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Forest wildlife management in Australian eucalypt forests emphasizes the retention of tree hollows for fauna requiring hollows for nesting or denning. This overlooks the requirements of birds in eucalypt forests for a variety of resources for nesting and foraging other than tree hollows. Some birds nest only on vertical or horizontal dead branches, while others require shrubs or dense ground vegetation. There are significant differences between plant species in the foraging resources available to birds. For example, bark type and the associated arthropod fauna differ between tree species, as do the arthropods found in the canopy. This complex array of resources is not necessarily provided by management plans which emphasize the conservation of trees with hollows. Not all eucalypts readily form hollows and those that do differ in bark type, epiphytes, canopy arthropods and nectar production from those that do not. Comparable differences occur among types and species of shrubs and ground vegetation. Additionally, logs, coarse woody debris and litter, and their associated biota, are important components of forest ecosystems and provide essential resources for forest birds. If the full complement of forest birds is to be conserved, each of these resources must be managed across the entire forest estate and not just where logging is taking place. It is equally important to manage the impacts of fuel reduction burns. The availability of foliage, seeds, fruits, nectar, lerp, arthropods and vertebrates used by forest birds as food changes seasonally and from year to year within and between forest areas and the pattern of resource abundance, which is partly a consequence of fire history, must be part of all plans of management. If the goal is the conservation of forest birds in perpetuity, then site and industry specific management protocols are inadequate. Instead, management must be regional and involve all land tenures with close co-ordination of conservation programs between regions at a continental scale. Rehabilitation, conservation and tree planting programs in urban and agricultural areas must be integrated with the management of birds on state forests, conservation reserves and private lands.

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Andrew, N., Rodgerson, L. and York, A., 2000. Frequent fuel-reduction burning: the role of logs and associated leaf litter in the conservation of ant biodiversity. Austral Ecology 25: 99-107.
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Commonwealth of Australia, 2001 State of the Environment: Australia 2001. CSIRO Publ.: Collingwood.
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References

Abbott, I. and Whitford, K., 2002. Conservation of vertebrate fauna using hollows in forests of south-west Western Australia: strategic risk assessment in relation to ecology, policy, planning, and operations management. Pacific Conservation Biology 7: 240-255.
Andrew, N., Rodgerson, L. and York, A., 2000. Frequent fuel-reduction burning: the role of logs and associated leaf litter in the conservation of ant biodiversity. Austral Ecology 25: 99-107.
Ashton, D. H., 1986. Ecology of bryophytic communities in mature Eucalyptus regnans F. Muell. forest at Wallaby Creek, Victoria. Australian Journal of Botany 34: 107-29.
Australian Entomological Society, 1990. Background paper on aspects of the value and role of invertebrates in the eucalypt forests of south eastern New South Wales. Unpublished report, AES, Canberra.
Bennett, A. F., 1999 Linkages in the Landscape: The Role of Corridors and Connectivity in Wildlife Conservation. IUCN, Cambridge.
Christensen, P., 1974. The concept of fauna priority areas. Pp. 66-73 in Proc. Third Fire Ecology Symp., Forests Comm. Vic., Melbourne.
Christensen, P. E. S., Wardell-Johnson, G. and Kimber, P., 1985. Birds and fire in south western forests. Pp. 291-99 in Birds of Eucalypt Forests and woodlands: Ecology, Conservation, Management, edited by A. Keast, H. F. Recher, H. Ford and D. Saunders. Surrey Beatty & Sons: Chipping Norton.
Christensen P. and Abbott, I., 1989. Impact of fire in the eucalypt forest ecosystem of Western Australia. Australian Forestry 52: 103-21.
Commonwealth of Australia, 1996 State of the Environment: Australia 1996. CSIRO Publ.: Collingwood.
Commonwealth of Australia, 2001 State of the Environment: Australia 2001. CSIRO Publ.: Collingwood.
Davey, S. M., 1989. Thoughts towards a forest wildlife management strategy. Australian Forestry 52: 56-67.
Dobbyns, R. and Ryan, D., 1983. Birds, glider possums and monkey gums: the wildlife reserve system in the Eden district. Forest and Timber 19: 12-15.
Elton, C. S., 1966 The Pattern of Animal Communities. Methuen: London.
Ferrier, S., Gray, M. R., Cassis, G. A. and Wilkie, L., 1999. Spatial turnover in species composition of ground-dwelling arthropods, vertebrates and vascular plants in north-east New South Wales: implications for selection of forest reserves. Pp. 68-76 in The Other 99%: The Conservation and Biodiversity of Invertebrate,. edited by W. Ponder and D. Lunney, Transactions of the Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Royal Zoological Society, Mosman.
Ford, H. A., Noske, S. and Bridges, L., 1986. Foraging of birds in eucalypt woodland in north-eastern New South Wales. Emu 86: 168-179.
Ford, H. A., Barrett, G., Saunders, D. A. and Recher, H. F., 2001. Why have birds in the woodlands of southern Australia declined? Biological Conservation 97: 71-88.
Franklin, J., Cromack, K., Denison, W., McKee, A., Maser, C., Sedell, J., Swancon, F. and Juday, G., 1981 Ecological characteristics of old growth Douglas-fir Forests. USDA Forestry Service General Technical Report PNW- 118, 48 pp.
Frith, H. J., 1973 Wildlife Conservation. Angus & Robertson: Sydney.
Fulton, G. R. and Ford, H. A., 2001. The Pied Currawong's role in avian nest predation: a predator removal experiment. Pacific Conservation Biology 7:154-60.
Garnett, S., 1992 Threatened and Extinct Birds of Australia. RAOU Report Number 82, Royal Australasian Ornithologists Union, Moonee Ponds.
Gibbons, P., 1999 Habitat-tree Retention in Wood Production Forests. Ph.D. Thesis, The Australian National University, Canberra.
Gill, A. M., 1975. Fire and the Australian flora. Australian Forestry 38: 4-25.
Gill, A. M., 1999. Biodiversity and bushfires: An Australia-wide perspective on plant-species changes after a fire event. Pp. 9-54 in Australia's Biodiversity - Responses to Fire. Biodiversity Technical Paper, No. 1, Environment Australia, Canberra.
Gill, A. M., Woinarski, J. C. Z. and York, A., 1999 Australia's Biodiversity - Responses to Fire. Biodiversity Technical Paper, No. 1, Environment Australia, Canberra.
Green, R. J. and Higginbottom, K., 2000. The effects of non-consumptive wildlife tourism on free-ranging wildlife: a review. Pacific Conservation Biology 6:183-97.
Grey, M. J., Clarke, M. F. and Loyn, R. H., 1997. Initial changes in the avian communities of remnant eucalypt woodlands following a reduction in the abundance of noisy miners, Manorina melanocephala. Australian Wildlife Research 24: 631-48.
Grey, M. J., Clarke, M. F. and Loyn, R. H., 1998. Influence of the Noisy Miner Manorina melanocephala on avian diversity and abundance in remnant Grey Box woodland. Pacific Conservation Biology 4:55-69.
Hale, P. and Lamb, D. (eds), 1997 Conservation Outside Nature Reserves. Centre for Conservation Biology: Univ. of Queensland, St. Lucia.
Hamilton, S. D., 2001. Impacts of agricultural land use on the floristics, diversity and life-form composition of a temperate grassy woodland. Pacific Conservation Biology 7: 169-84.
Harris, L. D., 1984 The Fragmented Forest, Island Biogeography Theory and the Preservation Biotic Diversity. Univ. Chicago Press: Chicago.
Hobbs, R. J. and Hopkins, A. J. M., 1991. The role of conservation corridors in a changing climate. Pp. 281-90 in Nature Conservation 2: The Role of Corridors edited by D. A. Saunders and R. J. Hobbs. Surrey Beatty & Sons: Chipping Norton.
Hobbs, R. J. and Saunders, D. A. (eds), 1993 Reintegrating Fragmented Landscapes. Springer-Verlag, New York.
Hunter, M. L. (ed.), 1990 Wildlife, Forests, and Forestry. Prentice-Hall Inc.: Englewood Cliffs, N. J.
Keast, A., 1976. The origins of adaptive zone utilizations and adaptive radiations, as illustrated by the Australian Meliphagidae. Proc. Intl. Ornith. Congr. 16: 71-82.
Keast, A., 1985. Bird community structure in southern forests and northern woodlands: a comparison. Pp. 97-116 in Birds of Eucalypt Forests and woodlands: Ecology, Conservation, Management, edited by A. Keast, H. F. Recher, H. Ford and D. Saunders. Surrey Beatty & Sons: Chipping Norton.
Kellas, J., 1988. Changes in species composition following recent shelterwood cutting in mixed eucalypt stands in the Wombat Forest, Victoria. Australian Forestry 51: 112-18.
Leopold, A., 1933 Game Management. Charles Scribner's Sons: New York.
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