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The ubiquity and functional importance of invertebrates means they have become increasingly recognised as suitable goals for conservation activities. The simple transfer of regulation and management activities devised for vertebrates and plants has occurred in almost all Australian States and Territories. In a few well known and exceptional cases this approach is effective. In addition it draws attention to flagship taxa which may be used as leverage for including invertebrates, in general, in conservation activities. In general though the management for conservation of complete arthropod assemblages is more in line with current thinking which aims to preserve the ecological functionality of ecosystems. In this regard the recent development of survey techniques has generated baseline inventories for some forest ecosystems. From such inventories sets of taxa may be identified statistically which are effective surrogates for the entire invertebrate fauna. Such ‘predictor sets’ are proving to be robust tools and have great potential for the monitoring of ecosystem health. The continued involvement of invertebrates in conservation management and monitoring is dependent on the maintenance, nationally, of the taxonomic enterprise. There is little evidence of this in recent policy decisions.

Anderson, A.N. 1999. My bioindicator or yours? Making the selection. Journal of Insect Conservation 3, 61-64.
Basset, Y., Mavoungou, J. F., Mikissa, J. B., Missa, O., Miller, S. E., Kitching, R. L. & Alonso, A. 2004. Discriminatory power of different arthropod data sets for the biological monitoring of anthropogenic disturbance in tropical forests. Biodiversity & Conservation 13, 709-732.
Clark, L. R. & Dallwitz, M. J. 1974. The life-system of Cardiaspina albitextura 1950-74. Australian Journal of Zoology 23, 523-561.
Clark, L. R. & Dallwitz, M. J. 1975. On the relative abundance of some Australian Psyllidae that coexist on Eucalyptus blakelyi. Australian Journal of Zoology 22, 387-415.
Crosby, D. F. 1998. Management plan for the altona skipper butterfly, Hesperilla flavescens flavescens Waterhourse (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae). Arthur Rylah Institute for Environmental Research, Melbourne, Technical Report 98.
Dennis, R. L. H. 1977 The British Butterflies: their Origin and Establishment, Classey, Oxford.
Dexter, E. M., Kitching, R. L. & Baker, E. J. 1993. The Bathurst Copper, Paralucia spinifera. Pp. 168-170 in Conservation Biology of Lycaenidae (Butterflies) edited by T. R. New. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.
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Diserud, O. H. & Ødegaard, F. 2000. The beta binomial model for host specificity between organisms in trophic interactions. Biometrics 56, 855-861.
Disney, R. H. L. 2003. Tasmanian Phoridae (Diptera) and some additional Australasian species. Journal of Natural History 37, 505-639.
Dunn, K. E. & Kitching, R. L. 1994. Distribution, status and management of the piceatus jewel butterfly on the Darling Downs, Queensland. Report to the Queensland Department of Environment & Heritage, Brisbane.
Eastwood, R. & Fraser, A. M. 1999. Associations between lycaenid butterflies and ants. Australian Journal of Ecology 24, 495-537.
Edwards, E. D. & Common, I. F. B. 1978. A new species of Paralucia Waterhouse & Turner from New South Wales (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae). Australian entomological Magazine 5, 65-70.
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Ehrlich, P. & Ehrlich, A. 1981 Extinction: the Causes and Consequences of the Disappearance of Species, Random House, New York.
Erwin, T. L. 1982. Tropical forests: their richness in Coleoptera and other arthropod species. Coleopterists' Bulletin 36, 74-75.
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Flannery, T. & Schouten, P. 2002 A Gap in Nature, Text Publishing, Melbourne.
Gaston, K.J. 1998 Biodiversity. Blackwell Scientific, Oxford.
Greenslade, P. & New, T. R. 1991. Australia: conservation of a continental insect fauna. Pp. 33-70 in The Conservation of Insects and their Habitats, edited by N. M. Collins & J. A. Thomas, Academic Press, London.
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Gilpin, M. & Hanski, I. (eds) 1991 Metapopulation Dynamics, Academic Press, London.
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IUCN 1994 IUCN Red List Categories, IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.
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References

Anderson, A.N. 1999. My bioindicator or yours? Making the selection. Journal of Insect Conservation 3, 61-64.
Basset, Y., Mavoungou, J. F., Mikissa, J. B., Missa, O., Miller, S. E., Kitching, R. L. & Alonso, A. 2004. Discriminatory power of different arthropod data sets for the biological monitoring of anthropogenic disturbance in tropical forests. Biodiversity & Conservation 13, 709-732.
Clark, L. R. & Dallwitz, M. J. 1974. The life-system of Cardiaspina albitextura 1950-74. Australian Journal of Zoology 23, 523-561.
Clark, L. R. & Dallwitz, M. J. 1975. On the relative abundance of some Australian Psyllidae that coexist on Eucalyptus blakelyi. Australian Journal of Zoology 22, 387-415.
Crosby, D. F. 1998. Management plan for the altona skipper butterfly, Hesperilla flavescens flavescens Waterhourse (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae). Arthur Rylah Institute for Environmental Research, Melbourne, Technical Report 98.
Dennis, R. L. H. 1977 The British Butterflies: their Origin and Establishment, Classey, Oxford.
Dexter, E. M., Kitching, R. L. & Baker, E. J. 1993. The Bathurst Copper, Paralucia spinifera. Pp. 168-170 in Conservation Biology of Lycaenidae (Butterflies) edited by T. R. New. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.
Didham, R. K. 1997. Dipteran tree-crown assemblages in a diverse southern temperate rainforest. Pp. 320-343 in Canopy Arthropods edited by N. E. Stork, J. Adis & R. K. Didham, Chapman & Hall, London.
Diserud, O. H. & Ødegaard, F. 2000. The beta binomial model for host specificity between organisms in trophic interactions. Biometrics 56, 855-861.
Disney, R. H. L. 2003. Tasmanian Phoridae (Diptera) and some additional Australasian species. Journal of Natural History 37, 505-639.
Dunn, K. E. & Kitching, R. L. 1994. Distribution, status and management of the piceatus jewel butterfly on the Darling Downs, Queensland. Report to the Queensland Department of Environment & Heritage, Brisbane.
Eastwood, R. & Fraser, A. M. 1999. Associations between lycaenid butterflies and ants. Australian Journal of Ecology 24, 495-537.
Edwards, E. D. & Common, I. F. B. 1978. A new species of Paralucia Waterhouse & Turner from New South Wales (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae). Australian entomological Magazine 5, 65-70.
Eggleton, P., Bignell, D. E., Sands, W.A., Mawdsley, N.A., Lawton, J. H., Wood, T.G. & Bignell, N. C. 1996. The diversity, abundance and biomass of termites (Isoptera) under differing levels of forest disturbance in the Mbalmayo Forest Reserve, southern Cameroon. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. B 351, 51-68.
Ehrlich, P. & Ehrlich, A. 1981 Extinction: the Causes and Consequences of the Disappearance of Species, Random House, New York.
Erwin, T. L. 1982. Tropical forests: their richness in Coleoptera and other arthropod species. Coleopterists' Bulletin 36, 74-75.
Ferrier, S., Gray, M. R., Cassis, G. A. & Wilkie, L. 1999. Spatial turnover in species composition of ground-dwelling arthropods, vertebrates and vascular plants on north-east New South Wales: implications for selection of forest reserves. Pp. 68-76 in The other 99%. The Conservation and Biodiversity of Invertebrates, edited by W. Ponder & D. Lunney, Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Flannery, T. & Schouten, P. 2002 A Gap in Nature, Text Publishing, Melbourne.
Gaston, K.J. 1998 Biodiversity. Blackwell Scientific, Oxford.
Greenslade, P. & New, T. R. 1991. Australia: conservation of a continental insect fauna. Pp. 33-70 in The Conservation of Insects and their Habitats, edited by N. M. Collins & J. A. Thomas, Academic Press, London.
Hammond, P. M. 1990. Insect abundance and diversity in the Dumoga-Bone National Park, North Sulawesi, with special reference to the beetle fauna of lowland rainforest in the Toraut region. Pp. 197-254Insects and the Rain Forests of South-east Asia, edited by W. J. Knight & J. D. Holloway, Royal entomological Society, London.
Gilpin, M. & Hanski, I. (eds) 1991 Metapopulation Dynamics, Academic Press, London.
Hawking, J. H. 1999. An evaluation of the current conservation status of Australian dragonflies (Odonata). Pp. 354-360 in The other 99%. The Conservation and Biodiversity of Invertebrates edited by W. Ponder & D. Lunney, Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Hammond, P. M. 1990. Insect abundance and biodiversity in the Dumoga-Bone National Park, N. Sulawesi, with special reference to the beetle fauna of lowland rain forest in the Toraut region. Pp. 197-294 in Insects and the Rain Forests of South-east Asia (Wallacia), edited by W. J. Knight & J. D. Holloway, Royal entomological Society, London.
Hurtado Guerrero, J. C., Vasconcelas da Fonseca, C. R., Hammond, P. M. & Stork, N. E. 2002. Seasonal variation of canopy arthropods in Central Amazon. Pp. 17-175 in Arthropods of Tropical Forests, edited by Y. Basset, V. Novotny, S. Miller & R. L. Kitching, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
IUCN 1994 IUCN Red List Categories, IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.
Jelinek, A., Britton, D. R. & New, T. R. 1994. Conservation of a ‘threatened butterfly community’ at Mount Piper, Victoria. Memoirs Of the Queensland Museum 36, 115-120.
Journet, A. R. P. 1981. Insect herbivory on the Australian woodland eucalypt, Eucalyptus blakelyi M. Australian Journal of Ecology 6, 135-138.
Menzel, F. & Kitching, R. L. (in press) Host specificity or habitat structure? - The epicortical beetle assemblages in an Australian subtropical rainforest. European Journal of Entomology.
Kitching, R. L. 1992. Biodiversity, research and conservation in Australian rainforests. Pp. 31-54 in In Harmony with Nature, edited by Yap Son Kheong & Lee Su Win, Malayan Nature Society, Kuala Lumpur.
Kitching, R. L. 1993. Rainforest canopy arthropods: problems for rapid biodiversity assessment. Pp. 26-30 in: Rapid Biodiversity Assessment, Proceedings of a Workshop, Unit for Biodiversity and Bioresources, Macquarie University.
Kitching, R. L. 1994. Biodiversity and taxonomy: impediment or opportunity. Pp. 253-268 in Conservation Biology in Australasia and Oceania, edited by C. Moritz & J. Kikkawa, Surrey Beatty, Chipping Norton, NSW.
Kitching, R. L. 1995. Biodiversity - political responsibilities and agendas for research and management. Pacific Conservation Biology 1, 279-283.
Kitching, R. L. 1999. Adapting conservation legislation to the idiosyncrasies of the arthropods. Pp. 274-282 in The Other 99%. The Conservation and Biodiversity of Invertebrates, edited by W. Ponder & D. Lunney. Transactions of the Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
Kitching, R. L. & Arthur, M. J. 1993. The biodiversity of arthropods from Australian rain forest canopies: summary of projects and the impact of drought. Selbyana 14, 29-35.
Kitching, R. L. & Baker, E. J. 1990. Hello, Goodbye? Australia's rarest butterfly, the Bathurst copper, lives in a shrinking neighbourhood. Geo 12, 92-95.
Kitching, R. L. & Zalucki, J. 1996. The biodiversity of arthropods from Australian rain forest canopies: some results on the role of tree species. Pp. 21-28 in Tropical Rainforest Research - Current Issues, edited by D. S. Edwards, W. E. Booth & S. C. Choy, Kluwer, Dordrecht.
Kitching, R. L., Bergelson, J., Lowman, M. D., McIntyre, S. & Carruthers, G. 1993. The biodiversity of arthropods in Australian rain forest canopies: introduction, methods, study sites and ordinal results. Australian Journal of Ecology 18, 181-191.
Kitching, R. L., Floater, G. & Mitchell, H. 1994. The biodiversity of arthropods in Australian rainforest canopies: ecological questions and management challenges. Pp. 119-137 in Biodiversity: its Complexity and Role, edited by M. Yasuno & M. M. Watanabe, Global Environmental Forum, Tokyo.
Kitching, R. L., Mitchell, H., Morse, G. & Thebaud, C. 1997. Determinants of species richness in assemblages of canopy arthropods. Pp. 131-150 in Canopy Arthropods, edited by N. E. Stork, J. Adis & R. K. Didham, Chapman & Hall, London.
Kitching, R. L., Orr, A. G., Thalib, L., Mitchell, H., Hopkins, M. S. & Graham, A. W. 2000a. Moth assemblages as indicators of environmental quality in remnants of upland Australian rain forest. Journal of applied Ecology 37, 284-297.
Kitching, R. L., Vickerman, G., Laidlaw, M. & Hurley, K. 2000b The Comparative Assessment of Arthropod and Tree Biodiversity in Old-World Forests: the Rainforest CRC/EARTHWATCH Protocol Manual. Technical Report, Cooperative Research Centre for Tropical Rainforest Ecology and Management, Cairns (70pp).
Kitching, R. L., Li, D. Q. & Stork, N. E. 2001. Assessing biodiversity ‘sampling packages’: how similar are arthropod assemblages in different tropical rainforests? Biodiversity and Conservation 10, 793-813.
Kitching, R. L., Hurley, K. & Thalib, L. 2003. Tree relatedness and similarity of insect assemblages: pushing the limits? Pp. 329-340 in Arthropods of Tropical Forests, edited by Y. Basset, V. Novotny, S. E. Miller & R. L. Kitching, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Lawrence, J. F. & Britton, E. B. 1991. Coleoptera (Beetles). Pp. 543-683 in Insects of Australia, 2nd Edition edited by I. Neumann, CSIRO, Melbourne.
Lomberg, B. 2001 The Skeptical Environmentalist. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Lowman, M. D. 1982. Seasonal variation in insect abundance among three Australian rain forests, with special reference to phytophagous types. Australian Journal of Ecology 7, 353-361.
Lowman, M. D. 1985. Temporal and spatial variability in insect grazing of the canopies of five Australian rainforest tree species. Australian Journal of Ecology 10, 7-24.
Lowman, M. D. 1992. Leaf growth dynamics and herbivory in five species of Australian rainforest trees. Journal of Ecology 80, 433-447.
Majer, J. D. 1972. The ant mosaic in Ghana cocoa farms. Bulletin of entomological Research 62, 151-160.
Majer, J. D. 1976. The maintenance of the ant mosaic in Ghana cocoa farms. Journal of Applied Ecology 13, 123-144.
Majer, J. D. (ed) 1987 The Role of Invertebrates in Conservation and Biological Survey, Department of Conservation & Land Management, Perth.
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