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Emerging forest industries, such as charcoal-making (for silicon production) and biomass burning for power generation, pose a significant threat to the ecological integrity of native forests. These industries require large amounts of wood and, where extracted from native forests, will lead to an increase in the intensity of logging. An outcome will be the cumulative loss of stand structural complexity—a problem that has had serious consequences for the conservation of biodiversity in northern hemisphere forests and would have similar deleterious impacts in Australia. It also runs counter to the notion of ecologically sustainable forest management (ESFM), which lies at the core of the Regional Forest Agreements. These fundamental ecological issues, which were not identified in the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for a recent proposal to log native forests to produce charcoal in southern New South Wales, point to a seriously flawed EIS process.

Angelstam, P. 1996. The ghost of forest past-natural disturbance regimes as a basis for reconstruction for biologically diverse forests in Europe. Pp 287-337 in Conservation of faunal diversity in forested landscapes, edited by R.M. DeGraaf and R.I. Miller. Chapman and Hall, London.
Angelstam, P., P. Majewski, and S. Bondrup-Neilsen. 1995. West-East Cooperation in Europe for sustainable Boreal forests. Water, Air and Soil Pollution 82: 3-11.
Arroyo, M.T.K., C. Donoso, R.E. Murua, E.E. Pisano, R.P. Schlatter, and I.A. Serey. 1996 Toward an ecologically sustainable forestry project concepts, analysis and recommendations. Protecting biodiversity and ecosystem processes in the Rio Condor Project-Tierra del Fuego. 253 Pp. Departamento de Investigacion y Desarollo, Universidad de Chile: Santiago, Chile.
Bauhaus, J. 1999. Silvicultural practices in Australian native forests-an introduction. Australian Forestry 62: 217-222.
Berg, A., B. Ehnstrom, L. Gustaffson, T. Hallingback, M. Jonsell, and J. Weslien. 1994. Threatened plant, animal and fungus species in Swedish forests: distribution and habitat associations. Conservation Biology 8: 718-731.
Beese, W.J., and A.A. Bryant. 1999. Effect of alternative silvicultural systems on vegetation and bird communities in coastal montane forests of British Columbia, Canada. Forest Ecology and Management 115: 231-242.
Bruns, H. 1960. The economic importance of birds in forests. Bird Study 7: 193-208.
Buckley, R. 1989 Precision in environmental impact prediction. First national environmental audit, Australia. Centre for Resource & Environmental Studies, The Australian National University, Canberra.
Buckley, R. 1991. Auditing the precision of environmental impact predictions in Australia. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 18: 1-24.
Bunnell, F. 1999. What habitat is an island? Pp 1-31 in Forest wildlife and fragmentation. Management implications, edited by J. Rochelle, L.A. Lehmann, and J. Wisniewski. Brill, Leiden, Germany.
Carey, A.B., B.R. Lippke, and J. Sessions. 1999. Intentional systems management: managing forests for biodiversity. Journal of Sustainable Forestry 9: 83-125.
Commonwealth of Australia. 1992 National Forest Policy Statement. Advance Press, Perth, Australia.
Commonwealth of Australia. 1997 Australia's first approximation report for the Montreal Process. Commonwealth of Australia, Canberra, Australia. June 1997.
Commonwealth of Australia and the State of New South Wales. 1999 Regional Forest Agreement for the Eden Region of New South Wales between the Commonwealth of Australia and the State of New South Wales. Commonwealth of Australia, Canberra.
Dargavel, J. 1995 Fashioning Australia's forests. Oxford University Press, Melbourne.
Department of Conservation and Land Management. 1995 Silvicultural guidelines 1/95: silvicultural practice in Jarrah Forest. Department of Conservation and Land Management, Perth Western Australia.
Dunsworth, G., and B. Beese. 2000. New approaches in managing temperate rainforests. Pp 24-25 in Mountain forests and sustainable development, prepared for The Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD) and its 2000 spring session by Mountain Agenda. Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation, Berne, Switzerland.
Environmental Resources Management Australia. 2001 Environmental Impact Statement. Wood processing and metallurgical carbon facility for Australian Silicon Operations Pty Ltd. Environmental Resources Management Australia November 2001.
Forest Ecosystem Management Assessment Team. 1993 Forest ecosystem management: an ecological, economic, and social assessment. Various pagination. USDA Forest Service, Portland, Oregon. Various pagination.
Forest Practices Board. 1998 Threatened fauna manual for production forests in Tasmania. Forest Practices Board, Hobart, Tasmania.
Franklin, J.F., K. Cromack, W. Denison, A. McKee, C. Maser, J. Sedell, F. Swanson, and G. Juday. 1981 Ecological attributes of old-growth Douglas-fir forests. USDA Forest Service General Technical Report PNW-118. Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experimental Station, Portland, Oregon.
Franklin, J.F., D.E. Berg, D.A. Thornburgh, and J.C. Tappeiner. 1997. Alternative silvicultural approaches to timber harvest: variable retention harvest systems. Pp 111-139 in Creating a forestry for the 21st centur,y, edited by K. A. Kohm and J. F. Franklin. Island Press, Covelo, California.
Fries, C., O. Johansson, B. Petterson, and P. Simonsson. 1997. Silvicultural models to maintain and restore natural stand structures in Swedish boreal forests. Forest Ecology and Management 94: 89-103.
Gayer, K. 1886 Der gemischte Wald-seine Begründung and Pflege, insbesondere durch Horst- und Gruppenwirtschaft. Verlag Paul Parey, Berlin.
Gibbons, P. 1999 Habitat tree retention in wood production forests. Ph.D thesis. The Australian National University, Canberra, Australia.
Gibbons, P. and D.B. Lindenmayer. 2002 Tree hollows and wildlife conservation in Australia. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood.
Gibbons, P., Lindenmayer, D. B., Barry, S. C., Mackowski, C. M. and Tanton, M. T. 2000a. The formation of hollows in eucalypts from temperate forests. Pacific Conservation Biology 6: 218-228.
Gibbons, P., Lindenmayer, D. B., Barry, S. C. and Tanton, M. T. 2000b. The effects of slash burning on the mortality and collapse of trees retained on logged sites in south-eastern Australia. Forest Ecology and Management 139: 51-61.
Gibbons, P., Lindenmayer, D. B., Barry, S. C. and Tanton, M. T. 2002. Hollow selection by vertebrate fauna in forests of south-eastern Australia and implications for forest management. Biological Conservation 103: 1-12.
Grove, S.J., 2001. Developing appropriate mechanisms for sustaining mature timber habitat in managed natural forest stands. International Forestry Review 3: 272-283.
Grove, S.J., Meggs, J.F., and Goodwin, A. 2002 A review of biodiversity conservation issues relating to coarse woody debris management in the wet eucalypt production forests of Tasmania. A report to Forestry Tasmania. August 2002.
Hunter, M.L. 1990 Wildlife, forests and forestry. Principles for managing forests for biological diversity. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs.
Leech, J.W. 2001 Consultancy to review of State Forests capacity to supply residue wood from the South Coast region. Forestry Systems. April 2001.
Lindenmayer, D.B., and H.F. Recher. 1998. Aspects of ecologically sustainable forestry in temperate eucalypt forests-beyond an expanded reserve system. Pacific Conservation Biology 4: 4-10.
Lindenmayer, D. B., Cunningham, R. B., and Donnelly, C. F., 2000. Structural features of Australian old growth montane ash forests. Forest Ecology and Management 134: 189-204.
Lindenmayer, D. B. and Franklin, J. F., 2002 Conserving forest biodiversity: a comprehensive multi-scaled approach. Island Press, Washington D.C.
Lindenmayer, D.B., Claridge, A.W., Gilmore, A.M., Michael, D. and Lindenmayer, B.D. 2002. The ecological roles of logs in Australian forests and the potential impacts of harvesting intensification on log-using biota. Pacific Conservation Biology 8, 121-140.
Linder, P., and L. Östlund. 1998. Structural changes in three mid-boreal Swedish forest landscapes, 1885-1996. Biological Conservation 85: 9-19.
McKenney, D.W., and Lindenmayer, D.B. 1994. An economic assessment of a nest box strategy for the conservation of an endangered species. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 24: 2012-2019.
Munro, H.L. and Rounds, R.C. 1985. Selection of artificial nest sites by five sympatric passerines. Journal of Wildlife Management 49: 265-276.
Noel, J.M., Platt, W.J. and Moser, E.B. 1998. Structural characteristics of old- and second-growth stands of Longleaf Pine ( Pinus palustris) in the Gulf Coastal region of the U.S.A. Conservation Biology 12: 533-548.
Putz, F.E., K.H. Redford, J.G. Robinson, R. Fimbel, and G.M. Bate. 2000 Biodiversity conservation in the context of tropical forest management. World Bank Environment Department Papers. Paper No. 75. Biodiversity Series-Impact studies. The World Bank, Washington D.C., U.S.A. September, 2000.
Recher, H.F. 1985. A diminishing resource: mature forest and its role in forest management. pp 28-33 in Wildlife management in the forests and forest-controlled lands in the tropics and the southern hemisphere edited by J. Kikkawa. IUFRO and University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia.
Recher, H.F. 1991. The conservation and management of eucalypt forest birds: resource requirements for nesting and foraging. Pp 25-34 in Conservation of Australia's Forest Fauna, edited by D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
Resource Assessment Commission. 1992 Forest and Timber Inquiry. Final Report. Volume 1. Australian Government Printing Service, Canberra, Australia.
SFNSW. 1994 Eden Management Area Proposed Forestry Operations. Environmental Impact Statement. State Forests of New South Wales, Sydney.
Woldendorp, J., 2000 Estimating carbon in mature eucalypt forests. BSc (Hons) thesis, Department of Geography, The Australian National University, Canberra.
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References

Angelstam, P. 1996. The ghost of forest past-natural disturbance regimes as a basis for reconstruction for biologically diverse forests in Europe. Pp 287-337 in Conservation of faunal diversity in forested landscapes, edited by R.M. DeGraaf and R.I. Miller. Chapman and Hall, London.
Angelstam, P., P. Majewski, and S. Bondrup-Neilsen. 1995. West-East Cooperation in Europe for sustainable Boreal forests. Water, Air and Soil Pollution 82: 3-11.
Arroyo, M.T.K., C. Donoso, R.E. Murua, E.E. Pisano, R.P. Schlatter, and I.A. Serey. 1996 Toward an ecologically sustainable forestry project concepts, analysis and recommendations. Protecting biodiversity and ecosystem processes in the Rio Condor Project-Tierra del Fuego. 253 Pp. Departamento de Investigacion y Desarollo, Universidad de Chile: Santiago, Chile.
Bauhaus, J. 1999. Silvicultural practices in Australian native forests-an introduction. Australian Forestry 62: 217-222.
Berg, A., B. Ehnstrom, L. Gustaffson, T. Hallingback, M. Jonsell, and J. Weslien. 1994. Threatened plant, animal and fungus species in Swedish forests: distribution and habitat associations. Conservation Biology 8: 718-731.
Beese, W.J., and A.A. Bryant. 1999. Effect of alternative silvicultural systems on vegetation and bird communities in coastal montane forests of British Columbia, Canada. Forest Ecology and Management 115: 231-242.
Bruns, H. 1960. The economic importance of birds in forests. Bird Study 7: 193-208.
Buckley, R. 1989 Precision in environmental impact prediction. First national environmental audit, Australia. Centre for Resource & Environmental Studies, The Australian National University, Canberra.
Buckley, R. 1991. Auditing the precision of environmental impact predictions in Australia. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 18: 1-24.
Bunnell, F. 1999. What habitat is an island? Pp 1-31 in Forest wildlife and fragmentation. Management implications, edited by J. Rochelle, L.A. Lehmann, and J. Wisniewski. Brill, Leiden, Germany.
Carey, A.B., B.R. Lippke, and J. Sessions. 1999. Intentional systems management: managing forests for biodiversity. Journal of Sustainable Forestry 9: 83-125.
Commonwealth of Australia. 1992 National Forest Policy Statement. Advance Press, Perth, Australia.
Commonwealth of Australia. 1997 Australia's first approximation report for the Montreal Process. Commonwealth of Australia, Canberra, Australia. June 1997.
Commonwealth of Australia and the State of New South Wales. 1999 Regional Forest Agreement for the Eden Region of New South Wales between the Commonwealth of Australia and the State of New South Wales. Commonwealth of Australia, Canberra.
Dargavel, J. 1995 Fashioning Australia's forests. Oxford University Press, Melbourne.
Department of Conservation and Land Management. 1995 Silvicultural guidelines 1/95: silvicultural practice in Jarrah Forest. Department of Conservation and Land Management, Perth Western Australia.
Dunsworth, G., and B. Beese. 2000. New approaches in managing temperate rainforests. Pp 24-25 in Mountain forests and sustainable development, prepared for The Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD) and its 2000 spring session by Mountain Agenda. Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation, Berne, Switzerland.
Environmental Resources Management Australia. 2001 Environmental Impact Statement. Wood processing and metallurgical carbon facility for Australian Silicon Operations Pty Ltd. Environmental Resources Management Australia November 2001.
Forest Ecosystem Management Assessment Team. 1993 Forest ecosystem management: an ecological, economic, and social assessment. Various pagination. USDA Forest Service, Portland, Oregon. Various pagination.
Forest Practices Board. 1998 Threatened fauna manual for production forests in Tasmania. Forest Practices Board, Hobart, Tasmania.
Franklin, J.F., K. Cromack, W. Denison, A. McKee, C. Maser, J. Sedell, F. Swanson, and G. Juday. 1981 Ecological attributes of old-growth Douglas-fir forests. USDA Forest Service General Technical Report PNW-118. Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experimental Station, Portland, Oregon.
Franklin, J.F., D.E. Berg, D.A. Thornburgh, and J.C. Tappeiner. 1997. Alternative silvicultural approaches to timber harvest: variable retention harvest systems. Pp 111-139 in Creating a forestry for the 21st centur,y, edited by K. A. Kohm and J. F. Franklin. Island Press, Covelo, California.
Fries, C., O. Johansson, B. Petterson, and P. Simonsson. 1997. Silvicultural models to maintain and restore natural stand structures in Swedish boreal forests. Forest Ecology and Management 94: 89-103.
Gayer, K. 1886 Der gemischte Wald-seine Begründung and Pflege, insbesondere durch Horst- und Gruppenwirtschaft. Verlag Paul Parey, Berlin.
Gibbons, P. 1999 Habitat tree retention in wood production forests. Ph.D thesis. The Australian National University, Canberra, Australia.
Gibbons, P. and D.B. Lindenmayer. 2002 Tree hollows and wildlife conservation in Australia. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood.
Gibbons, P., Lindenmayer, D. B., Barry, S. C., Mackowski, C. M. and Tanton, M. T. 2000a. The formation of hollows in eucalypts from temperate forests. Pacific Conservation Biology 6: 218-228.
Gibbons, P., Lindenmayer, D. B., Barry, S. C. and Tanton, M. T. 2000b. The effects of slash burning on the mortality and collapse of trees retained on logged sites in south-eastern Australia. Forest Ecology and Management 139: 51-61.
Gibbons, P., Lindenmayer, D. B., Barry, S. C. and Tanton, M. T. 2002. Hollow selection by vertebrate fauna in forests of south-eastern Australia and implications for forest management. Biological Conservation 103: 1-12.
Grove, S.J., 2001. Developing appropriate mechanisms for sustaining mature timber habitat in managed natural forest stands. International Forestry Review 3: 272-283.
Grove, S.J., Meggs, J.F., and Goodwin, A. 2002 A review of biodiversity conservation issues relating to coarse woody debris management in the wet eucalypt production forests of Tasmania. A report to Forestry Tasmania. August 2002.
Hunter, M.L. 1990 Wildlife, forests and forestry. Principles for managing forests for biological diversity. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs.
Leech, J.W. 2001 Consultancy to review of State Forests capacity to supply residue wood from the South Coast region. Forestry Systems. April 2001.
Lindenmayer, D.B., and H.F. Recher. 1998. Aspects of ecologically sustainable forestry in temperate eucalypt forests-beyond an expanded reserve system. Pacific Conservation Biology 4: 4-10.
Lindenmayer, D. B., Cunningham, R. B., and Donnelly, C. F., 2000. Structural features of Australian old growth montane ash forests. Forest Ecology and Management 134: 189-204.
Lindenmayer, D. B. and Franklin, J. F., 2002 Conserving forest biodiversity: a comprehensive multi-scaled approach. Island Press, Washington D.C.
Lindenmayer, D.B., Claridge, A.W., Gilmore, A.M., Michael, D. and Lindenmayer, B.D. 2002. The ecological roles of logs in Australian forests and the potential impacts of harvesting intensification on log-using biota. Pacific Conservation Biology 8, 121-140.
Linder, P., and L. Östlund. 1998. Structural changes in three mid-boreal Swedish forest landscapes, 1885-1996. Biological Conservation 85: 9-19.
McKenney, D.W., and Lindenmayer, D.B. 1994. An economic assessment of a nest box strategy for the conservation of an endangered species. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 24: 2012-2019.
Munro, H.L. and Rounds, R.C. 1985. Selection of artificial nest sites by five sympatric passerines. Journal of Wildlife Management 49: 265-276.
Noel, J.M., Platt, W.J. and Moser, E.B. 1998. Structural characteristics of old- and second-growth stands of Longleaf Pine ( Pinus palustris) in the Gulf Coastal region of the U.S.A. Conservation Biology 12: 533-548.
Putz, F.E., K.H. Redford, J.G. Robinson, R. Fimbel, and G.M. Bate. 2000 Biodiversity conservation in the context of tropical forest management. World Bank Environment Department Papers. Paper No. 75. Biodiversity Series-Impact studies. The World Bank, Washington D.C., U.S.A. September, 2000.
Recher, H.F. 1985. A diminishing resource: mature forest and its role in forest management. pp 28-33 in Wildlife management in the forests and forest-controlled lands in the tropics and the southern hemisphere edited by J. Kikkawa. IUFRO and University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia.
Recher, H.F. 1991. The conservation and management of eucalypt forest birds: resource requirements for nesting and foraging. Pp 25-34 in Conservation of Australia's Forest Fauna, edited by D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
Resource Assessment Commission. 1992 Forest and Timber Inquiry. Final Report. Volume 1. Australian Government Printing Service, Canberra, Australia.
SFNSW. 1994 Eden Management Area Proposed Forestry Operations. Environmental Impact Statement. State Forests of New South Wales, Sydney.
Woldendorp, J., 2000 Estimating carbon in mature eucalypt forests. BSc (Hons) thesis, Department of Geography, The Australian National University, Canberra.
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