Skip to Main Content
Skip Nav Destination

Despite being classified as one of the world's mega-diversity hotspots, the basic biology and ecology of most PNG forest vertebrate species are completely unknown, which hampers sound planning for conservation of PNG's forest fauna. Although almost 70% of PNG still retains its forest cover, PNG supports a surprisingly high proportion of threatened mammals and birds, which are comparable to the proportion of threatened species in Australia - 27% of PNG's mammals and 4% of PNG's birds are considered critically endangered, endangered or vulnerable compared with 22% and 5% respectively of Australia's mammals and birds. Degradation and loss of habitat by the partial or total removal of forest cover (from clear-fell logging, selective logging and clearing for shifting agriculture and oil palm plantations) is the most significant threat currently posed to PNG's forest fauna. Hunting may also pose a threat for some of the larger, highly sort after game species, such as tree kangaroos and cassowaries. An overview is provided of PNG's legislation for protected areas development and we outline our experiences in the facilitation of community planning for Wildlife Management Area establishment and management by local landowners in the Mt Bosavi area of Southern Highlands Province. For Wildlife Management Areas, the ownership of the land, the development of management rules and the enforcement of management rules remains in the hands of the customary landowner. The participatory community planning process that we developed to try to overcome some of the factors which have led to failure of WMAs elsewhere in PNG is outlined in this paper. In our opinion the only successful conservation areas in PNG will be those developed on land still held in customary ownership by landowners committed to conservation. We also believe that the planning process we developed can be used by local communities (with minor alterations) to undertake sustainable land and resource-use planning that can achieve broad scale conservation outcomes that do not necessarily result in the establishment of protected areas. While establishment of conservation areas by committed landowners may be part of the answer to achieving conservation of PNG's forest fauna, we also highlight research priorities which will aid the assessment of the effectiveness of conservation areas, and help to determine what other off-reserve measures may need to be taken to ensure effective conservation of PNG's fauna. We believe that the key to answering some of the fundamental biological and ecological questions necessary for the adequate conservation of PNG's fauna lies in building the capacity of PNG biologists and in securing adequate funds for them to undertake long-term research

Allen, G. R. 1996a. Two new species of Rainbowfishes (Melanotaenia: Melanotaenidae), from the Kikori River system, Papua New Guinea. Revue of Freshwater Aquariology 23: 9-16.
Allen, G. R. 1996b Oxyeleotris caeca, a new species of blind cave fish (Eleotridae) from Papua New Guinea. Revue of Freshwater Aquariology 23 (1-2):43-46.
Allen, G. R. 1996c. Supplemental survey of fishes of the Kikori River Basin, Papua New Guinea. Unpublished report to WWF.
Alcorn, J.B. (ed.) 1993 Papua New Guinea Conservation Needs Assessment Volume 1. Biodiversity Support Program and Government of Papua New Guinea, Department of Environment and Conservation. Corporate Press Inc, Landover, Maryland.
Allison, A. 1993. Biodiversity and Conservation of the fishes, amphibians and reptiles of Papua New Guinea. Pp. 157-226 in Papua New Guinea Conservation Needs Assessment Volume 2 edited by B. M. Beehler. Government of Papua New Guinea, Department of Environment and Conservation, Port Moresby.
Baker, W. 1997. Rattans and rheophytes - Palms of the Mubi River. Principes 41(3): 148-157.
Beehler, B. M. 1985 Conservation of New Guinea forest birds ICBP technical publication No. 4. International Council for Bird Preservation, Cambridge, UK.
Beehler, B. M. (ed.) 1993a Papua New Guinea Conservation Needs Assessment Volume 2. Biodiversity Support Program and Government of Papua New Guinea, Department of Environment and Conservation. Corporate Press Inc, Landover, Maryland.
Beehler, B. M. 1993b. Biodiversity and Conservation of the warm-blooded vertebrates of Papua New Guinea. Pp. 77-156 in Papua New Guinea Conservation Needs Assessment Volume 2 edited by B. M. Beehler. Government of Papua New Guinea, Department of Environment and Conservation, Port Moresby.
Beehler, B. M., Pratt, T. K. and Zimmermann, D. A. 1986 Birds of New Guinea. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey.
Birdlife International 2000 Threatened Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions and Bird Life International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
Bonaccorso, F. J. 1998 Bats of Papua New Guinea. Conservation International Tropical Field Guide Series. Conservation International, Washington DC.
Brass, L. 1959. Results of the Archbold Expedition No. 79. Summary of the Fifth Archbold Expedition to New Guinea, 1956-1957. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 127: 145-216.
Brown, M. and Holzknecht, H. 1993. An assessment of institutional and social conservation issues in Papua New Guinea. Pp. 57-110 in Papua New Guinea Conservation Needs Assessment Volume 1: Conservation Issues, CNA workshop and recommendations edited by J. A. Alcorn. Government of Papua New Guinea, Department of Environment and Conservation, Port Moresby.
BRS 2003. Australia's State of the Forest Report 2003. National Forest Inventory, Bureau of Rural Science, Canberra, Australia.
www.affa.gov.au/corporate_docs/publications/pdf/rural_science/forest_vegetation/state_of_the_forest
Buenaflor, V. 1989. Logging in Papua New Guinea. United Nations Development Project/ Food and Agriculture Organisation, Rome.
Buenaflor, V. and Tiki, T. 1989. Forest management research and development, Papua New Guinea: logging studies in Vanimo lowland forests. FAO: DP/84/0003, Working Document 7. UNDP/FAO, Lae.
Burrows, I. 1995. A field survey of the avifauna of the Kikori River Basin. Unpublished Report to WWF Kikori Integrated Conservation and Development Project.
Cameron, A. L. and Vigus, T. 1993. Papua New Guinea volume and growth study: regeneration and growth of the moist tropical forest in Papua New Guinea and the implications for future harvest. Unpublished reports to the World Bank. Division of Wildlife and Ecology, CSIRO, Canberra.
Churchill, S. 1998 Australian Bats. Reed New Holland, Sydney.
Clunie, N. M. U. 1976 Botanical and Ecological Survey of the Nakanai Plateau, New Britain. Ecological Progress Report No. 2. Division of Botany, Department of Forests, Lae.
Coates, B. J. 1985 Birds of Papua New Guinea. Volume One: Non-Passerines. Dove Publishers, Alderley, Queensland.
Coates, B. J. 1990 Birds of Papua New Guinea. Volume Two: Passerines. Dove Publishers, Alderley, Queensland.
Coates, B. J. and Peckover, W. S. 2001 Birds of New Guinea and the Bismarck Archipelago: a photographic guide. Alderley, Queensland.
Cooper, W. T. and Forshaw, J. M. 1977 The Birds of Paradise and Bower Birds. Collins, Sydney.
Department of Education 1981 Birds of the Aiyura Valley (Eastern Highlands, Papua New Guinea). Government Printer, Port Moresby.
Diamond, J. M. 1985. A proposed natural reserve system for Papua New Guinea. Unpublished report.
Ellis, J. A. 1997 Race for the rainforest II: Applying lesson learned from the Lak to the Bismarck-Ramu Integrated Conservation and Development Initiative in Papua New Guinea. PNG Biodiversity Conservation and Resource Management Programme. Department of Environment and Conservation/ United Nations Development Programme-Global Environment Facility, UNOPS-PNG/93/G31, Waigani, PNG.
Faith, D. P., Nix, H. A., Margules, C. R., Hutchinson, M. F., Walker, P. A., West, J., Stein, J. L., Kevesten, J. L., Allison, A. and Natera, G. 2001a. Introductory paper-The BioRap biodiversity assessment and planning study for Papua New Guinea. Pacific Conservation Biology 6: 279-88.
Faith, D. P., Margules, C. R., Walker, P. A., Stein, J. L., and Natera, G. 2001b. Practical applications of biodiversity surrogates and percentage targets for conservation in Papua New Guinea. Pacific Conservation Biology 6: 289-303.
Faith, D. P., Margules, C. R. and Walker, P. A. 2001c. A conservation plan for Papua New Guinea based on biodiversity trade-offs analysis. Pacific Conservation Biology 6: 304-324.
Faith, D. P., Walker, P. A. and Margules, C. A. 2001d. Some future prospects for systematic biodiversity planning in Papua New Guinea-and for biodiversity planning in general. Pacific Conservation Biology 6: 325-343.
Filer, C. 1994. The nature of human threat to Papua New Guinea's biodiversity endowment Pp. 187-199 in Papua New Guinea Country Study on Biological Diversity, edited by N. Sekhran and S. Miller. Colorcraft Ltd, Hong Kong.
Filer, C., and Sekhran, N. 1998. Loggers, donors and resource owners. Papua New Guinea Country Study - Policy that works for forest and people. Series No 2. National Research Institute, Port Moresby and Institute for Environment and Development, London. Russell Press, Nottingham, UK.
Flannery, T. F. 1990 Mammals of New Guinea. Robert Brown & Associates, Sydney.
Flannery, T. F. 1992a. New Pleistocene marsupials (Macropodidae: Diprotodontidae) from subalpine habitats in Irian Jaya. Alcheringa 16:321-331.
Flannery, T. F. 1992b. Taxonomic revision of the Thylogale brunii complex (Macropodidae: Marsupialia) in Melanesia with a description of a new species. Australian Mammalogy 15: 7-23.
Flannery, T. F. 1994a. The fossil land mammal records of New Guinea: a review. Science in New Guinea 20: 39-48.
Flannery, T. F. 1994b The Future Eaters. Reed Books, Melbourne.
Flannery, T. F. 1995 Mammals of New Guinea-Revised and Updated Edition. Robert Brown & Associates, Sydney.
Gilliard, E. T. 1969 Birds of Paradise and Bowerbirds. Wiedenfield and Nicolson, London.
Gould, J. 1888 The birds of New Guinea and the adjacent Papuan Islands, including many new species recently discovered in Australia. Volume 1 [facsimile]. London, UK.
Gould, J. and Rutgers, A. 1970 Birds of New Guinea-Illustrations from the lithographs of John Gould. Methuen & Co Ltd. London.
Hammermaster, E. T. and Saunders, J. C. 1995 Forest resources and vegetation mapping of Papua New Guinea. PNG Resource Information System Publication No. 4. Australian Agency for International Aid, Canberra.
Hunt, C. (ed.) 2002 Production, privatization and preservation in Papua New Guinea forestry. Instruments for sustainable private sector forestry series. International Institute for Environment and Development, London.
Iredale, T., 1956 Birds of New Guinea Volume 1 and 2. Georgian House, Melbourne.
IUCN 2002 2002 IUCN Red List of threatened species. International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. www.redlist.org
Jenkins, A., Bustard, P. and Allen, G. R. 2000. Two new species of freshwater gudgeons (Eleotrididae: Mogurnda) from Lake Kutubu, Papua New Guinea. Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters 10: 447-454.
Johns, R. J. 1972. Vegetation. Pp. 1163 -1170 in Encyclopedia of Papua New Guinea Volume 2 edited by P. Ryan. Melbourne University Press, Melbourne.
Johns, R. J. 1976. A provisional classification of the montane vegetation of New Guinea. Science in New Guinea 4: 105-107.
Johns, R. J. 1993. Biodiversity and Conservation of the Native Flora of Papua New Guinea. Pp. 15-76 in Papua New Guinea Conservation Needs Assessment Volume 2 edited by B. M. Beehler. Government of Papua New Guinea, Department of Environment and Conservation, Port Moresby.
Lane-Poole, C. E. 1925. The Forest Resources of the Territories of Papua and New Guinea. Report to the Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia. Melbourne: Government Printer, State of Victoria.
Leary, T., Naug, R., and Price, J. 1996. Kikori Integrated Conservation and Development Project: Sustaining the Environment and Promoting Conservation and Sustainable Development Alongside the Kutubu Joint Venture Petroleum Development. Pp. 805-814 in Petroleum Exploration, Development and Production in Papua New Guinea: Proceedings of the Third Petroleum Convention, Port Moresby edited by P.G. Buchanan. Port Moresby.
Leary, T. and Seri, L. 1997. An annotated checklist of mammals recorded in the Kikori River Basin, Papua New Guinea. Science in New Guinea 23 (2): 79-100.
Mack, A. (ed.) 1998 A biological assessment of the Lakekamu Basin, Papua New Guinea. Rapid Assessment Program Working Paper No. 9. Conservation International, Washington, DC.
Mackay, R. D. 1970 The birds of Port Moresby and district. Nelson, Melbourne.
Mayr, E. 1945 Birds of the South-west Pacific. MacMillan, New York.
Menzies, J. I. 1976 Handbook of common New Guinea frogs. Wau Ecology Handbook No. 1. Wau Ecology Institute, Papua New Guinea.
Menzies, J. I. 1991 A handbook of New Guinea marsupials and monotremes. Kristen Press, Madang, PNG.
Menzies, J. I. 1993. A history of mammalogy in New Guinea from 1726 to 1993. Science in New Guinea. 19(3): 115-122.
Menzies, J. I., 1996. A systematic revision of Melomys (Rodentia: Muridae) of New Guinea. Australian Journal of Zoology 44: 367-426.
Menzies, J. I. and Dennis, E., 1979 Handbook of New Guinea Rodents. Wau Ecology Institute Handbook No. 6.
McAlpine, J. and Quigley, J. 1998 Forest Resources of Papua New Guinea: Summary Statistics from the Forest Inventory Mapping System. Canberra: AusAID/ Port Moresby: Papua New Guinea National Forestry Service.
Miller, S., Hyslop, E., Kula, G. and Burrows, I. 1994. Status of biodiversity in Papua New Guinea. Pp. 67-95 in Papua New Guinea Country Study on Biological Diversity edited by N. Sekhran and S. Miller. Colorcraft Ltd, Hong Kong.
Milne-Edwards, A. 1877. Notes sur quelques mammifères nouveaux provenant de l Nouvelle Guinée. Seances de l'Academie des Sciences 85: 1079-1081.
Mittermeier, R. A., and Mittermeier, C. G. 1997 Megadiversity - Earth's Biologically Wealthiest Nations. Quebecor Printing Inc., Canada.
National Statistics Office 2000. PNG 2000 Census - Preliminary Figures. www.pngbd.com/travel/tourism_guide_tpa/populationbystatisticalllg5.html
Nir, E. 1992. Natural regeneration of Nothofagus. Klinki 4 (4): 38-53.
Nix, H. A., Faith, D. P., Hutchinson, M. F., Margules, C. R., West, J., Allison, A., Kesteven, J. L., Natera, G., Slater, W., Stein, J. L. and Walker, P. 2000 The BioRap Toolbox-A National Study of Biodiversity Assessment and Planning for Papua New Guinea. Consultancy report to the World Bank. Centre for Resource and Environmental Studies, Australian National University, Canberra.
Nowak, R. M. 1991 Walker's Mammals of the World Fifth Edition. Volumes 1 and 2. The John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore and London.
Orsak, L. J. 1996. Changing people's values in how natural resources are used in rural Papua New Guinea. Unpublished discussion paper, Christensen Research Institute, Madang.
Orsak, L. J. and Eason, N. 1995. An assessment of the moth fauna (Lepidoptera: Heterocera) of Kikori Basin (Gulf, Southern Highlands Provinces), Papua New Guinea. Unpublished report to WWF Kikori Integrated Conservation and Development Project.
O'shea, M. J. 1996 A Guide to the Snakes of Papua New Guinea. Independent Publishing, Port Moresby.
Paijmans, K. 1976 New Guinea Vegetation. Australian National University Press, Canberra.
Parnaby, H. 1991. Sound species taxonomy is crucial to the conservation of forest bats. Pp 101-112 in Conservation of Australia's Forest Fauna, edited by D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
Parsons, M. J. 1983. A conservation study of the birdwing butterflies Ornithoptera and Troides (Lepidoptera: Papillionidae) in Papua New Guinea. Final report to Department of Primary Industry, Papua New Guinea.
Peckover, W. S. and Filewood L. W. C. 1976 Birds of New Guinea and tropical Australia. A. H. & A. W. Reed Pty Ltd, Sydney.
PNG Forest Authority 1996 The National Forest Plan for Papua New Guinea. Papua New Guinea Forest Authority, Boroko, PNG.
Rand, A. L. and Gillard, E. T., 1967 Handbook of New Guinea Birds. Weidenfeld and Nicholson, London.
Reardon, T. 1999. Taxonomy and selection of taxa for this action plan. Pp. 6-14 in The Action Plan for Australian Bats edited by A. Duncan, G. Baker and N. Montgomery. Environment Australia, Canberra.
Richards, S. 2002 Rokrok-An Illustrated Guide to the Frogs of the Kikori River Basin. WWF PNG, Port Moresby.
Saulei, S. and Beehler, B. M. 1993. Biodiversity and conservation of humid forest environments of Papua New Guinea. Pp. 423-434 in Papua New Guinea Conservation Needs Assessment, Volume 2 edited by B. M. Beehler. Government of Papua New Guinea Department of Environment and Conservation, Port Moresby.
Saulei, S., Parsons, M. and Petasi, I. 1999. Forest regeneration ten years after clear-fell logging in the Gogol Valley, Madang Province: implications for the 35-year forest cutting cycle in Papua New Guinea. Science in New Guinea 24: 119-134.
Sekhran, N. 1996 Pursuing the “D” in Integrated Conservation and Development Projects (ICADs): Issues and Challenges for Papua New Guinea, Rural Development Forestry Network Paper 19b. Overseas Development Institute, London.
Sekhran, N. and Miller, S. 1994 Papua New Guinea Country Study on Biological Diversity. Colorcraft Ltd, Hong Kong.
Schieffelin, E. L. 1976 The Sorrow of the Lonely and the Burning of the Dancers. University of Queensland Press, St Lucia, Queensland.
Siaguru, P. 1992 Effect of shade and shadow on lowland tree seedlings in Papua New Guinea. Unpublished PhD Thesis Department of Plant and Soil Science, University of Aberdeen, Scotland.
Specht, R. L., Roe, E. M. and Broughton, V. H. 1974. Conservation of major plant communities in Australia and Papua New Guinea. Australian Journal of Botany Supplementary Series 7: 591-605.
Strahan, R. (ed.) 1995 The Australian Museum Complete Book of Australian Mammals-Revised Edition. Reed Books, Chatswood.
Thomas, O. 1897. Mammals from New Guinea. Annali dei Museo Civico di Storia Naturale, Genova 19 (series 2): 617-622.
Van Dyck, S. 2002. Morphology based revision of Murexia and Antechinus (Marsupialia: Dasyuridae). Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 48 (1):239-330.
Van Helden, F. 1998 Between Cash and Conviction: The social context of the Bismarck-Ramu Integrated Conservation and Development Project. National Research Institute Monograph No 33. Paragon Printers, Canberra.
Wells, M. P. and Brandon, K., 1992 People and Parks: Linking Protected Area Management with Local Communities. The World Bank, the World Wildlife Fund, and the US-Agency for International Development, Washington, DC.
This content is PDF only. Please click on the PDF icon to access.

Contents

Figures & Tables

References

Allen, G. R. 1996a. Two new species of Rainbowfishes (Melanotaenia: Melanotaenidae), from the Kikori River system, Papua New Guinea. Revue of Freshwater Aquariology 23: 9-16.
Allen, G. R. 1996b Oxyeleotris caeca, a new species of blind cave fish (Eleotridae) from Papua New Guinea. Revue of Freshwater Aquariology 23 (1-2):43-46.
Allen, G. R. 1996c. Supplemental survey of fishes of the Kikori River Basin, Papua New Guinea. Unpublished report to WWF.
Alcorn, J.B. (ed.) 1993 Papua New Guinea Conservation Needs Assessment Volume 1. Biodiversity Support Program and Government of Papua New Guinea, Department of Environment and Conservation. Corporate Press Inc, Landover, Maryland.
Allison, A. 1993. Biodiversity and Conservation of the fishes, amphibians and reptiles of Papua New Guinea. Pp. 157-226 in Papua New Guinea Conservation Needs Assessment Volume 2 edited by B. M. Beehler. Government of Papua New Guinea, Department of Environment and Conservation, Port Moresby.
Baker, W. 1997. Rattans and rheophytes - Palms of the Mubi River. Principes 41(3): 148-157.
Beehler, B. M. 1985 Conservation of New Guinea forest birds ICBP technical publication No. 4. International Council for Bird Preservation, Cambridge, UK.
Beehler, B. M. (ed.) 1993a Papua New Guinea Conservation Needs Assessment Volume 2. Biodiversity Support Program and Government of Papua New Guinea, Department of Environment and Conservation. Corporate Press Inc, Landover, Maryland.
Beehler, B. M. 1993b. Biodiversity and Conservation of the warm-blooded vertebrates of Papua New Guinea. Pp. 77-156 in Papua New Guinea Conservation Needs Assessment Volume 2 edited by B. M. Beehler. Government of Papua New Guinea, Department of Environment and Conservation, Port Moresby.
Beehler, B. M., Pratt, T. K. and Zimmermann, D. A. 1986 Birds of New Guinea. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey.
Birdlife International 2000 Threatened Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions and Bird Life International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
Bonaccorso, F. J. 1998 Bats of Papua New Guinea. Conservation International Tropical Field Guide Series. Conservation International, Washington DC.
Brass, L. 1959. Results of the Archbold Expedition No. 79. Summary of the Fifth Archbold Expedition to New Guinea, 1956-1957. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 127: 145-216.
Brown, M. and Holzknecht, H. 1993. An assessment of institutional and social conservation issues in Papua New Guinea. Pp. 57-110 in Papua New Guinea Conservation Needs Assessment Volume 1: Conservation Issues, CNA workshop and recommendations edited by J. A. Alcorn. Government of Papua New Guinea, Department of Environment and Conservation, Port Moresby.
BRS 2003. Australia's State of the Forest Report 2003. National Forest Inventory, Bureau of Rural Science, Canberra, Australia.
www.affa.gov.au/corporate_docs/publications/pdf/rural_science/forest_vegetation/state_of_the_forest
Buenaflor, V. 1989. Logging in Papua New Guinea. United Nations Development Project/ Food and Agriculture Organisation, Rome.
Buenaflor, V. and Tiki, T. 1989. Forest management research and development, Papua New Guinea: logging studies in Vanimo lowland forests. FAO: DP/84/0003, Working Document 7. UNDP/FAO, Lae.
Burrows, I. 1995. A field survey of the avifauna of the Kikori River Basin. Unpublished Report to WWF Kikori Integrated Conservation and Development Project.
Cameron, A. L. and Vigus, T. 1993. Papua New Guinea volume and growth study: regeneration and growth of the moist tropical forest in Papua New Guinea and the implications for future harvest. Unpublished reports to the World Bank. Division of Wildlife and Ecology, CSIRO, Canberra.
Churchill, S. 1998 Australian Bats. Reed New Holland, Sydney.
Clunie, N. M. U. 1976 Botanical and Ecological Survey of the Nakanai Plateau, New Britain. Ecological Progress Report No. 2. Division of Botany, Department of Forests, Lae.
Coates, B. J. 1985 Birds of Papua New Guinea. Volume One: Non-Passerines. Dove Publishers, Alderley, Queensland.
Coates, B. J. 1990 Birds of Papua New Guinea. Volume Two: Passerines. Dove Publishers, Alderley, Queensland.
Coates, B. J. and Peckover, W. S. 2001 Birds of New Guinea and the Bismarck Archipelago: a photographic guide. Alderley, Queensland.
Cooper, W. T. and Forshaw, J. M. 1977 The Birds of Paradise and Bower Birds. Collins, Sydney.
Department of Education 1981 Birds of the Aiyura Valley (Eastern Highlands, Papua New Guinea). Government Printer, Port Moresby.
Diamond, J. M. 1985. A proposed natural reserve system for Papua New Guinea. Unpublished report.
Ellis, J. A. 1997 Race for the rainforest II: Applying lesson learned from the Lak to the Bismarck-Ramu Integrated Conservation and Development Initiative in Papua New Guinea. PNG Biodiversity Conservation and Resource Management Programme. Department of Environment and Conservation/ United Nations Development Programme-Global Environment Facility, UNOPS-PNG/93/G31, Waigani, PNG.
Faith, D. P., Nix, H. A., Margules, C. R., Hutchinson, M. F., Walker, P. A., West, J., Stein, J. L., Kevesten, J. L., Allison, A. and Natera, G. 2001a. Introductory paper-The BioRap biodiversity assessment and planning study for Papua New Guinea. Pacific Conservation Biology 6: 279-88.
Faith, D. P., Margules, C. R., Walker, P. A., Stein, J. L., and Natera, G. 2001b. Practical applications of biodiversity surrogates and percentage targets for conservation in Papua New Guinea. Pacific Conservation Biology 6: 289-303.
Faith, D. P., Margules, C. R. and Walker, P. A. 2001c. A conservation plan for Papua New Guinea based on biodiversity trade-offs analysis. Pacific Conservation Biology 6: 304-324.
Faith, D. P., Walker, P. A. and Margules, C. A. 2001d. Some future prospects for systematic biodiversity planning in Papua New Guinea-and for biodiversity planning in general. Pacific Conservation Biology 6: 325-343.
Filer, C. 1994. The nature of human threat to Papua New Guinea's biodiversity endowment Pp. 187-199 in Papua New Guinea Country Study on Biological Diversity, edited by N. Sekhran and S. Miller. Colorcraft Ltd, Hong Kong.
Filer, C., and Sekhran, N. 1998. Loggers, donors and resource owners. Papua New Guinea Country Study - Policy that works for forest and people. Series No 2. National Research Institute, Port Moresby and Institute for Environment and Development, London. Russell Press, Nottingham, UK.
Flannery, T. F. 1990 Mammals of New Guinea. Robert Brown & Associates, Sydney.
Flannery, T. F. 1992a. New Pleistocene marsupials (Macropodidae: Diprotodontidae) from subalpine habitats in Irian Jaya. Alcheringa 16:321-331.
Flannery, T. F. 1992b. Taxonomic revision of the Thylogale brunii complex (Macropodidae: Marsupialia) in Melanesia with a description of a new species. Australian Mammalogy 15: 7-23.
Flannery, T. F. 1994a. The fossil land mammal records of New Guinea: a review. Science in New Guinea 20: 39-48.
Flannery, T. F. 1994b The Future Eaters. Reed Books, Melbourne.
Flannery, T. F. 1995 Mammals of New Guinea-Revised and Updated Edition. Robert Brown & Associates, Sydney.
Gilliard, E. T. 1969 Birds of Paradise and Bowerbirds. Wiedenfield and Nicolson, London.
Gould, J. 1888 The birds of New Guinea and the adjacent Papuan Islands, including many new species recently discovered in Australia. Volume 1 [facsimile]. London, UK.
Gould, J. and Rutgers, A. 1970 Birds of New Guinea-Illustrations from the lithographs of John Gould. Methuen & Co Ltd. London.
Hammermaster, E. T. and Saunders, J. C. 1995 Forest resources and vegetation mapping of Papua New Guinea. PNG Resource Information System Publication No. 4. Australian Agency for International Aid, Canberra.
Hunt, C. (ed.) 2002 Production, privatization and preservation in Papua New Guinea forestry. Instruments for sustainable private sector forestry series. International Institute for Environment and Development, London.
Iredale, T., 1956 Birds of New Guinea Volume 1 and 2. Georgian House, Melbourne.
IUCN 2002 2002 IUCN Red List of threatened species. International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. www.redlist.org
Jenkins, A., Bustard, P. and Allen, G. R. 2000. Two new species of freshwater gudgeons (Eleotrididae: Mogurnda) from Lake Kutubu, Papua New Guinea. Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters 10: 447-454.
Johns, R. J. 1972. Vegetation. Pp. 1163 -1170 in Encyclopedia of Papua New Guinea Volume 2 edited by P. Ryan. Melbourne University Press, Melbourne.
Johns, R. J. 1976. A provisional classification of the montane vegetation of New Guinea. Science in New Guinea 4: 105-107.
Johns, R. J. 1993. Biodiversity and Conservation of the Native Flora of Papua New Guinea. Pp. 15-76 in Papua New Guinea Conservation Needs Assessment Volume 2 edited by B. M. Beehler. Government of Papua New Guinea, Department of Environment and Conservation, Port Moresby.
Lane-Poole, C. E. 1925. The Forest Resources of the Territories of Papua and New Guinea. Report to the Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia. Melbourne: Government Printer, State of Victoria.
Leary, T., Naug, R., and Price, J. 1996. Kikori Integrated Conservation and Development Project: Sustaining the Environment and Promoting Conservation and Sustainable Development Alongside the Kutubu Joint Venture Petroleum Development. Pp. 805-814 in Petroleum Exploration, Development and Production in Papua New Guinea: Proceedings of the Third Petroleum Convention, Port Moresby edited by P.G. Buchanan. Port Moresby.
Leary, T. and Seri, L. 1997. An annotated checklist of mammals recorded in the Kikori River Basin, Papua New Guinea. Science in New Guinea 23 (2): 79-100.
Mack, A. (ed.) 1998 A biological assessment of the Lakekamu Basin, Papua New Guinea. Rapid Assessment Program Working Paper No. 9. Conservation International, Washington, DC.
Mackay, R. D. 1970 The birds of Port Moresby and district. Nelson, Melbourne.
Mayr, E. 1945 Birds of the South-west Pacific. MacMillan, New York.
Menzies, J. I. 1976 Handbook of common New Guinea frogs. Wau Ecology Handbook No. 1. Wau Ecology Institute, Papua New Guinea.
Menzies, J. I. 1991 A handbook of New Guinea marsupials and monotremes. Kristen Press, Madang, PNG.
Menzies, J. I. 1993. A history of mammalogy in New Guinea from 1726 to 1993. Science in New Guinea. 19(3): 115-122.
Menzies, J. I., 1996. A systematic revision of Melomys (Rodentia: Muridae) of New Guinea. Australian Journal of Zoology 44: 367-426.
Menzies, J. I. and Dennis, E., 1979 Handbook of New Guinea Rodents. Wau Ecology Institute Handbook No. 6.
McAlpine, J. and Quigley, J. 1998 Forest Resources of Papua New Guinea: Summary Statistics from the Forest Inventory Mapping System. Canberra: AusAID/ Port Moresby: Papua New Guinea National Forestry Service.
Miller, S., Hyslop, E., Kula, G. and Burrows, I. 1994. Status of biodiversity in Papua New Guinea. Pp. 67-95 in Papua New Guinea Country Study on Biological Diversity edited by N. Sekhran and S. Miller. Colorcraft Ltd, Hong Kong.
Milne-Edwards, A. 1877. Notes sur quelques mammifères nouveaux provenant de l Nouvelle Guinée. Seances de l'Academie des Sciences 85: 1079-1081.
Mittermeier, R. A., and Mittermeier, C. G. 1997 Megadiversity - Earth's Biologically Wealthiest Nations. Quebecor Printing Inc., Canada.
National Statistics Office 2000. PNG 2000 Census - Preliminary Figures. www.pngbd.com/travel/tourism_guide_tpa/populationbystatisticalllg5.html
Nir, E. 1992. Natural regeneration of Nothofagus. Klinki 4 (4): 38-53.
Nix, H. A., Faith, D. P., Hutchinson, M. F., Margules, C. R., West, J., Allison, A., Kesteven, J. L., Natera, G., Slater, W., Stein, J. L. and Walker, P. 2000 The BioRap Toolbox-A National Study of Biodiversity Assessment and Planning for Papua New Guinea. Consultancy report to the World Bank. Centre for Resource and Environmental Studies, Australian National University, Canberra.
Nowak, R. M. 1991 Walker's Mammals of the World Fifth Edition. Volumes 1 and 2. The John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore and London.
Orsak, L. J. 1996. Changing people's values in how natural resources are used in rural Papua New Guinea. Unpublished discussion paper, Christensen Research Institute, Madang.
Orsak, L. J. and Eason, N. 1995. An assessment of the moth fauna (Lepidoptera: Heterocera) of Kikori Basin (Gulf, Southern Highlands Provinces), Papua New Guinea. Unpublished report to WWF Kikori Integrated Conservation and Development Project.
O'shea, M. J. 1996 A Guide to the Snakes of Papua New Guinea. Independent Publishing, Port Moresby.
Paijmans, K. 1976 New Guinea Vegetation. Australian National University Press, Canberra.
Parnaby, H. 1991. Sound species taxonomy is crucial to the conservation of forest bats. Pp 101-112 in Conservation of Australia's Forest Fauna, edited by D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
Parsons, M. J. 1983. A conservation study of the birdwing butterflies Ornithoptera and Troides (Lepidoptera: Papillionidae) in Papua New Guinea. Final report to Department of Primary Industry, Papua New Guinea.
Peckover, W. S. and Filewood L. W. C. 1976 Birds of New Guinea and tropical Australia. A. H. & A. W. Reed Pty Ltd, Sydney.
PNG Forest Authority 1996 The National Forest Plan for Papua New Guinea. Papua New Guinea Forest Authority, Boroko, PNG.
Rand, A. L. and Gillard, E. T., 1967 Handbook of New Guinea Birds. Weidenfeld and Nicholson, London.
Reardon, T. 1999. Taxonomy and selection of taxa for this action plan. Pp. 6-14 in The Action Plan for Australian Bats edited by A. Duncan, G. Baker and N. Montgomery. Environment Australia, Canberra.
Richards, S. 2002 Rokrok-An Illustrated Guide to the Frogs of the Kikori River Basin. WWF PNG, Port Moresby.
Saulei, S. and Beehler, B. M. 1993. Biodiversity and conservation of humid forest environments of Papua New Guinea. Pp. 423-434 in Papua New Guinea Conservation Needs Assessment, Volume 2 edited by B. M. Beehler. Government of Papua New Guinea Department of Environment and Conservation, Port Moresby.
Saulei, S., Parsons, M. and Petasi, I. 1999. Forest regeneration ten years after clear-fell logging in the Gogol Valley, Madang Province: implications for the 35-year forest cutting cycle in Papua New Guinea. Science in New Guinea 24: 119-134.
Sekhran, N. 1996 Pursuing the “D” in Integrated Conservation and Development Projects (ICADs): Issues and Challenges for Papua New Guinea, Rural Development Forestry Network Paper 19b. Overseas Development Institute, London.
Sekhran, N. and Miller, S. 1994 Papua New Guinea Country Study on Biological Diversity. Colorcraft Ltd, Hong Kong.
Schieffelin, E. L. 1976 The Sorrow of the Lonely and the Burning of the Dancers. University of Queensland Press, St Lucia, Queensland.
Siaguru, P. 1992 Effect of shade and shadow on lowland tree seedlings in Papua New Guinea. Unpublished PhD Thesis Department of Plant and Soil Science, University of Aberdeen, Scotland.
Specht, R. L., Roe, E. M. and Broughton, V. H. 1974. Conservation of major plant communities in Australia and Papua New Guinea. Australian Journal of Botany Supplementary Series 7: 591-605.
Strahan, R. (ed.) 1995 The Australian Museum Complete Book of Australian Mammals-Revised Edition. Reed Books, Chatswood.
Thomas, O. 1897. Mammals from New Guinea. Annali dei Museo Civico di Storia Naturale, Genova 19 (series 2): 617-622.
Van Dyck, S. 2002. Morphology based revision of Murexia and Antechinus (Marsupialia: Dasyuridae). Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 48 (1):239-330.
Van Helden, F. 1998 Between Cash and Conviction: The social context of the Bismarck-Ramu Integrated Conservation and Development Project. National Research Institute Monograph No 33. Paragon Printers, Canberra.
Wells, M. P. and Brandon, K., 1992 People and Parks: Linking Protected Area Management with Local Communities. The World Bank, the World Wildlife Fund, and the US-Agency for International Development, Washington, DC.
Close Modal

or Create an Account

Close Modal
Close Modal