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Land snails are an important group of non-vertebrate animals that can provide important insights into the management and conservation of forests. The distribution patterns of Australian land snails reflect the historical events that have forged the continent's varied environments, in particular, its mesic communities. The intimate association of land snails with rainforest, and vegetation types in general, suggests that they have strong predictive value in identifying moist refugia and significant areas for biodiversity conservation. While land snails have a number of practical advantages that make them attractive as environmental indicators, their continued existence in many instances is under threat. Land clearing and fire have played major roles in fragmenting and restricting land snail distributions in the past. Present land management techniques, in particular the use of fire in semi-arid environments, need to be applied judiciously to ensure that the potential beneficial value of this biological resource is not lost.

Adam, P., 1987 New South Wales rainforests. The nomination for the World Heritage List. NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service, Sydney.
Adam, P., 1992 Australian Rainforests. Clarendon Press, Oxford.
Andersen, A.N., 1997. Measuring invertebrate biodiversity: surrogates of ant richness in the Australian seasonal tropics. Memoirs of the Museum of Victoria 56: 355-359.
Andersen, A.N. and Yen, A.L., 1985. Immediate effects of fire on ants in the semi-arid mallee region of north-western Victoria. Australian Journal of Ecology 10: 25-30.
Bishop, M. J., 1981. The biogeography and evolution of Australian land snails. Pp. 924-954 in Ecological biogeography of Australia edited by Keast, A. Dr W. Junk, The Hague.
Bradstock, R. A., Williams, J. E. and Gill, A. M. (eds), 2001 Flammable Australia The Fire Regimes and Biodiversity of a Continent. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Bridgewater, P. and Walton, D.W., 1997. Under the iceberg. Memoirs of the Museum of Victoria 56: 261-265.
Churchill, T.B., 1997. Spiders as ecological indicators: an overview for Australia. Memoirs of the Museum of Victoria 56: 331-337.
Clarke, B., Johnson, M. S. and Murray, J. 1984. The extinction of endemic species by a program of biological control. Pacific Science 38: 97-104.
Cowie, R. H., 2001. Decline and homogenization of Pacific faunas: The land snails of American Samoa. Biological Conservation 99: 207-222.
Colman, P.H., 1987. Blazing snail trails. Australian Natural History Summer 1986-87: 119.
Cranston, P.S. and Hillman, T., 1992. Rapid assessment of biodiversity using “biological diversity technicians”. Australian Biologist 5: 144-154.
Cranston, P.S. and Trueman, J.W.H., 1997. “Indicator” taxa in invertebrate biodiversity assessment. Memoirs of the Museum of Victoria 56: 267-274.
DEST., 1995a Native vegetation clearance, habitat loss and biodiversity decline. Biodiversity Series Paper No. 6. Biodiversity Unit, Department of the Environment, Sport and the Territories, Canberra.
DEST., 1995b Landcover disturbance over the Australian continent, a contemporary assessment. Biodiversity Series Paper No. 7. Biodiversity Unit, Department of the Environment, Sport and the Territories, Canberra.
Eddie, C., 1993. Survey of land snails restricted to dry rainforests in the Lockyer Valley, south-east Queensland. Unpublished BAppSc. Report. University of Queensland, Gatton.
Emberton, K.C., 1995. Land-snail community morphologies of the highest-diversity sites of Madagascar, North America, and New Zealand, with recommended alternatives to hight-diameter plots. Malacologia 36: 43-66.
Fensham, R.J., 1995. Floristics and environmental relations of inland dry rainforest in north Queensland, Australia. Journal of Biogeography 22: 1047-1063.
Fensham, R.J., 1996. Land clearance and conservation of inland dry rainforest in north Queensland, Australia. Biological Conservation 75: 289-298.
Flannery, T. F., 1994 The future eaters. Reed Books, Melbourne.
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Hilton-Taylor, C. (compiler), 2000. 2000 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
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References

Adam, P., 1987 New South Wales rainforests. The nomination for the World Heritage List. NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service, Sydney.
Adam, P., 1992 Australian Rainforests. Clarendon Press, Oxford.
Andersen, A.N., 1997. Measuring invertebrate biodiversity: surrogates of ant richness in the Australian seasonal tropics. Memoirs of the Museum of Victoria 56: 355-359.
Andersen, A.N. and Yen, A.L., 1985. Immediate effects of fire on ants in the semi-arid mallee region of north-western Victoria. Australian Journal of Ecology 10: 25-30.
Bishop, M. J., 1981. The biogeography and evolution of Australian land snails. Pp. 924-954 in Ecological biogeography of Australia edited by Keast, A. Dr W. Junk, The Hague.
Bradstock, R. A., Williams, J. E. and Gill, A. M. (eds), 2001 Flammable Australia The Fire Regimes and Biodiversity of a Continent. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Bridgewater, P. and Walton, D.W., 1997. Under the iceberg. Memoirs of the Museum of Victoria 56: 261-265.
Churchill, T.B., 1997. Spiders as ecological indicators: an overview for Australia. Memoirs of the Museum of Victoria 56: 331-337.
Clarke, B., Johnson, M. S. and Murray, J. 1984. The extinction of endemic species by a program of biological control. Pacific Science 38: 97-104.
Cowie, R. H., 2001. Decline and homogenization of Pacific faunas: The land snails of American Samoa. Biological Conservation 99: 207-222.
Colman, P.H., 1987. Blazing snail trails. Australian Natural History Summer 1986-87: 119.
Cranston, P.S. and Hillman, T., 1992. Rapid assessment of biodiversity using “biological diversity technicians”. Australian Biologist 5: 144-154.
Cranston, P.S. and Trueman, J.W.H., 1997. “Indicator” taxa in invertebrate biodiversity assessment. Memoirs of the Museum of Victoria 56: 267-274.
DEST., 1995a Native vegetation clearance, habitat loss and biodiversity decline. Biodiversity Series Paper No. 6. Biodiversity Unit, Department of the Environment, Sport and the Territories, Canberra.
DEST., 1995b Landcover disturbance over the Australian continent, a contemporary assessment. Biodiversity Series Paper No. 7. Biodiversity Unit, Department of the Environment, Sport and the Territories, Canberra.
Eddie, C., 1993. Survey of land snails restricted to dry rainforests in the Lockyer Valley, south-east Queensland. Unpublished BAppSc. Report. University of Queensland, Gatton.
Emberton, K.C., 1995. Land-snail community morphologies of the highest-diversity sites of Madagascar, North America, and New Zealand, with recommended alternatives to hight-diameter plots. Malacologia 36: 43-66.
Fensham, R.J., 1995. Floristics and environmental relations of inland dry rainforest in north Queensland, Australia. Journal of Biogeography 22: 1047-1063.
Fensham, R.J., 1996. Land clearance and conservation of inland dry rainforest in north Queensland, Australia. Biological Conservation 75: 289-298.
Flannery, T. F., 1994 The future eaters. Reed Books, Melbourne.
Floyd, A.G., 1987. Status of rainforest in northern New South Wales. Pp. 95-117 in The rainforest legacy. Australian national rainforest study. Volume 1 edited by. Werren, G. and Kershaw, A.P. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
Floyd, A.G., 1990 Australian rainforests in New South Wales. Vol. 1. Surrey Beatty and Sons, Chipping Norton, NSW.
Forster, P.I., Bostock, P.D., Bird, L.H. and Bean, A.R., 1991 Vineforest plant atlas for south-east Queensland with assessment of conservation status. Queensland Herbarium, Queensland Government: Brisbane.
Frest, T.J. 2002 Native snails indicators of ecosystem health. Wild Earth Summer 2002: 44-50.
Friend, G.R., 1996. Fire ecology of invertebrates-implications for nature conservation, fire management and future research. Pp. 155-162 in Fire and biodiversity. The effects and effectiveness of fire management. Biodiversity Series, Paper No. 8, Biodiversity Unit, Dept of the Environment, Sport and Territories, Canberra.
Galloway, R.W. and Kemp, E.M., 1981. Late Cainozoic environments in Australia. Pp. 52-80 in Ecological biogeography of Australia., edited Keast, A. Dr W. Junk: The Hague.
Gasteen, W.J., 1987. The brigalow lands of eastern Australia: Agricultural impact and landuse potential versus biological representation and stability. Pp. 143-152 in The rainforest legacy. Australian national rainforest study, Volume 1, edited by G. Werren and A.P. Kershaw. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
Gillison, A.N., 1987. The ‘dry’ rainforests of Terra Australis. Pp. 305-321 in The rainforest legacy. Australian national rainforest study, Volume 1, Edited by G. Werren and A.P. Kershaw. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra:
Greenslade, P., 1996. Fuel reduction burning: is it causing the extinction of Australia's rare invertebrates. Habitat April 1996: 18-19.
Greenslade, P., 1997. Short term effects of a prescribed burn on invertebrates in grassy woodland in south-eastern Australia. Memoirs of the Museum of Victoria 56: 305-312.
Halffter, G and Favila, M.E., 1993. The Scarabaeinae (Insecta: Coleoptera) an animal group for analysing, inventorying and monitoring biodiversity in tropical rainforest and modified land scape. Biology International 27:15-21.
Hilton-Taylor, C. (compiler), 2000. 2000 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
Hinkley, S and New, T.R., 1997. Pitfall trapping for surveying ant assemblages: lessons from a study at Mount Piper, Victoria. Memoirs of the Museum of Victoria 56: 369-376.
Hugall, A., Moritz, C., Moussalli, A. and Stanisic, J., 2002. Reconciling palaeodistribution models and comparative phylogeography in the Wet Tropics rainforest land snail Gnarosophia bellendenkerensis (Brazier, 1875). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (Philadelphia) 99: 6112-6117.
Hugall, A., Stanisic, J. and Moritz, C., 2003. Phylogeography of terrestrial gastropods. The case of the Sphaerospira lineage and history of Queensland rainforests. Pp. 270-301 in Molecular Systematics and Phylogeography of Mollusks, edited by Lydeard, C. and Lindberg, D. R. Smithsonian Books, Washington D.C.
Hyman, I.T. and Stanisic, J. In press. New charopid land snails chiefly from limestone outcrops in eastern New South Wales (Eupulmonata: Charopidae). Memoirs of the Queensland Museum.
Johnson, R.W., 1984. Flora and vegetation of the Brigalow Belt. Pp. 41-59 in The Brigalow Belt of Australia, edited by Bailey, A. Queensland Department of Primary Industries, Brisbane.
Kahn, T.P. and Lawrie, B.C. 1987. Vine thickets of the inland Townsville region. Pp. 159-199 in The rainforest legacy. Australian national rainforests study. Volume 1, edited by Werren, G. and Kershaw, A.P. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
Kenneally, K.F. and Beard, J.S., 1987. Rainforests of Western Australia. Pp. 289-304 in The rainforest legacy. Australian national rainforests study. Volume 1 edited by Werren, G. and Kershaw, A.P. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
Kershaw, A.P. 1981. Quaternary vegetation and environments. Pp. 924-954 in Ecological biogeography of Australia, edited by Keast, A. Dr W. Junk, The Hague.
Lunney, D. and Ponder, W. F., 1999. Emergent themes from the Other 99%. Pp. 446-454 in The other 99%. The conservation and biodiversity of invertebrates, edited by Ponder, W. and Lunney, D. Transactions of the Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman.
McMichael, D.F. and Iredale, T., 1959. The land and freshwater Mollusca of Australia. Pp. 224-245 in Biogeography and Ecology in Australia, edited by Keast, A., Crocker, R.L. and Christian, C.S. W. Junk, The Hague.
Margulis, L. and Schwartz, K.V., 1982 Five Kingdoms. An illustrated guide to the phyla of life on Earth. W. H. Freeman and Company, New York.
Moritz, C., Richardson, K.S., Ferrier, S., Monteith, G., Stanisic, J., Williams, S.E. and Whiffin, T., 2001. Biogeographical concordance and efficiency of taxon indicators for establishing conservation priority in a tropical rainforest biota. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B. 268: 1875-1881.
Murphy, M.J., 2002a. Mollusc conservation and the New South Wales Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995: the Recovery Program for Mitchell's Rainforest Snail Thersites Mitchellae. Australian Zoologist 32: 1-11.
Murphy, M.J., 2002b. Observations on the Australian land snail Hedleyella falconeri (Gray, 1834) (Pulmonata: Caryodidae) using the spool-and-line tracking technique. Molluscan Research 22: 149-164.
New, T. R., 1995a Introduction to Invertebrate conservation. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
New, T.R., 1995b Onychophora in invertebrate conservation: priorities, practice and prospects. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 114: 77-89.
Oliver, I., Beattie, A. J. and York, A., 1998. Spatial fidelity of plant, vertebrate, and invertebrate assemblages in multiple-use forest in eastern Australia. Conservation Biology 12: 822-835.
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