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South-east Queensland (SEQ) was the target of 1 of 10 joint Commonwealth-State Governments comprehensive regional assessments (CRAs) conducted in preparation for Regional Forests Agreements (RFAs) in Australia during the 1990s/early 2000s. Work towards a SEQ RFA commenced in 1993, a SEQ Forests Agreement (so called because it did not in the end involve the Commonwealth Government as a partner) was signed in 1999, and is presently being implemented. Forests of SEQ are ecologically significant with high levels of faunal species diversity and endemism. Human population is high, and growing rapidly, placing habitats and species under threat. Improved conservation of forest biodiversity is a major goal of the SEQFA, stated objectives of the process include a world-class conservation reserve system and ecologically sustainable management of forests.

The SEQFA has, on the face of it, achieved its goal. The total area of National Park in the Region has more than doubled with 425,000 hectares of forest changing tenure from State Forest immediately. Logging is no longer permitted in all publicly-owned (i.e. National Park, State Forest and leasehold land) rainforest and almost 100% of wet sclerophyll habitats. It is to be progressively excluded from the remainder of publicly-owned forest over the ensuing 25 years. A commitment to greatly increase the establishment of native species plantations also has some potential to provide additional habitat for native fauna.

However, some compromises were required to reach agreement. Dry sclerophyll habitats were under-represented in National Parks in SEQ prior to the Forest Agreement (at 9% of pre-European extent) and remain so relative to other habitat types (at 20% of pre-European extent). Timber harvesting had traditionally been practised using the relatively conservative single-tree and small-group selection approaches. The Agreement has accepted the adoption of more intense harvesting practices to maintain woodflows to industry from publicly-owned forests (i.e. State Forests) during the phase-out period. Dry sclerophyll forests that comprise the majority of the area where logging is permitted will bear the brunt of this logging with likely short and long-term consequences for habitat quality, especially for hollow-dependent fauna. Native forest habitats on freehold land, where environmental controls on harvesting are less rigorous, are also likely to suffer from increased pressure as the timber industry seeks to counter the declining quality, and ultimately quantity, of logs from publicly-owned native forests. Pressure to maximise timber production from plantations in compensation for declining access to timber from publicly-owned native forests will also negatively impact on the quality of habitat they are able to provide

Anderson, M. and Halpin, N. 2001. Private Forestry Plantation-Joint Venture Scheme. In proc of Second Managing and Growing Trees Training Conference, Queensland Department of Natural Resources and Mines.
Boorsboom A. C., J. Wang, N. Lees, M. Mathieson, and Hogan, L. 2002. Measurement and Integration of Fauna Biodiversity Values in Queensland Agroforestry Systems. A report for the RIRDC/Land and Water Australia/FWPRDC Joint Venture Agroforestry Program supported by the Natural Heritage Trust. RIRDC Publication no 02/044
Burrows, W. H., J. F. Compton, and Hoffman, M. B. 1998. Vegetation thickening and carbon sinks in the grazed woodlands of north-east Australia. In Plantation and Regrowth Forestry: a diversity of opportunity. Proceedings of the Biennial Conference of the Australian Forest Growers. Editted by Dyason, Dyason and Garsden, Australian Forest Growers, Lismore, New South Wales.
Catterall, C. P., and Storey, R. 1996. Assessment and analysis of deforestation patterns in SEQ2001 area 1820-1987-1994. Brisbane, Faculty of Environmental Sciences, Griffith University.
Catterall, C. P., R. Storey, and Kingston, M. 1996. Assessment and analysis of deforestation patterns in SEQ2001 area 1820-1987-1994. Brisbane: Faculty of Environmental Sciences, Griffith University.
Cogger, H., and Heatwole, H. 1981. The Australian reptiles: origins, biogeography, distribution patterns and island evolution. In Ecological Biogeography of Australia, edited by A. Keast. W. Junk, The Hague.
Commonwealth of Australia. 1992, National Forest Policy Statement: a New Focus for Australia's Forests. Advance Press Ltd, Perth.
Department of Local Government and Planning. 2001. Population trends and prospects for Queensland. Brisbane: Queensland Government.
Ensbey, M., M. Mathieson, and Smith, G. C. 2000. A review of the effects of grazing and associated fire on biodiversity-an Australian perspective to inform and guide resource management and research in Queensland's forests. Forest Ecosystem Research and Assessment Technical papers. 00-08, Queensland Department of Natural Resources.
Eyre, T. J. 2002 Habitat preferences and management of large gliding possums in Southern Queensland. PhD thesis, Southern Cross University, Lismore, New South Wales.
Eyre, T. J. and Smith, A. P. 1997. Floristic and structural preferences of Yellow-bellied Gliders ( Petaurus australis) and selective logging impacts in southeast Queensland, Australia. Forest Ecology and Management, 98:281-295
Fensham, R. J., and Holman, J. E. 1999. Temporal and spatial patterns in drought related tree dieback in Australian savanna. J Appl. Ecol. 36:1035-50
Flannery, T. F. 1994 The Future Eaters. Reed, Melbourne
Florence, R. G. 1996 Ecology and silviculture of eucalypt forests. CSIRO Publishing, Melbourne.
Garnett, S. and Crowley, G. 1997. The golden-shouldered parrot of Cape York Peninsula: the importance of cups of tea to effective conservation. Pp 201 to 206 in Conservation Outside Nature Reserves, edited by P. Hale and D. Lamb. Centre for Conservation Biology, The University of Queensland.
Gibbons, P., and Lindenmayer, D. 2002 Tree Hollows and Wildlife Conservation in Australia. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Victoria
Goodall, K., M. Mathieson, and Smith, G. C. 2004. A retrospective analysis of ground-dwelling reptile assemblages in relation to selective timber harvesting in dry sclerophyll forest of SEQ, Pp. 875-87 in Conservation of Australia's Forest Fauna (Second Edition), edited by D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
Hannah, D., G. C. Smith, and Agnew, G. 1997. Reptile and amphibian composition in prescribed burnt dry sclerophyll forest, Southern Queensland. Australian Forestry 61(1): 34-39
Holzworth, P. 1999. Recent Forest Disputes in Queensland: a History of Resolution. In Dargavel and Libbis eds. Australia's Everchanging Forests IV: proc. of the fourth national conference on Australian forest history. Centre for Resource and Environmental Studies, Australian National University, Canberra
Kelly, A. ed. 1998. Old-growth Forest in South-east Queensland. Sustainable Forest Management Technical Report 1998/01, Queensland Department of Natural Resources
Lamb, D., R. Loyn, A. Smith, and Wilkinson G. 1998. Managing Habitat Trees in Queensland Forests. A Report of the Habitat Tree Technical Advisory Group to the Queensland Department of Natural Resources, Forest Resources Division.
Lees, N. 2000. A review of the vertebrate pests of Australian eucalypt plantations: The effects of browsing and options for control. Forest Ecosystem Research and Assessment Technical Report 2000-02, Queensland Department of Natural Resources.
Legler, J. M. and Georges, A. 1993. Family Chelidae. In Fauna of Australia. Volume 2A. Amphibia and Reptilia. Editted by Glasby, C.J., Ross, G.J.B. and Beesley, P.L., Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
Longmore, R. 1986. Atlas of Elapid Snakes of Australia. Australian Fauna and Flora Series No. 7. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
Martin, R. and Handasyde, K. 1999. The Koala: natural history, conservation and management. Sydney, University of New South Wales Press.
McAlpine, C. A., and Eyre, T. J. 2002. Testing landscape metrics as indicators of habitat loss and fragmentation in continuous eucalypt forests (Queensland, Australia). Landscape Ecology 17: 8 pp 711-728
McAlpine, C. A., R. J. Fensham and Temple-Smith, D. E. 2002a. Biodiversity conservation and vegetation clearing in Queensland: principles and thresholds. The Rangeland Journal 24:36-55
McAlpine, C. A., D. B. Lindenmayer, T. J. Eyre and Phinn, S. P. 2002b. Landscape surrogates of forest fragmentation: synthesis of Australian Montreal Process case studies. Pacific Conservation Biology 8: 2 pp 108-121
McAlpine, C.A. 1999. Framework for integrating landscape ecology into forest management in South-East Queensland: Science and action. Brisbane: Queensland Department of Natural Resources.
McDonald, W. J. F., Young, P. A. R. and Watson, M. A. 1999. Distribution and Status of the rainforest communities of south-east Queensland. In Rainforest Recovery for the New Millenium, edited by B. R. Boyes. Proceedings of the World Wide Fund for Nature 1998 South-east Queensland Rainforest Recovery Conference. WWF, Sydney.
Phillips, B. 1990. Koalas: the little Australians we'd all hate to lose. Canberra, Australian National Parks and Wildlife Service.
Pianka, E. R. and Schall, J. J. 1981. Species densities of Australian vertebrates. In Ecological Biogeography of Australia, editted by A. Keast, W. Junk, The Hague.
Queensland Department of Natural Resources. 1998. Habitat Trees and Hollow-Dependant Fauna. Sustainable Forest Management Technical Report. The State of Queensland, Department of Natural Resources, Brisbane, Qld
Queensland Environmental Protection Agency. 2002. Code of Practice for Native Forest Production
Queensland Environmental Protection Agency. 2002. Species Management Information System. Queensland Government, EPA, Forest Management Division
Queensland Government. 1995. Plantations, Forests and Future Directions: Queensland Forest Directions Statement, 16th May 1995.
Queensland Government. 1999a. Southeast Queensland Comprehensive Regional Assessment. Published by the Joint Commonwealth and Queensland Regional Forest Agreement Steering Committee.
Queensland Government. 1999b. Towards a Southeast Queensland Regional Forest Agreement: A Directions Report. Published by the Joint Commonwealth and Queensland Regional Forest Agreement Steering Committee
Queensland Government. 1999c. State of the Environment Queensland 1999. Queensland Environmental Protection Agency.
Roberts, J. D. 1993. Natural history of the Anura. In Fauna of Australia. Volume 2A. Amphibia and Reptilia editted by Glasby, C.J., Ross, G.J.B. and Beesley, P.L., Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
Ross, Y. 1999. Hollow-bearing trees in native forest permanent inventory plots in south-east Queensland. Forest Ecosystem Research and Assessment Technical papers. 99-23. Queensland Department of Natural Resources.
Ryan, M. F., R. D. Spencer, and Keenan. R. J. 2002 Private native forests in Australia: What did we learn from the Regional Forest Agreement program? Australian Forestry Vol 65, No 3 September 2002
Sattler, P., and Williams, R. (eds) 1999 The conservation status of Queensland's bioregional ecosystems. Brisbane: Environmental Protection Agency.
Schodde, R. 1986. The origins of Australian birds. In Complete Book of Australian Birds. editted by Schodde, R. and Tidemann, S.C., Reader's Digest, Sydney.
Smith, A. P. and Andrews, S. 1997. Koala Habitat, Abundance and Distribution in the Pine Creek Study Area. A Report to State Forests of NSW. Armidale, Australia, Austeco Environmental Consultants.
Smith, G.C. and Agnew, G. 2002. The value of bat boxes for attracting hollow-dependant fauna to farm-forestry plantations in south-east Queensland. Ecological Management and Restoration 3 (1), 37-46.
Smith, G.C. and Lees, N. 1998. Density and distribution of habitat trees required to support viable populations of hollow-dependant species. Unpublished report, Queensland Department of Natural Resources, Forest Ecosystem Research and Assessment.
Smith, G.C. and Lees, N. 1999. The Black-breasted Buttonquail ( Turnix melanogaster)-its relationship with dry vine scrubs and tolerance to disturbance. In Rainforest Recovery for the New Millenium. Proceedings of the World Wide Fund, 1998, South-east Queensland Rainforest Recovery Conference, Tannum Sands.
Smith, G. C., B. J. Hamley, and Lees, N. 1998. An Estimate of the Plumed Frogmouth Podargus ocellatus plumiferus Population Size in the Conondale Ranges. Pacific Conservation Biology, 4:215-226
Specht, R.L., and Specht, A. 1999 Australian plant communities. Melbourne: Oxford University Press.
Taylor, P. 1994 Growing Up: Forestry in Queensland. Allen and Unwin Ltd, St Leonards, NSW
Thackway, R. and Cresswell, I. D. (eds) 1995 An Interim Biogeographic Regionalisation for Australia: a framework for establishing the national system of reserves, Version 4.0. Australian Nature Conservation Agency, Canberra
Wilson, B. A., J. A. Neldner, and Accad, A. 2002. The extent and status of remnant vegetation in Queensland and its implications for statewide vegetation management and legislation. The Rangeland Journal 24: 6-35.
Wormington, K. 2002. The habitat requirements of arboreal marsupials in the dry sclerophyll forests of south-east Queensland, Australia. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, University of Qld.
Young, P.A.R., and Dilleward, H. A. 1999. Southeast Queensland. In The conservation status of Queensland's bioregional ecosystems, edited by P. Sattler and R. Williams. Brisbane: Environmental Protection Agency.
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References

Anderson, M. and Halpin, N. 2001. Private Forestry Plantation-Joint Venture Scheme. In proc of Second Managing and Growing Trees Training Conference, Queensland Department of Natural Resources and Mines.
Boorsboom A. C., J. Wang, N. Lees, M. Mathieson, and Hogan, L. 2002. Measurement and Integration of Fauna Biodiversity Values in Queensland Agroforestry Systems. A report for the RIRDC/Land and Water Australia/FWPRDC Joint Venture Agroforestry Program supported by the Natural Heritage Trust. RIRDC Publication no 02/044
Burrows, W. H., J. F. Compton, and Hoffman, M. B. 1998. Vegetation thickening and carbon sinks in the grazed woodlands of north-east Australia. In Plantation and Regrowth Forestry: a diversity of opportunity. Proceedings of the Biennial Conference of the Australian Forest Growers. Editted by Dyason, Dyason and Garsden, Australian Forest Growers, Lismore, New South Wales.
Catterall, C. P., and Storey, R. 1996. Assessment and analysis of deforestation patterns in SEQ2001 area 1820-1987-1994. Brisbane, Faculty of Environmental Sciences, Griffith University.
Catterall, C. P., R. Storey, and Kingston, M. 1996. Assessment and analysis of deforestation patterns in SEQ2001 area 1820-1987-1994. Brisbane: Faculty of Environmental Sciences, Griffith University.
Cogger, H., and Heatwole, H. 1981. The Australian reptiles: origins, biogeography, distribution patterns and island evolution. In Ecological Biogeography of Australia, edited by A. Keast. W. Junk, The Hague.
Commonwealth of Australia. 1992, National Forest Policy Statement: a New Focus for Australia's Forests. Advance Press Ltd, Perth.
Department of Local Government and Planning. 2001. Population trends and prospects for Queensland. Brisbane: Queensland Government.
Ensbey, M., M. Mathieson, and Smith, G. C. 2000. A review of the effects of grazing and associated fire on biodiversity-an Australian perspective to inform and guide resource management and research in Queensland's forests. Forest Ecosystem Research and Assessment Technical papers. 00-08, Queensland Department of Natural Resources.
Eyre, T. J. 2002 Habitat preferences and management of large gliding possums in Southern Queensland. PhD thesis, Southern Cross University, Lismore, New South Wales.
Eyre, T. J. and Smith, A. P. 1997. Floristic and structural preferences of Yellow-bellied Gliders ( Petaurus australis) and selective logging impacts in southeast Queensland, Australia. Forest Ecology and Management, 98:281-295
Fensham, R. J., and Holman, J. E. 1999. Temporal and spatial patterns in drought related tree dieback in Australian savanna. J Appl. Ecol. 36:1035-50
Flannery, T. F. 1994 The Future Eaters. Reed, Melbourne
Florence, R. G. 1996 Ecology and silviculture of eucalypt forests. CSIRO Publishing, Melbourne.
Garnett, S. and Crowley, G. 1997. The golden-shouldered parrot of Cape York Peninsula: the importance of cups of tea to effective conservation. Pp 201 to 206 in Conservation Outside Nature Reserves, edited by P. Hale and D. Lamb. Centre for Conservation Biology, The University of Queensland.
Gibbons, P., and Lindenmayer, D. 2002 Tree Hollows and Wildlife Conservation in Australia. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Victoria
Goodall, K., M. Mathieson, and Smith, G. C. 2004. A retrospective analysis of ground-dwelling reptile assemblages in relation to selective timber harvesting in dry sclerophyll forest of SEQ, Pp. 875-87 in Conservation of Australia's Forest Fauna (Second Edition), edited by D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
Hannah, D., G. C. Smith, and Agnew, G. 1997. Reptile and amphibian composition in prescribed burnt dry sclerophyll forest, Southern Queensland. Australian Forestry 61(1): 34-39
Holzworth, P. 1999. Recent Forest Disputes in Queensland: a History of Resolution. In Dargavel and Libbis eds. Australia's Everchanging Forests IV: proc. of the fourth national conference on Australian forest history. Centre for Resource and Environmental Studies, Australian National University, Canberra
Kelly, A. ed. 1998. Old-growth Forest in South-east Queensland. Sustainable Forest Management Technical Report 1998/01, Queensland Department of Natural Resources
Lamb, D., R. Loyn, A. Smith, and Wilkinson G. 1998. Managing Habitat Trees in Queensland Forests. A Report of the Habitat Tree Technical Advisory Group to the Queensland Department of Natural Resources, Forest Resources Division.
Lees, N. 2000. A review of the vertebrate pests of Australian eucalypt plantations: The effects of browsing and options for control. Forest Ecosystem Research and Assessment Technical Report 2000-02, Queensland Department of Natural Resources.
Legler, J. M. and Georges, A. 1993. Family Chelidae. In Fauna of Australia. Volume 2A. Amphibia and Reptilia. Editted by Glasby, C.J., Ross, G.J.B. and Beesley, P.L., Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
Longmore, R. 1986. Atlas of Elapid Snakes of Australia. Australian Fauna and Flora Series No. 7. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
Martin, R. and Handasyde, K. 1999. The Koala: natural history, conservation and management. Sydney, University of New South Wales Press.
McAlpine, C. A., and Eyre, T. J. 2002. Testing landscape metrics as indicators of habitat loss and fragmentation in continuous eucalypt forests (Queensland, Australia). Landscape Ecology 17: 8 pp 711-728
McAlpine, C. A., R. J. Fensham and Temple-Smith, D. E. 2002a. Biodiversity conservation and vegetation clearing in Queensland: principles and thresholds. The Rangeland Journal 24:36-55
McAlpine, C. A., D. B. Lindenmayer, T. J. Eyre and Phinn, S. P. 2002b. Landscape surrogates of forest fragmentation: synthesis of Australian Montreal Process case studies. Pacific Conservation Biology 8: 2 pp 108-121
McAlpine, C.A. 1999. Framework for integrating landscape ecology into forest management in South-East Queensland: Science and action. Brisbane: Queensland Department of Natural Resources.
McDonald, W. J. F., Young, P. A. R. and Watson, M. A. 1999. Distribution and Status of the rainforest communities of south-east Queensland. In Rainforest Recovery for the New Millenium, edited by B. R. Boyes. Proceedings of the World Wide Fund for Nature 1998 South-east Queensland Rainforest Recovery Conference. WWF, Sydney.
Phillips, B. 1990. Koalas: the little Australians we'd all hate to lose. Canberra, Australian National Parks and Wildlife Service.
Pianka, E. R. and Schall, J. J. 1981. Species densities of Australian vertebrates. In Ecological Biogeography of Australia, editted by A. Keast, W. Junk, The Hague.
Queensland Department of Natural Resources. 1998. Habitat Trees and Hollow-Dependant Fauna. Sustainable Forest Management Technical Report. The State of Queensland, Department of Natural Resources, Brisbane, Qld
Queensland Environmental Protection Agency. 2002. Code of Practice for Native Forest Production
Queensland Environmental Protection Agency. 2002. Species Management Information System. Queensland Government, EPA, Forest Management Division
Queensland Government. 1995. Plantations, Forests and Future Directions: Queensland Forest Directions Statement, 16th May 1995.
Queensland Government. 1999a. Southeast Queensland Comprehensive Regional Assessment. Published by the Joint Commonwealth and Queensland Regional Forest Agreement Steering Committee.
Queensland Government. 1999b. Towards a Southeast Queensland Regional Forest Agreement: A Directions Report. Published by the Joint Commonwealth and Queensland Regional Forest Agreement Steering Committee
Queensland Government. 1999c. State of the Environment Queensland 1999. Queensland Environmental Protection Agency.
Roberts, J. D. 1993. Natural history of the Anura. In Fauna of Australia. Volume 2A. Amphibia and Reptilia editted by Glasby, C.J., Ross, G.J.B. and Beesley, P.L., Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
Ross, Y. 1999. Hollow-bearing trees in native forest permanent inventory plots in south-east Queensland. Forest Ecosystem Research and Assessment Technical papers. 99-23. Queensland Department of Natural Resources.
Ryan, M. F., R. D. Spencer, and Keenan. R. J. 2002 Private native forests in Australia: What did we learn from the Regional Forest Agreement program? Australian Forestry Vol 65, No 3 September 2002
Sattler, P., and Williams, R. (eds) 1999 The conservation status of Queensland's bioregional ecosystems. Brisbane: Environmental Protection Agency.
Schodde, R. 1986. The origins of Australian birds. In Complete Book of Australian Birds. editted by Schodde, R. and Tidemann, S.C., Reader's Digest, Sydney.
Smith, A. P. and Andrews, S. 1997. Koala Habitat, Abundance and Distribution in the Pine Creek Study Area. A Report to State Forests of NSW. Armidale, Australia, Austeco Environmental Consultants.
Smith, G.C. and Agnew, G. 2002. The value of bat boxes for attracting hollow-dependant fauna to farm-forestry plantations in south-east Queensland. Ecological Management and Restoration 3 (1), 37-46.
Smith, G.C. and Lees, N. 1998. Density and distribution of habitat trees required to support viable populations of hollow-dependant species. Unpublished report, Queensland Department of Natural Resources, Forest Ecosystem Research and Assessment.
Smith, G.C. and Lees, N. 1999. The Black-breasted Buttonquail ( Turnix melanogaster)-its relationship with dry vine scrubs and tolerance to disturbance. In Rainforest Recovery for the New Millenium. Proceedings of the World Wide Fund, 1998, South-east Queensland Rainforest Recovery Conference, Tannum Sands.
Smith, G. C., B. J. Hamley, and Lees, N. 1998. An Estimate of the Plumed Frogmouth Podargus ocellatus plumiferus Population Size in the Conondale Ranges. Pacific Conservation Biology, 4:215-226
Specht, R.L., and Specht, A. 1999 Australian plant communities. Melbourne: Oxford University Press.
Taylor, P. 1994 Growing Up: Forestry in Queensland. Allen and Unwin Ltd, St Leonards, NSW
Thackway, R. and Cresswell, I. D. (eds) 1995 An Interim Biogeographic Regionalisation for Australia: a framework for establishing the national system of reserves, Version 4.0. Australian Nature Conservation Agency, Canberra
Wilson, B. A., J. A. Neldner, and Accad, A. 2002. The extent and status of remnant vegetation in Queensland and its implications for statewide vegetation management and legislation. The Rangeland Journal 24: 6-35.
Wormington, K. 2002. The habitat requirements of arboreal marsupials in the dry sclerophyll forests of south-east Queensland, Australia. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, University of Qld.
Young, P.A.R., and Dilleward, H. A. 1999. Southeast Queensland. In The conservation status of Queensland's bioregional ecosystems, edited by P. Sattler and R. Williams. Brisbane: Environmental Protection Agency.
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