Kerle, J. A. 2001 Possums: the brushtails, ringtails and greater glider. University of NSW Press Ltd, UNSW, Sydney.
Lingard, J. 1965 The Zoo in My Backyard. A. S. Barnes and Co. New Jersey, USA.
Low, T. 2002 The New Nature. Winners and Losers in Wild Australia. Viking, published by the Penguin group, Camberwell, Victoria.
Lunney, D. 1986. Distribution of animal populations. Pp. 164-188 in A Natural Legacy. Ecology in Australia, edited by H. Recher, D. Lunney, I. Dunn. Pergamon Press, Rushcutters Bay, NSW.
Lunney, D. and Ayers, D. (eds). 1993a Herpetology in Australia: a diverse discipline. Royal Zoological Society NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Lunney, D. and Ayers, D. 1993b. The official status of frogs and reptiles in New South Wales. Pp 404-8 in Herpetology in Australia: a diverse discipline, edited by D. Lunney and D. Ayers. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Lunney, D., Coburn, D., Matthews, A. and C. Moon. 2001. Community perceptions of koala populations and their management in Port Stephens and Coffs Harbour Local Government Areas, New South Wales. Pp. 48-70 in The Research and Management of Nonurban Koala Populations, edited by K. Lyons, A. Melzer, F. Carrick and D. Lamb. Koala Research Centre of Central Queensland, Central Queensland University, Rockhampton.
Lunney, D., Curtin, A. L., Ayers, D., Cogger, H. G., Dickman, C. R., Maitz, W., Law, B. and Fisher, D. 2000a. The threatened and non-threatened native vertebrate fauna of New South Wales: status and ecological attributes. Environmental and Heritage Monograph Series No. 4. Pp. 1-132. NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service, Hurstville.
Lunney, D. Dickman, C. and Burgin, S. (eds). 2002a A clash of paradigms: community and research-based conservation. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Lunney, D., Grant, T. and Matthews, A. 2004. The distribution and habitat of the platypus in the Bellinger river from community and field studies. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of NSW (in press).
Lunney, D., O'Neill, L., Matthews, A. and Coburn, D. 2000b. Contribution of community knowledge of vertebrate fauna to management and planning. Ecological Management and Restoration 1: 175-184.
Lunney, D. and Matthews, A. 2001. The contribution of the community to defining the distribution of a vulnerable species, the spotted-tailed quoll, Dasyurus maculatus.Wildlife Research 28: 537-545.
Lunney, D. and Matthews, A. 2003. “Throw a koala on the barbie” ( Daily Telegraph 15 July 1997): an analysis of wildlife reporting in two daily newspapers. Australian Zoologist 32: 288-297, in the proceedings of the Zoology and the Media forum, edited by D. Lunney, A. Matthews and P. Wilson. Australian Zoologist Vol 32, No 2, 2003.
Lunney, D., Matthews, A., Moon, C. and Turbill, J. 2002b. Achieving fauna conservation on private land: reflections on a ten-year project. Ecological Management and Restoration 3: 90-96.
Lunney, D, Matthews, A. and Wilson, P. (eds). 2003. Zoology and the media. Australian Zoologist 32: 287.
Mabey, R. 1999 The Unofficial Countryside. Pimlico edition, Vauxall Bridge Road, London. First published by William Collins and Sons, 1973.
Martin, L. 2003. On the transmission of bat diseases by the media - a view from the trenches. Australian Zoologist 32: 298-315.
Masters, C. and Shine, R. 2003. Sociality in lizards: family structure in free-living King's Skinks Egernia kingii from southwestern Australia. Australian Zoologist 32: 377-380.
Ponder, W. and Lunney D. (eds). 1999 The Other 99%. The conservation and biodiversity of invertebrates. Transactions of the Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman.
Reed, P. and Lunney D. 1990. Habitat loss: the key problem for the long-term survival of koalas in NSW. Pp. 9-31 in Koala Summit. Managing koalas in NSW, edited by D. Lunney, C. A. Urquhart and P. Reed, NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service, Hurstville.
Sandercock, L. 1976 Cities for Sale. Property, politics, and urban planning in Australia. Heinemann, London.
Schell, C. B. and Burgin, S. 2003. Swimming against the current: the Brown Striped Marsh Frog Limnodynastes peronii success story. Australian Zoologist 32: 401-405.
Shine, R. and Koenig, J. 2001. Snakes in the garden: an analysis of reptiles “rescued” by community-based wildlife carers. Biological Conservation 102: 271-283.
Stretton, H. 1975 Ideas for Australian cities. (Second edition). Georgian House, Middlepark, Melbourne.
Underwood, A. J. and Chapman, M. G. 2002. Conservation of coastal organisms depends on scientific realism, not community “monitoring”. Pp. 20-37 in A clash of Paradigms: community and research-based conservation, edited by D. Lunney, C. Dickman and S. Burgin. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Underwood, A. J. and Chapman, M. G. 2003. Problems of measuring biodiversity in coastal habitats: a summary of issues. Pp. 103-107 in Conserving Marine Environment. Out of sight, out of mind, edited by P. Hutchings and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Williams, J., Read, C., Norton, A., Dovers, S., Burgman, M., Proctor, W. and Anderson, H. 2001 Biodiversity, Australia State of the Environment Report 2001 (Theme Report), CSIRO publishing on behalf of the Department of the Environment and Heritage, Canberra.
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