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The most recent round of the forestry reform process in north-east NSW began in 1995 and resulted in the direct reservation of 737,602 hectares of forest as National Parks estate in north-east NSW, the exclusion of logging from all mapped oldgrowth forest (greater than 25 hectares) and rainforest in remaining State Forests, and the provision of 20 year, binding wood supply agreements to the timber industry in the region at 50% of 1995 levels. The forestry reform process is reviewed and a qualitative assessment of its impact on forest fauna conducted. The process was successful in using comprehensive spatial information on fauna distributions in the form of quantitative habitat models, in applying a rigorous method to set fauna reservation targets, and in employing recognised conservation planning software in reserve selection with fauna as one of the key parameters that determined reserve placement. These all represented important positive developments for the conservation of forest fauna in north-east NSW, which ensured that many of the areas identified for reservation were high priority areas for fauna conservation. However, the forestry reform process also included aspects that resulted in significant negative outcomes for forest fauna including; the use of timber commitments rather than fauna needs to determine the overall scale of reserves, the provision of long-term wood supply agreements to the timber industry at demonstrably unsustainable levels, the development of a substandard set of requirements for management on remaining State Forest areas, and the drastic weakening of legislative controls on logging operations which allow for increased intensification over time.

Reservation targets set during the forestry reform process were used to provide an empirical assessment of reserve adequacy for fauna in the region. The assessment indicates that only 29% of priority fauna populations have fully achieved reservation targets in north-east NSW, and that across all populations, mean target achievement is only 49%. Therefore, the scale of the reserve outcome does not satisfy the national reserve criteria for forests and is considered to be inadequate to ensure the survival of priority species in north-east NSW. The target assessment indicates that the most poorly reserved habitats are dry coastal and dry tablelands sclerophyll forests, and habitat for species with large home ranges and species most vulnerable to threatening processes. While additional gains in reservation target achievement can still be made through the reservation of public lands, the large gains in habitat protection now required will have to be made on private land in the region. Future conservation efforts for fauna in the region should include; making full use of the current knowledge of fauna distributions and reservation status through appropriate publication and distribution of existing information; improving and refining the priority fauna habitat models, reservation targets and conservation requirements; and providing strong legislative protection for priority fauna habitat, as depicted by quantitative fauna models, across all land tenures. A clear lesson from the forestry reform process in north-east NSW is that independent (i.e. non-Government) scientific involvement is crucial to the scientific integrity of conservation outcomes and assessments conducted by Governments via bureaucratic processes. Increased involvement by independent scientists in an active and direct way into the political process is also required to lessen the divide between science and politics into the future.

ALP 1995 Forestry Policy. Australian Labor Party, New South Wales Branch, Sydney.
Anon. 1995 Deferred Forest Areas, New South Wales. Report of the Deferred Forest Assessment Process, December 1995. Commonwealth of Australia, Canberra.
Anon. 1996 Scoping Agreement for New South Wales Regional Forest Agreements between the Commonwealth of Australia and the State of NSW. Commonwealth of Australia, Canberra.
Anon. 2000 Regional Forest Agreement for North East New South Wales (Upper North East and Lower North East Regions) between the Commonwealth of Australia and the State of New South Wales. Commonwealth of Australia, Canberra, http://www.affa.gov.au/content/output.cfm?ObjectID=D2C48F86-BA1A-11A1-A2200060B0A01800&contType=outputs
Anon. 1999a Integrated Forestry Operations Approval for Upper North East Region. Department of Urban Affairs and Planning, Sydney, December 1999.
Anon. 1999b Integrated Forestry Operations Approval for Lower North East Region. Department of Urban Affairs and Planning, Sydney, December 1999.
Anon. 1999c Forest Agreement for Upper North East Region. Department of Urban Affairs and Planning, Sydney, March 1999.
Anon. 1999d Forest Agreement for Lower North East Region. Department of Urban Affairs and Planning, Sydney., March 1999.
Carr, Bob. 2002. Unpublished speech by the NSW Premier Bob Carr to the Total Environment Centre Green Capital conference. 29/08/02.
Carr, Bob. 2003. Media Release ‘Premier Carr Announces Protection for Forest Icons’, Sunday 2nd March 2003.
Chippendale, G.M. 1981. Distribution Density of Eucalyptus Species in Australia. Search 12, 5: 131-133.
Clean Green Energy CO PTY. 2001. Unpublished briefing note to the Timber Industry Development Taskforce, October 2001.
CoA. 1992 National Forest Policy Statement, a new focus for Australia's forests. Commonwealth of Australia, Canberra.
CoA. 1995 National Forest Conservation Reserves, Commonwealth Proposed Criteria, A Position Paper. July 1995. Commonwealth of Australia, Canberra.
CoA. 1996 Australia: State of the Environment 1996. CSIRO, Collingwood.
CoA and State of Tasmania. 1997 Tasmanian Regional Forest Agreement. Commonwealth of Australia, Canberra, http://www.affa.gov.au/content/output.cfm?ObjectID=D2C48F86-BA1A-11A1-A2200060B0A01800&contType=outputs
CoA and State of Victoria. 1997 East Gippsland Regional Forest Agreement. Commonwealth of Australia, Canberra, http://www.affa.gov.au/content/output.cfm?ObjectID=D2C48F86-BA1A-11A1-A2200060B0A01800&contType=outputs
CoA and State of Victoria. 1998 Central Highlands Regional Forest Agreement. Commonwealth of Australia, Canberra, http://www.affa.gov.au/content/output.cfm?ObjectID=D2C48F86-BA1A-11A1-A2200060B0A01800&contType=outputs
Commonwealth and Western Australian Regional Forest Agreement Steering Committee. 1998 Towards a Regional Forest Agreement for the South-West Forest Region of Western Australia, Commonwealth of Australia and Western Australian Governments, Perth, http://www.affa.gov.au/content/output.cfm?ObjectID=D2C48F86-BA1A-11A1-A2200060B0A01800&contType=outputs
Covacevich, J. and McDonald, K.R. 1991. Frogs and reptiles of tropical and subtropical eastern Australian rainforests: distribution patterns and conservation. In The Rainforest Legacy, Australian National Rainforests Study. Pp 281-309 Vol. 2, edited by G. Werren and P. Kershaw. Australian Heritage Commission. Australian Government Publishing Service. Canberra, ACT.
DASET - Department of the Arts, Sport the Environment and Territories. 1992 Nomination of The Central Eastern Rainforests of Australia by the Government of Australia for inscription in the World Heritage List. Unpublished report by DASET.
Debus, S.J.S. 1992. A survey of diurnal raptors in north-east New South Wales, 1987-1990. Australian Birds 25,3:67-77.
DLWC 2001 Interim Best Operating Standards for Selection Harvesting of Private Native Forests (requiring development consent under the Native vegetation Act). Unpublished report by the NSW Department of Land & Water Conservation, Sydney.
DUAP 1998 ESFM Biodiversity Workshop, Coffs Harbour from 3-5 August 1998. Unpublished report by NSW Department of Urban Affairs and Planning on outcomes of CRA workshop.
Dyne, G.R. 1991. Earthworm fauna of Australian rainforests. Pp 335-343 in The Rainforest Legacy, Australian National Rainforests Study, Vol. 2, edited by G. Werren and P. Kershaw. Australian Heritage Commission, Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
Environment Australia. 1999a Response to disturbance of forest species in CRA regions in NSW-Upper North East and Lower North East regions. Unpublished report undertaken for the NSW CRA/RFA Steering Committee.
Environment Australia. 1999b Identification, Assessment and Protection of Natural National Estate Values in Lower North-Eastern NSW CRA Region. Unpublished report undertaken for the NSW CRA/RFA Steering Committee project numbers NA 59/EH, NA 65/EH
Environment Australia. 1999c Identification, Assessment and Protection of Natural National Estate Values in Upper North-Eastern NSW CRA Region. Unpublished report undertaken for the NSW CRA/RFA Steering Committee project numbers NA 59/EH, NA 65/EH.
Gibbons, P. and Lindenmayer, D. 2002 Tree Hollows and Wildlife Conservation in Australia. CSIRO, Victoria, Australia.
Gilmore, A.M. 2002. The use of site quality as a predictor of high value areas for fauna. Unpublished report for the Western Conservation Alliance.
Griffiths, Barrie. 2003 NPWS responses to some reported breaches of Threatened Species Licence conditions for habitat tree retention, July 1999 to April 2002. Unpublished report for the North East Forest Alliance, Hunter Region.
Goldingay, R.L. and Possingham, H. 1995. Area requirements for viable populations of the Australian gliding marsupial Petaurus australis. Biological Conservation 73: 161-167.
JANIS - Joint ANZECC / MCFFA National Forest Policy Statement Implementation Sub-committee. 1997 Nationally Agreed Criteria for the Establishment of a Comprehensive, Adequate and Representative Reserve System for Forests in Australia. Commonwealth of Australia, Canberra.
Mackowski, C.M. 1984. The ontogeny of hollows in blackbutt (Eucalyptus pilularis) and its relevance to the management of forests for possums, gliders and timber. Pp 553-67 in Possums and Gliders, edited by A.P. Smith and I.D. Hume, Australian Mammal Society, Sydney.
Martin, H. 1984. Australian phytogeography. Pp 17-30 in Vertebrate zoogeography and evolution in Australasia, animals in space and time, edited by M. Archer and G. Clayton. Hesperian Press, Carlisle, Western Australia.
NEFA (North East Forest Alliance). 1996 Principal Submission to the NSW Resource and Conservation Assessment Council on the Interim Forest Assessment of Forests on NSW Public Lands “likely to be required for a comprehensive, adequate and representative reserve system”. Unpublished report for the North East Forest Alliance, Lismore.
NEFA (North East Forest Alliance). 2003 Review of Private Native Forestry Guidelines developed by the Private Native Forestry Reference Group, November 2003. Unpublished report for the North East Forest Alliance, Grafton.
NPWS. 1994a Fauna of North-east NSW Forests. North East Forests Biodiversity Study Report No.3, unpublished report, NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service
NPWS. 1994b Flora of North-east NSW Forests. North East Forests Biodiversity Study Report No.4, unpublished report, NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service
NPWS. 1996 Conservation Protocols for timber harvesting on State Forests for the duration of the IFA decision. NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service, State Forests of NSW and Department of Urban Affairs and Planning, 29 November 1996.
NPWS. 1998a. Review of protective measures and forest practices. Unpublished report prepared by the New South Wales National Parks and Wildlife Service, July 1998.
NPWS. 1998b Vertebrate Fauna Survey. A project undertaken for the Joint Commonwealth NSW Regional Forest Agreement Steering Committee as part of the NSW Comprehensive Regional Assessments project number NA 01/EH. Unpublished report.
NPWS. 1998c. Target Analysis Macro. Unpublished spreadsheet provided to stakeholders for target analysis during negotiations on the Comprehensive Regional Assessment process, October 1998.
NPWS. 1999a Modelling areas of habitat significance for the vertebrate fauna and vascular flora of north-east NSW. A project undertaken as part of the NSW Comprehensive Regional Assessments project number NA 23/EH. Unpublished report.
NPWS 1999b JANIS Conservation Requirements for North East New South Wales. Unpublished report undertaken for the NSW CRA/RFA Steering Committee project numbers NA 59/EH.
NPWS. 1999c. Informal presentation to the National Parks Association. March 1999.
NPWS. 1999d Oldgrowth forest related projects-Upper North East and Lower North East CRA regions. Unpublished report undertaken for the NSW CRA/RFA Steering Committee project numbers NA 28/EH.
NPWS 2002 Threatened Species of the Upper North Coast of New South Wales, Fauna. National Parks and Wildlife Service, Sydney.
NSW and Commonwealth Governments. 1999 North-east New South Wales CRA/RFA Project Summaries. Unpublished report.
NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service. 1995 Vertebrates of Upper North East New South Wales. Report to the Natural Resources Audit Council.
NPWS. 2001 C-Plan Conservation Planning Software User Manual (For C-Plan Version 3.06). Unpublished manual, April 12th 2001.
Pianka, E. and Schall, J. 1984. Species densities of Australian vertebrates. In Vertebrate Zoogeography and evolution in Australasia, animals in space and time, eds. M. Archer and G. Clayton. Hesperian Press, Carlisle, West. Aust. pp 119-124.
PLUC 1997 Options for the Tasmania-Commonwealth Regional Forest Agreement: a strategic approach. Public Land Use Commission, Hobart
Pressey, R.L., Ferrier, S., Hager, T.C., Woods, C.A., Tully, S.L., and Weinman, K.M. 1996. How well protected are the forests of north-eastern New South Wales?-analyses of forest environments in relation to formal protection measures, land tenure, and vulnerability to clearing. Forest Ecoogy. and Management 85; 311-333.
Pressey, R.L., Ferrier, S., Hutchinson, C.D., Sivertsen, D.P. and Manion, G., 1995. Planning for negotiation: using an interactive geographic information system to explore alternative protected area networks. Pp. 23-33 in Nature Conservation: the Role of Networks, edited by D.A. Saunders, J.L., Craig and E.M. Mattiske. Surrey Beatty and Sons, Chipping Norton, NSW.
Pressey, R.L., Johnson, I.R. and Wilson, P.D. 1994. Shades of irreplaceability: towards a measure of the contribution of sites to a reservation goal. Biodiversity and Conservation 3, 242-262.
Private Native Forestry Reference Group. 2002 Report on Private Native Forestry Exemption Review. Unpublished Report to Minister for Land and Water Conservation, NSW, September 2002.
Pugh, D. 1993. Why the Forestry EIS process has failed. National Parks Journal, 37(5):23-6.
Pugh, D. 1998 Establishing a CARR reserve system in north-east NSW. Unpublished report for the North East Forest Alliance 35pp.
Pugh, D. and Flint, C. 1999 The Magic Pudding, the Cut-an'-Come-Again Forests, A preliminary appraisal of State Forests' Forest Resource and Management System (FRAMES). Unpublished report for the North East Forest Alliance. 174pp.
RAC - Resource Assessment Commission. 1992 Forest and Timber Inquiry, Final Report, Volume 1. Australian Government Publishing Service.
RACAC. 1996a Draft Interim Forestry Assessment Report. Resource and Conservation Assessment Council, June 1996, Sydney.
RACAC. 1996b Broad Old Growth Mapping Project: Final Report. Unpublished report prepared by NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service for the Resource and Conservation Assessment Council.
RACAC. 1996c. The negotiations: stakeholders get together on forests. RACAC News. May 1996. Issue No 3.
Scotts, D. and Drielsma, M. 2003. Developing landscape frameworks for regional conservation planning; an approach integrating fauna spatial distributions and ecological principles. Pacific Conservation Biology 8: 235-54.
Smith, A. 2001 Guidelines for Sustainable Forestry on Private Lands in NSW. Draft unpublished report to the Department of Land and Water Conservation.
Sigley, R. 1998. Possible RFA Outcomes, the Northern Rivers Experience. Unpublished letter from Northern Rivers Sales Manager of State Forests of New South Wales to Tim Parkes, Forest Resources.
State Forests. 1998a Report on Analysis Strategy for the FRAMES Net Area Study - Upper North East & Lower North East CRA Regions. Unpublished report by State Forests of New South Wales provided for RFA negotiations.
State Forests. 1998b Strategic Inventory Interim Report 31/8/98. Unpublished report by State Forests of New South Wales provided for RFA negotiations.
State Forests. 1998c. Combined State Database UNE & Combined State Database LNE. Unpublished spreadsheet by State Forests of New South Wales provided for RFA negotiations as part of Native Forest Yield Simulator program.
State Forests. 1998d Yield Simulator: CRA Project Proposal. Unpublished proposal by State Forests of New South Wales provided to the FRAMES Technical Committee.
State Forests. 1998e FRAMES NSW Native Forest Yield Simulator Reference Documentation. Unpublished report by State Forests of New South Wales provided for RFA negotiations.
State Forests. 1998f Resources Profile for the Upper and Lower North East RFA Areas. Unpublished report by State Forests of New South Wales provided for RFA negotiations.
State Forests. 2003. Unpublished briefing note to the Forestry Board. March 2003.
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References

ALP 1995 Forestry Policy. Australian Labor Party, New South Wales Branch, Sydney.
Anon. 1995 Deferred Forest Areas, New South Wales. Report of the Deferred Forest Assessment Process, December 1995. Commonwealth of Australia, Canberra.
Anon. 1996 Scoping Agreement for New South Wales Regional Forest Agreements between the Commonwealth of Australia and the State of NSW. Commonwealth of Australia, Canberra.
Anon. 2000 Regional Forest Agreement for North East New South Wales (Upper North East and Lower North East Regions) between the Commonwealth of Australia and the State of New South Wales. Commonwealth of Australia, Canberra, http://www.affa.gov.au/content/output.cfm?ObjectID=D2C48F86-BA1A-11A1-A2200060B0A01800&contType=outputs
Anon. 1999a Integrated Forestry Operations Approval for Upper North East Region. Department of Urban Affairs and Planning, Sydney, December 1999.
Anon. 1999b Integrated Forestry Operations Approval for Lower North East Region. Department of Urban Affairs and Planning, Sydney, December 1999.
Anon. 1999c Forest Agreement for Upper North East Region. Department of Urban Affairs and Planning, Sydney, March 1999.
Anon. 1999d Forest Agreement for Lower North East Region. Department of Urban Affairs and Planning, Sydney., March 1999.
Carr, Bob. 2002. Unpublished speech by the NSW Premier Bob Carr to the Total Environment Centre Green Capital conference. 29/08/02.
Carr, Bob. 2003. Media Release ‘Premier Carr Announces Protection for Forest Icons’, Sunday 2nd March 2003.
Chippendale, G.M. 1981. Distribution Density of Eucalyptus Species in Australia. Search 12, 5: 131-133.
Clean Green Energy CO PTY. 2001. Unpublished briefing note to the Timber Industry Development Taskforce, October 2001.
CoA. 1992 National Forest Policy Statement, a new focus for Australia's forests. Commonwealth of Australia, Canberra.
CoA. 1995 National Forest Conservation Reserves, Commonwealth Proposed Criteria, A Position Paper. July 1995. Commonwealth of Australia, Canberra.
CoA. 1996 Australia: State of the Environment 1996. CSIRO, Collingwood.
CoA and State of Tasmania. 1997 Tasmanian Regional Forest Agreement. Commonwealth of Australia, Canberra, http://www.affa.gov.au/content/output.cfm?ObjectID=D2C48F86-BA1A-11A1-A2200060B0A01800&contType=outputs
CoA and State of Victoria. 1997 East Gippsland Regional Forest Agreement. Commonwealth of Australia, Canberra, http://www.affa.gov.au/content/output.cfm?ObjectID=D2C48F86-BA1A-11A1-A2200060B0A01800&contType=outputs
CoA and State of Victoria. 1998 Central Highlands Regional Forest Agreement. Commonwealth of Australia, Canberra, http://www.affa.gov.au/content/output.cfm?ObjectID=D2C48F86-BA1A-11A1-A2200060B0A01800&contType=outputs
Commonwealth and Western Australian Regional Forest Agreement Steering Committee. 1998 Towards a Regional Forest Agreement for the South-West Forest Region of Western Australia, Commonwealth of Australia and Western Australian Governments, Perth, http://www.affa.gov.au/content/output.cfm?ObjectID=D2C48F86-BA1A-11A1-A2200060B0A01800&contType=outputs
Covacevich, J. and McDonald, K.R. 1991. Frogs and reptiles of tropical and subtropical eastern Australian rainforests: distribution patterns and conservation. In The Rainforest Legacy, Australian National Rainforests Study. Pp 281-309 Vol. 2, edited by G. Werren and P. Kershaw. Australian Heritage Commission. Australian Government Publishing Service. Canberra, ACT.
DASET - Department of the Arts, Sport the Environment and Territories. 1992 Nomination of The Central Eastern Rainforests of Australia by the Government of Australia for inscription in the World Heritage List. Unpublished report by DASET.
Debus, S.J.S. 1992. A survey of diurnal raptors in north-east New South Wales, 1987-1990. Australian Birds 25,3:67-77.
DLWC 2001 Interim Best Operating Standards for Selection Harvesting of Private Native Forests (requiring development consent under the Native vegetation Act). Unpublished report by the NSW Department of Land & Water Conservation, Sydney.
DUAP 1998 ESFM Biodiversity Workshop, Coffs Harbour from 3-5 August 1998. Unpublished report by NSW Department of Urban Affairs and Planning on outcomes of CRA workshop.
Dyne, G.R. 1991. Earthworm fauna of Australian rainforests. Pp 335-343 in The Rainforest Legacy, Australian National Rainforests Study, Vol. 2, edited by G. Werren and P. Kershaw. Australian Heritage Commission, Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
Environment Australia. 1999a Response to disturbance of forest species in CRA regions in NSW-Upper North East and Lower North East regions. Unpublished report undertaken for the NSW CRA/RFA Steering Committee.
Environment Australia. 1999b Identification, Assessment and Protection of Natural National Estate Values in Lower North-Eastern NSW CRA Region. Unpublished report undertaken for the NSW CRA/RFA Steering Committee project numbers NA 59/EH, NA 65/EH
Environment Australia. 1999c Identification, Assessment and Protection of Natural National Estate Values in Upper North-Eastern NSW CRA Region. Unpublished report undertaken for the NSW CRA/RFA Steering Committee project numbers NA 59/EH, NA 65/EH.
Gibbons, P. and Lindenmayer, D. 2002 Tree Hollows and Wildlife Conservation in Australia. CSIRO, Victoria, Australia.
Gilmore, A.M. 2002. The use of site quality as a predictor of high value areas for fauna. Unpublished report for the Western Conservation Alliance.
Griffiths, Barrie. 2003 NPWS responses to some reported breaches of Threatened Species Licence conditions for habitat tree retention, July 1999 to April 2002. Unpublished report for the North East Forest Alliance, Hunter Region.
Goldingay, R.L. and Possingham, H. 1995. Area requirements for viable populations of the Australian gliding marsupial Petaurus australis. Biological Conservation 73: 161-167.
JANIS - Joint ANZECC / MCFFA National Forest Policy Statement Implementation Sub-committee. 1997 Nationally Agreed Criteria for the Establishment of a Comprehensive, Adequate and Representative Reserve System for Forests in Australia. Commonwealth of Australia, Canberra.
Mackowski, C.M. 1984. The ontogeny of hollows in blackbutt (Eucalyptus pilularis) and its relevance to the management of forests for possums, gliders and timber. Pp 553-67 in Possums and Gliders, edited by A.P. Smith and I.D. Hume, Australian Mammal Society, Sydney.
Martin, H. 1984. Australian phytogeography. Pp 17-30 in Vertebrate zoogeography and evolution in Australasia, animals in space and time, edited by M. Archer and G. Clayton. Hesperian Press, Carlisle, Western Australia.
NEFA (North East Forest Alliance). 1996 Principal Submission to the NSW Resource and Conservation Assessment Council on the Interim Forest Assessment of Forests on NSW Public Lands “likely to be required for a comprehensive, adequate and representative reserve system”. Unpublished report for the North East Forest Alliance, Lismore.
NEFA (North East Forest Alliance). 2003 Review of Private Native Forestry Guidelines developed by the Private Native Forestry Reference Group, November 2003. Unpublished report for the North East Forest Alliance, Grafton.
NPWS. 1994a Fauna of North-east NSW Forests. North East Forests Biodiversity Study Report No.3, unpublished report, NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service
NPWS. 1994b Flora of North-east NSW Forests. North East Forests Biodiversity Study Report No.4, unpublished report, NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service
NPWS. 1996 Conservation Protocols for timber harvesting on State Forests for the duration of the IFA decision. NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service, State Forests of NSW and Department of Urban Affairs and Planning, 29 November 1996.
NPWS. 1998a. Review of protective measures and forest practices. Unpublished report prepared by the New South Wales National Parks and Wildlife Service, July 1998.
NPWS. 1998b Vertebrate Fauna Survey. A project undertaken for the Joint Commonwealth NSW Regional Forest Agreement Steering Committee as part of the NSW Comprehensive Regional Assessments project number NA 01/EH. Unpublished report.
NPWS. 1998c. Target Analysis Macro. Unpublished spreadsheet provided to stakeholders for target analysis during negotiations on the Comprehensive Regional Assessment process, October 1998.
NPWS. 1999a Modelling areas of habitat significance for the vertebrate fauna and vascular flora of north-east NSW. A project undertaken as part of the NSW Comprehensive Regional Assessments project number NA 23/EH. Unpublished report.
NPWS 1999b JANIS Conservation Requirements for North East New South Wales. Unpublished report undertaken for the NSW CRA/RFA Steering Committee project numbers NA 59/EH.
NPWS. 1999c. Informal presentation to the National Parks Association. March 1999.
NPWS. 1999d Oldgrowth forest related projects-Upper North East and Lower North East CRA regions. Unpublished report undertaken for the NSW CRA/RFA Steering Committee project numbers NA 28/EH.
NPWS 2002 Threatened Species of the Upper North Coast of New South Wales, Fauna. National Parks and Wildlife Service, Sydney.
NSW and Commonwealth Governments. 1999 North-east New South Wales CRA/RFA Project Summaries. Unpublished report.
NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service. 1995 Vertebrates of Upper North East New South Wales. Report to the Natural Resources Audit Council.
NPWS. 2001 C-Plan Conservation Planning Software User Manual (For C-Plan Version 3.06). Unpublished manual, April 12th 2001.
Pianka, E. and Schall, J. 1984. Species densities of Australian vertebrates. In Vertebrate Zoogeography and evolution in Australasia, animals in space and time, eds. M. Archer and G. Clayton. Hesperian Press, Carlisle, West. Aust. pp 119-124.
PLUC 1997 Options for the Tasmania-Commonwealth Regional Forest Agreement: a strategic approach. Public Land Use Commission, Hobart
Pressey, R.L., Ferrier, S., Hager, T.C., Woods, C.A., Tully, S.L., and Weinman, K.M. 1996. How well protected are the forests of north-eastern New South Wales?-analyses of forest environments in relation to formal protection measures, land tenure, and vulnerability to clearing. Forest Ecoogy. and Management 85; 311-333.
Pressey, R.L., Ferrier, S., Hutchinson, C.D., Sivertsen, D.P. and Manion, G., 1995. Planning for negotiation: using an interactive geographic information system to explore alternative protected area networks. Pp. 23-33 in Nature Conservation: the Role of Networks, edited by D.A. Saunders, J.L., Craig and E.M. Mattiske. Surrey Beatty and Sons, Chipping Norton, NSW.
Pressey, R.L., Johnson, I.R. and Wilson, P.D. 1994. Shades of irreplaceability: towards a measure of the contribution of sites to a reservation goal. Biodiversity and Conservation 3, 242-262.
Private Native Forestry Reference Group. 2002 Report on Private Native Forestry Exemption Review. Unpublished Report to Minister for Land and Water Conservation, NSW, September 2002.
Pugh, D. 1993. Why the Forestry EIS process has failed. National Parks Journal, 37(5):23-6.
Pugh, D. 1998 Establishing a CARR reserve system in north-east NSW. Unpublished report for the North East Forest Alliance 35pp.
Pugh, D. and Flint, C. 1999 The Magic Pudding, the Cut-an'-Come-Again Forests, A preliminary appraisal of State Forests' Forest Resource and Management System (FRAMES). Unpublished report for the North East Forest Alliance. 174pp.
RAC - Resource Assessment Commission. 1992 Forest and Timber Inquiry, Final Report, Volume 1. Australian Government Publishing Service.
RACAC. 1996a Draft Interim Forestry Assessment Report. Resource and Conservation Assessment Council, June 1996, Sydney.
RACAC. 1996b Broad Old Growth Mapping Project: Final Report. Unpublished report prepared by NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service for the Resource and Conservation Assessment Council.
RACAC. 1996c. The negotiations: stakeholders get together on forests. RACAC News. May 1996. Issue No 3.
Scotts, D. and Drielsma, M. 2003. Developing landscape frameworks for regional conservation planning; an approach integrating fauna spatial distributions and ecological principles. Pacific Conservation Biology 8: 235-54.
Smith, A. 2001 Guidelines for Sustainable Forestry on Private Lands in NSW. Draft unpublished report to the Department of Land and Water Conservation.
Sigley, R. 1998. Possible RFA Outcomes, the Northern Rivers Experience. Unpublished letter from Northern Rivers Sales Manager of State Forests of New South Wales to Tim Parkes, Forest Resources.
State Forests. 1998a Report on Analysis Strategy for the FRAMES Net Area Study - Upper North East & Lower North East CRA Regions. Unpublished report by State Forests of New South Wales provided for RFA negotiations.
State Forests. 1998b Strategic Inventory Interim Report 31/8/98. Unpublished report by State Forests of New South Wales provided for RFA negotiations.
State Forests. 1998c. Combined State Database UNE & Combined State Database LNE. Unpublished spreadsheet by State Forests of New South Wales provided for RFA negotiations as part of Native Forest Yield Simulator program.
State Forests. 1998d Yield Simulator: CRA Project Proposal. Unpublished proposal by State Forests of New South Wales provided to the FRAMES Technical Committee.
State Forests. 1998e FRAMES NSW Native Forest Yield Simulator Reference Documentation. Unpublished report by State Forests of New South Wales provided for RFA negotiations.
State Forests. 1998f Resources Profile for the Upper and Lower North East RFA Areas. Unpublished report by State Forests of New South Wales provided for RFA negotiations.
State Forests. 2003. Unpublished briefing note to the Forestry Board. March 2003.
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