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A 110-year-long time-series of metropolitan newspapers is analyzed for its portrayal of wildlife, and nature more generally, in Victoria between 1839 and 1948. The research identified and categorized approximately 19,000 items (leaders, articles, letters, etc.) related to various aspects of natural history and nature conservation. Newspapers, and published indexes thereof, are examined to create an historical overview of the major themes, issues and trends, and to consider the potential for using these documentary sources for reconstructing past environments and the human impact on nature. Typical of the colonial experience elsewhere, the newspapers reveal a society preoccupied with the transformation of the natural environment until relatively late in the study period. This is despite a long and complex history of scientific interest and conservation concerns. It was generally not until long after the passing of the settlement frontier that indigenous wildlife became sufficiently valued for the emergence of coordinated and systematic campaigns for their preservation. Always a dynamic mix of foreign and domestic ideas, both popular and official conceptions of nature gradually challenged the widespread notion of the inferiority of Antipodean plants and animals. This attitudinal shift was shaped by, and in turn fostered, the increasing institutionalization of science, growing popularity of natural history, and expanding government support for conservation. It was also a response to a series of major environmental disturbances created by the settlers themselves, and partially the outcome of adaptation to what were initially very alien surroundings. An increasingly national and ecological vision, forged near the end of the century, became characteristic of the press coverage of nature after the Great War.

Anon c. 1965 Indexes to the Australasian, 1892-1933. State Library of Victoria. (manuscript).
Arnold, D. 1996 The Problem of Nature: Environment, Culture and European Expansion. Oxford University Press.
Australasian 1864-1891 Indexes to Volumes I-LI. Australasian.
Bach, J. 1976 A Maritime History of Australia. Pan Books, Sydney.
Bayley, W.A. 1976. ‘Index of the Town and Country Journal’, 1870-1919. (manuscript).
Blainey, G. 1966 The Tyranny of Distance. Sun Books, Melbourne.
Blainey, G. 1980 A Land Half Won. MacMillan, Melbourne.
Bolton, G. 1976. ‘The historian as artist and interpreter of the environment’. pp 113-124 in Man and Landscape in Australia-Towards an Ecological Vision. edited by Seddon, G., A.G.P.S., Canberra
Bonyhady, T. 2001 The Colonial Earth. Melbourne University Press, Carlton.
Brown, P.L. (ed.) various dates Clyde Company Papers. (Vol. I, 1821-35, 1941; Vol. II, 1836-40, 1941; Vol. III, 1841-45, 1958; Vol. IV, 1846-50, 1959; Vol. V, 1851-57; Vol. VI, 1854-58; Vol. VIII, 1859-73, 1971). Oxford University Press. London.
Cameron, J.M.R. 1981 Ambition's Fire-The Agricultural Colonization of Pre-Convict Western Australia. University of Western Australia Press, Nedlands.
Cannon, M. (ed.) 1981 Vagabond Country-Australian Bush & Town Life in the Victorian Age. Hyland House, Melbourne.
Cannon, M. 1985 The Long Last Summer-Australia's Upper Class Before the Great War. Nelson, Fitzroy.
Chisholm, A.H. 1964 Land of Wonder-The Best Australian Nature Writing. Angus & Robertson, Sydney.
Christensen, B. 1999. ‘From Divine Nature to Umbrella Species-The Development of Wildlife Science in the United States’. Pp 209-229 in Forest and Wildlife Science in America, edited by Steen, H.K., Forest History Society, Durham, N.C.
Coates, P. 1988 Nature: Western Attitudes Since Ancient Times. Polity Press.
Cowley, D. 2002. ‘Women's Work: Illustrating the Natural Wonders of the Colonies’. The La Trobe Journal 69: 11-29.
Dargavel, J. Jackson, G. and Tracey, J.L. 1995. ‘Environmental events in the forests of northern New South Wales: a second order’. Australian Journal of Environmental Management, 2 (4): 224-33.
Darwin, C. 1859 On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection. Watts, London.
De Serville, P. 1980 Port Phillip Gentlemen and Good Society in Melbourne Before the Gold Rushes. Oxford University Press, Melbourne.
De Serville, P. 1991 Pounds and Pedigrees-The Upper Class in Victoria, 1850-80. Oxford University Press, Melbourne.
Dingle, T. 1984 The Victorians-Settling. Fairfax, Syme, & Weldon Associates, McMahons Point.
Ducker, S.C. 1981. Facsimile edition of Hannaford, S. 1860. Sea and River-side Rambles in Victoria, Heath & Cordell, Geelong.
Evans, M. 1982. ‘Taking to the Bush: Australian Landscape as a Condition of Practice for the Field Naturalists’ Club of Victoria, 1880-1900'. Bachelor of Arts (Honours) thesis, University of Melbourne.
Evans, W. (ed.) 1975 Diary of a Welsh Swagman, 1869-1894. Sun Books. Melbourne.
Feeley, J.A. 1976 Index to the Argus, 1846-54. Library Council of Victoria, Melbourne.
Feeley, J.A. 1978 Index to the Argus, 1855-April 1859. Library Council of Victoria, Melbourne.
Finney, C.M. 1984 To Sail Beyond The Sunset-Natural History in Australia, 1699-1829. Rigby Australia, Adelaide.
Fitzpatrick, B. 1949 The British Empire in Australia. Melbourne University Press, Carlton.
Gillbank, L. 1980. The Acclimatisation Society of Victoria. The Victorian Historical Journal 51 (4): 255-270.
Gillbank, L. 1986. The Origins of the Acclimatisation Society of Victoria. Practical Science in the Wake of the Gold Rush. Historical Records of Australian Science 6 (3): 359-375.
Gillbank, L. 1988. ‘The Life Sciences: Collections to Conservation’. Pp 99-129 in The Commonwealth of Science-ANZAAS and the Scientific Enterprise in Australasia, 1888-1988. edited by MacLeod, R., Oxford University Press, Melbourne.
Glacken, C. J. 1967 Traces on the Rhodian Shore-Nature and Culture in Western Thought From Ancient Times to the End of the Eighteenth Century. University of California Press, Berkeley.
Goodwin, C.D.W. 1974 The Image of Australia-British Perception of the Australian Economy from the Eighteenth to the Twentieth Century. Duke University Press, Durham, N.C.
Grant, J. and Serle, G. 1978 The Melbourne Scene, 1803-1956. Hale and Iremonger, Neutral Bay, NSW.
Griffiths, T. 1989. ‘The Natural History of Melbourne: The Culture of Nature Writing in Victoria, 1880-1945.’ Australian Historical Studies, 23 (93): 339-365.
Griffiths, T. 1996 Hunters and collectors: the antiquarian imagination in Australia. Cambridge University Press, Melbourne.
Gururani, S. 2002. ‘Forests of Pleasure and Pain: gendered practices of labour and livelihood in the forests of the Kumaon Himalayas, India’. Gender, Place and Culture 9: 3, 229-243.
Haynes, R.D. 1998 Seeking the Centre-The Australian Desert in Literature, Art and Film. Cambridge University Press, Melbourne.
Heathcote, R.L. 1965 Back of Bourke. Melbourne University Press, Carlton.
Heathcote, R.L. 1972. ‘The Visions of Australia, 1770-1970’. Pp 77-98 in Australia as Human Setting-Approaches to the designed environment. edited by Rapoport, A., Angus and Robertson Education, Sydney.
Jeans, D.N. 1975. ‘The impress of central authority upon the landscape: south-eastern Australia, 1788-1850’. Pp 1-17 in Australian Space, Australian Time-Geographical Perspectives, edited by Powell, J.M. and Williams, M., Oxford University Press, Melbourne.
Johns, E. 1998. ‘Landscape Painting in America and Australia in an Urban Century’. Pp 23-52 in New Worlds From Old-19th Century Australian & American Landscapes. edited by Johns, E.; Sayers, A.; Kornhauser, E.M. National Gallery of Australia, Canberra.
Johns, E.; Sayers, A.; Kornhauser, E.M. 1998 New Worlds From Old-19th Century Australian & American Landscapes. National Gallery of Australia, Canberra.
Kiddle, M. 1983 Men of Yesterday-A Social History of the Western District of Victoria, 1834-1890. Melbourne University Press, Carlton.
Kornhauser, E.M. 1998. ‘“all Nature is new to Art”: Painting the American Landscape, 1800-1900’. Pp 71-91 in New Worlds From Old-19th Century Australian & American Landscapes, edited by Johns, E.; Sayers, A.; Kornhauser, E.M. National Gallery of Australia, Canberra.
Leakey, R. 1979 The Illustrated Origin of Species. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Legg, S.M. 1984. ‘Arcadia or Abandonment?-The Evolution of the Rural Landscape in South Gippsland, 1870 to 1947’. M.A. thesis, Department of Geography, Monash University, Melbourne.
Legg, S.M. 1992 Heart of the Valley-A History of the Morwell Municipality. City of Morwell.
Legg, S.M. 1995. ‘Debating Forestry-An Historical Geography of Forestry Policy in Victoria and South Australia, 1870 to 1939’. Ph. D. thesis. School of Geography and Environmental Science, Monash University, Melbourne.
Legg, S.M. 1999. ‘Through a glass darkly?-Leaves from the post-modern forest’. Pp 372-388 in Australia's Ever-changing Forests IV. edited by Dargavel, J. and Libbis, B., CRES, Australian National University, Canberra.
Legg, S.M. 2002. ‘Localism in Victorian forest conservation before 1900’. Pp 49-72 in Australia's Ever-changing Forests V. edited by Dargavel, J., Gaughwin, D. and Libbis, B., CRES, Australian National University, Canberra.
Lever, C. 1992 They Dined on Eland: The Story of the Acclimatisation Societies. Cimino Publishing Group, London.
Low, T. 2001 Feral Future-The Untold Story of Australia's Exotic Invaders. Penguin Books, Ringwood.
Lowenthal, D. 2001. ‘Environmental History, from Genesis to Apocalypse’. History Today. 39: 36-42.
Mabey, R. (ed.) 1995 The Oxford Book of Nature Writing. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
MacLeod, R. (ed.) 1988 The Commonwealth of Science-ANZAAS and the Scientific Enterprise in Australasia, 1888-1988. Oxford University Press, Melbourne.
McCaughey, P. 1989. ‘Likeness and Unlikeness: The American-Australian Experience’. Pp 15-22 in New Worlds From Old-19th Century Australian & American Landscapes. edited by Johns, E.; Sayers, A.; Kornhauser, E.M. National Gallery of Australia, Canberra.
McLean, I. 1999. ‘Under Saturn: Melancholy and the Colonial Imagination’. Pp 131-162 in Double Vision: Art Histories and Colonial Histories in the Pacific. edited by Thomas, N. and Losche, D., Cambridge University Press, Melbourne.
Meinig, D.W. 1962 On the Margins of the Good Earth: the South Australian Wheat Frontier, 1869-1884. Association of American Geographers, Chicago.
Merchant, C. 1989 Death of Nature. Harper and Row. New York. 2nd edn.
Mitchell Library, Sydney. Undated. ‘Card Index to the Port Phillip Gazette, October 1838-April 1845’. (manuscript).
Moyal, A.M. 1976 Scientists in Australia: A documentary history. Cassell Australia, Stanmore.
Myerson, G. and Rydin Y. 1996 The Language of Environment-A New Rhetoric. U.C.L. Press, London.
Paddle, R. 2000 The Last Tasmanian Tiger - The History and Extinction of the Thylacine. Cambridge University Press, Melbourne.
Peel, L. 1974 Rural Industry in the Port Phillip Region, 1835-1880. Melbourne University Press, Carlton.
Powell, J.M. 1970 The Public Lands of Australia Felix. Oxford University Press, Melbourne.
Powell, J.M. 1976 Environmental Management in Australia, 1788-1914. Oxford University Press, Melbourne.
Powell, J.M. 1988a. ‘Protracted Reconciliation: Society and the Environment’. Pp 249-271 in The Commonwealth of Science-ANZAAS and the Scientific Enterprise in Australasia, 1888-1988. edited by MacLeod, R., Oxford University Press, Melbourne.
Powell, J.M. 1988b An Historical Geography of Modern Australia-The Restive Fringe. Cambridge Studies in Historical Geography 11, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Rickard, J. 1988 Australia-A Cultural History. Longman, Essex.
Robin, L. 2002. ‘Days of nature in Australia’. Pp 324-341 in Australia's Ever-changing Forests V. edited by Dargavel, J., Gaughwin, D. and Libbis, B., CRES, Australian National University, Canberra.
Roche, M.M. 1987 Forest Policy in New Zealand-An Historical Geography, 1840-1919. The Dunmore Press, Palmerston North.
Rolls, E. 1969 They All Ran Wild: The Story of Pests on the Land in Australia. Nelson, Sydney.
Ryan, S. 1996 The Cartographic Eye-How Explorers saw Australia. Cambridge University Press, Melbourne.
Sayers, A. 1998. ‘The Shaping of Australian Landscape Painting’. Pp 53-70 in New Worlds From Old-19th Century Australian & American Landscapes. edited by Johns, E.; Sayers, A.; Kornhauser, E.M., National Gallery of Australia, Canberra.
Serle, G. 1968 The Golden Age-A History of the Colony of Victoria, 1851-1861. Melbourne University Press, Carlton.
Serle, G. 1970 The Rush to be Rich-A History of the Colony of Victoria, 1883-1889. Melbourne University Press, Carlton.
Serle, G. 1987 The Creative Spirit in Australia-A Cultural History. William Heinemann, Richmond.
Shaw, A.G.L. 2003 A History of The Port Phillip District-Victoria Before Separation. Melbourne University Press, Carlton.
Smith, B. 1952. ‘The Interpretation of Australian Nature during the Nineteenth Century’. Bachelor of Arts (Honours) thesis, University of Sydney.
Smith, B. 1960 European Vision and the South Pacific, 1768-1850-A Study in the History of Art and Ideas. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
State Library of Victoria. c. 1960. Holdings of Victorian Newspapers. Chronological List, 1840-1960. (manuscript).
Suter, G. 1999 Indexes to the Argus. [5 volumes: 1860-61 to 1868-69]. Argus Index Project, Melbourne.
Williams, M. 2000. ‘Putting “Flesh on the bones” of forest history’. Pp 35-46 in Methods and Approaches in Forest History, edited by Agnoletti, M. and Anderson, S. Wallingford, CAB International.
Winchester, S. 2001 The Map That Changed the World - The Tale of William Smith and the Birth of a Science. Viking, London.
Wood, F.L.W. 1961 A Concise History of Australia. Dymocks, Sydney.
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References

Anon c. 1965 Indexes to the Australasian, 1892-1933. State Library of Victoria. (manuscript).
Arnold, D. 1996 The Problem of Nature: Environment, Culture and European Expansion. Oxford University Press.
Australasian 1864-1891 Indexes to Volumes I-LI. Australasian.
Bach, J. 1976 A Maritime History of Australia. Pan Books, Sydney.
Bayley, W.A. 1976. ‘Index of the Town and Country Journal’, 1870-1919. (manuscript).
Blainey, G. 1966 The Tyranny of Distance. Sun Books, Melbourne.
Blainey, G. 1980 A Land Half Won. MacMillan, Melbourne.
Bolton, G. 1976. ‘The historian as artist and interpreter of the environment’. pp 113-124 in Man and Landscape in Australia-Towards an Ecological Vision. edited by Seddon, G., A.G.P.S., Canberra
Bonyhady, T. 2001 The Colonial Earth. Melbourne University Press, Carlton.
Brown, P.L. (ed.) various dates Clyde Company Papers. (Vol. I, 1821-35, 1941; Vol. II, 1836-40, 1941; Vol. III, 1841-45, 1958; Vol. IV, 1846-50, 1959; Vol. V, 1851-57; Vol. VI, 1854-58; Vol. VIII, 1859-73, 1971). Oxford University Press. London.
Cameron, J.M.R. 1981 Ambition's Fire-The Agricultural Colonization of Pre-Convict Western Australia. University of Western Australia Press, Nedlands.
Cannon, M. (ed.) 1981 Vagabond Country-Australian Bush & Town Life in the Victorian Age. Hyland House, Melbourne.
Cannon, M. 1985 The Long Last Summer-Australia's Upper Class Before the Great War. Nelson, Fitzroy.
Chisholm, A.H. 1964 Land of Wonder-The Best Australian Nature Writing. Angus & Robertson, Sydney.
Christensen, B. 1999. ‘From Divine Nature to Umbrella Species-The Development of Wildlife Science in the United States’. Pp 209-229 in Forest and Wildlife Science in America, edited by Steen, H.K., Forest History Society, Durham, N.C.
Coates, P. 1988 Nature: Western Attitudes Since Ancient Times. Polity Press.
Cowley, D. 2002. ‘Women's Work: Illustrating the Natural Wonders of the Colonies’. The La Trobe Journal 69: 11-29.
Dargavel, J. Jackson, G. and Tracey, J.L. 1995. ‘Environmental events in the forests of northern New South Wales: a second order’. Australian Journal of Environmental Management, 2 (4): 224-33.
Darwin, C. 1859 On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection. Watts, London.
De Serville, P. 1980 Port Phillip Gentlemen and Good Society in Melbourne Before the Gold Rushes. Oxford University Press, Melbourne.
De Serville, P. 1991 Pounds and Pedigrees-The Upper Class in Victoria, 1850-80. Oxford University Press, Melbourne.
Dingle, T. 1984 The Victorians-Settling. Fairfax, Syme, & Weldon Associates, McMahons Point.
Ducker, S.C. 1981. Facsimile edition of Hannaford, S. 1860. Sea and River-side Rambles in Victoria, Heath & Cordell, Geelong.
Evans, M. 1982. ‘Taking to the Bush: Australian Landscape as a Condition of Practice for the Field Naturalists’ Club of Victoria, 1880-1900'. Bachelor of Arts (Honours) thesis, University of Melbourne.
Evans, W. (ed.) 1975 Diary of a Welsh Swagman, 1869-1894. Sun Books. Melbourne.
Feeley, J.A. 1976 Index to the Argus, 1846-54. Library Council of Victoria, Melbourne.
Feeley, J.A. 1978 Index to the Argus, 1855-April 1859. Library Council of Victoria, Melbourne.
Finney, C.M. 1984 To Sail Beyond The Sunset-Natural History in Australia, 1699-1829. Rigby Australia, Adelaide.
Fitzpatrick, B. 1949 The British Empire in Australia. Melbourne University Press, Carlton.
Gillbank, L. 1980. The Acclimatisation Society of Victoria. The Victorian Historical Journal 51 (4): 255-270.
Gillbank, L. 1986. The Origins of the Acclimatisation Society of Victoria. Practical Science in the Wake of the Gold Rush. Historical Records of Australian Science 6 (3): 359-375.
Gillbank, L. 1988. ‘The Life Sciences: Collections to Conservation’. Pp 99-129 in The Commonwealth of Science-ANZAAS and the Scientific Enterprise in Australasia, 1888-1988. edited by MacLeod, R., Oxford University Press, Melbourne.
Glacken, C. J. 1967 Traces on the Rhodian Shore-Nature and Culture in Western Thought From Ancient Times to the End of the Eighteenth Century. University of California Press, Berkeley.
Goodwin, C.D.W. 1974 The Image of Australia-British Perception of the Australian Economy from the Eighteenth to the Twentieth Century. Duke University Press, Durham, N.C.
Grant, J. and Serle, G. 1978 The Melbourne Scene, 1803-1956. Hale and Iremonger, Neutral Bay, NSW.
Griffiths, T. 1989. ‘The Natural History of Melbourne: The Culture of Nature Writing in Victoria, 1880-1945.’ Australian Historical Studies, 23 (93): 339-365.
Griffiths, T. 1996 Hunters and collectors: the antiquarian imagination in Australia. Cambridge University Press, Melbourne.
Gururani, S. 2002. ‘Forests of Pleasure and Pain: gendered practices of labour and livelihood in the forests of the Kumaon Himalayas, India’. Gender, Place and Culture 9: 3, 229-243.
Haynes, R.D. 1998 Seeking the Centre-The Australian Desert in Literature, Art and Film. Cambridge University Press, Melbourne.
Heathcote, R.L. 1965 Back of Bourke. Melbourne University Press, Carlton.
Heathcote, R.L. 1972. ‘The Visions of Australia, 1770-1970’. Pp 77-98 in Australia as Human Setting-Approaches to the designed environment. edited by Rapoport, A., Angus and Robertson Education, Sydney.
Jeans, D.N. 1975. ‘The impress of central authority upon the landscape: south-eastern Australia, 1788-1850’. Pp 1-17 in Australian Space, Australian Time-Geographical Perspectives, edited by Powell, J.M. and Williams, M., Oxford University Press, Melbourne.
Johns, E. 1998. ‘Landscape Painting in America and Australia in an Urban Century’. Pp 23-52 in New Worlds From Old-19th Century Australian & American Landscapes. edited by Johns, E.; Sayers, A.; Kornhauser, E.M. National Gallery of Australia, Canberra.
Johns, E.; Sayers, A.; Kornhauser, E.M. 1998 New Worlds From Old-19th Century Australian & American Landscapes. National Gallery of Australia, Canberra.
Kiddle, M. 1983 Men of Yesterday-A Social History of the Western District of Victoria, 1834-1890. Melbourne University Press, Carlton.
Kornhauser, E.M. 1998. ‘“all Nature is new to Art”: Painting the American Landscape, 1800-1900’. Pp 71-91 in New Worlds From Old-19th Century Australian & American Landscapes, edited by Johns, E.; Sayers, A.; Kornhauser, E.M. National Gallery of Australia, Canberra.
Leakey, R. 1979 The Illustrated Origin of Species. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Legg, S.M. 1984. ‘Arcadia or Abandonment?-The Evolution of the Rural Landscape in South Gippsland, 1870 to 1947’. M.A. thesis, Department of Geography, Monash University, Melbourne.
Legg, S.M. 1992 Heart of the Valley-A History of the Morwell Municipality. City of Morwell.
Legg, S.M. 1995. ‘Debating Forestry-An Historical Geography of Forestry Policy in Victoria and South Australia, 1870 to 1939’. Ph. D. thesis. School of Geography and Environmental Science, Monash University, Melbourne.
Legg, S.M. 1999. ‘Through a glass darkly?-Leaves from the post-modern forest’. Pp 372-388 in Australia's Ever-changing Forests IV. edited by Dargavel, J. and Libbis, B., CRES, Australian National University, Canberra.
Legg, S.M. 2002. ‘Localism in Victorian forest conservation before 1900’. Pp 49-72 in Australia's Ever-changing Forests V. edited by Dargavel, J., Gaughwin, D. and Libbis, B., CRES, Australian National University, Canberra.
Lever, C. 1992 They Dined on Eland: The Story of the Acclimatisation Societies. Cimino Publishing Group, London.
Low, T. 2001 Feral Future-The Untold Story of Australia's Exotic Invaders. Penguin Books, Ringwood.
Lowenthal, D. 2001. ‘Environmental History, from Genesis to Apocalypse’. History Today. 39: 36-42.
Mabey, R. (ed.) 1995 The Oxford Book of Nature Writing. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
MacLeod, R. (ed.) 1988 The Commonwealth of Science-ANZAAS and the Scientific Enterprise in Australasia, 1888-1988. Oxford University Press, Melbourne.
McCaughey, P. 1989. ‘Likeness and Unlikeness: The American-Australian Experience’. Pp 15-22 in New Worlds From Old-19th Century Australian & American Landscapes. edited by Johns, E.; Sayers, A.; Kornhauser, E.M. National Gallery of Australia, Canberra.
McLean, I. 1999. ‘Under Saturn: Melancholy and the Colonial Imagination’. Pp 131-162 in Double Vision: Art Histories and Colonial Histories in the Pacific. edited by Thomas, N. and Losche, D., Cambridge University Press, Melbourne.
Meinig, D.W. 1962 On the Margins of the Good Earth: the South Australian Wheat Frontier, 1869-1884. Association of American Geographers, Chicago.
Merchant, C. 1989 Death of Nature. Harper and Row. New York. 2nd edn.
Mitchell Library, Sydney. Undated. ‘Card Index to the Port Phillip Gazette, October 1838-April 1845’. (manuscript).
Moyal, A.M. 1976 Scientists in Australia: A documentary history. Cassell Australia, Stanmore.
Myerson, G. and Rydin Y. 1996 The Language of Environment-A New Rhetoric. U.C.L. Press, London.
Paddle, R. 2000 The Last Tasmanian Tiger - The History and Extinction of the Thylacine. Cambridge University Press, Melbourne.
Peel, L. 1974 Rural Industry in the Port Phillip Region, 1835-1880. Melbourne University Press, Carlton.
Powell, J.M. 1970 The Public Lands of Australia Felix. Oxford University Press, Melbourne.
Powell, J.M. 1976 Environmental Management in Australia, 1788-1914. Oxford University Press, Melbourne.
Powell, J.M. 1988a. ‘Protracted Reconciliation: Society and the Environment’. Pp 249-271 in The Commonwealth of Science-ANZAAS and the Scientific Enterprise in Australasia, 1888-1988. edited by MacLeod, R., Oxford University Press, Melbourne.
Powell, J.M. 1988b An Historical Geography of Modern Australia-The Restive Fringe. Cambridge Studies in Historical Geography 11, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Rickard, J. 1988 Australia-A Cultural History. Longman, Essex.
Robin, L. 2002. ‘Days of nature in Australia’. Pp 324-341 in Australia's Ever-changing Forests V. edited by Dargavel, J., Gaughwin, D. and Libbis, B., CRES, Australian National University, Canberra.
Roche, M.M. 1987 Forest Policy in New Zealand-An Historical Geography, 1840-1919. The Dunmore Press, Palmerston North.
Rolls, E. 1969 They All Ran Wild: The Story of Pests on the Land in Australia. Nelson, Sydney.
Ryan, S. 1996 The Cartographic Eye-How Explorers saw Australia. Cambridge University Press, Melbourne.
Sayers, A. 1998. ‘The Shaping of Australian Landscape Painting’. Pp 53-70 in New Worlds From Old-19th Century Australian & American Landscapes. edited by Johns, E.; Sayers, A.; Kornhauser, E.M., National Gallery of Australia, Canberra.
Serle, G. 1968 The Golden Age-A History of the Colony of Victoria, 1851-1861. Melbourne University Press, Carlton.
Serle, G. 1970 The Rush to be Rich-A History of the Colony of Victoria, 1883-1889. Melbourne University Press, Carlton.
Serle, G. 1987 The Creative Spirit in Australia-A Cultural History. William Heinemann, Richmond.
Shaw, A.G.L. 2003 A History of The Port Phillip District-Victoria Before Separation. Melbourne University Press, Carlton.
Smith, B. 1952. ‘The Interpretation of Australian Nature during the Nineteenth Century’. Bachelor of Arts (Honours) thesis, University of Sydney.
Smith, B. 1960 European Vision and the South Pacific, 1768-1850-A Study in the History of Art and Ideas. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
State Library of Victoria. c. 1960. Holdings of Victorian Newspapers. Chronological List, 1840-1960. (manuscript).
Suter, G. 1999 Indexes to the Argus. [5 volumes: 1860-61 to 1868-69]. Argus Index Project, Melbourne.
Williams, M. 2000. ‘Putting “Flesh on the bones” of forest history’. Pp 35-46 in Methods and Approaches in Forest History, edited by Agnoletti, M. and Anderson, S. Wallingford, CAB International.
Winchester, S. 2001 The Map That Changed the World - The Tale of William Smith and the Birth of a Science. Viking, London.
Wood, F.L.W. 1961 A Concise History of Australia. Dymocks, Sydney.
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