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Balancing the needs of conservation, industry and policy (regulation) is laden with complications for land managers and legal professionals. Designing legislation, a rigid system, to manage natural systems, which are in constant flux, imposes conflicting demands and can lead to unexpected and not always desirable outcomes for land management and conservation. In some cases, legislation that is designed to protect biodiversity can create a confounding outcome and may contribute by its implementation, as a threatening process or create an inadequate conservation result. This chapter outlines some of the difficulties of trying to balance conservation in a legislative framework using the Integrated Forestry Operations Approvals (IFOA) Threatened Species Licence (TSL) process in NSW. Several problems have arisen since the implementation of the IFOA TSL that need to be resolved to improve forest management. Habitat models which underpin the requirements of the TSL need refining, management emphasis needs to shift from records-based to landscape - community level and survey requirements need adjustment to improve conservation outcomes. A considerable number of improvements are required to the TSL to deliver the best conservation outcome for flora and fauna in New South Wales

Anon. 1992 National Forest Policy Statement: A New Focus for Australia's Forests. Commonwealth of Australia, Advance Press, Perth.
Arcese, P. and Sinclair, A.R.E. 1997. The role of protected areas as ecological baselines. Journal of Wildlife Management 61: 587-602.
Barrett, G. and Silcocks, A. 2002 Comparison of the first and second Atlas of Australian Birds to determine the conservation status of woodland-dependent and other bird species in New South Wales over the last 20 years. Unpublished Report by Birds Australia.
Burgman, M. A. 2002. Turner Review No. 5: Are listed threatened plant species actually at risk? Australian Journal of Botany 50: 1-13.
Brunton, R. 1995. The perils of the precautionary principle. Australian Biotechnology 4:236-238.
Catling, P. 1991. Ecological effects of prescribed burning practices on the mammals of south-eastern Australia. Pp. 353-364 in Conservation of Australia's Forest Fauna, edited by D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Christensen, P. 1998. The precautionary principle and grazing, burning and medium sized mammals in northern New South Wales. Australian Forestry 61: 195-203.
Cockburn, A. 1978. The distribution of Pseudomys shortridgei (MURIDAE: Rodentia) and its relevance to that of other Heathland Pseudomys.Australian Wildlife Research. 5: 213-219.
Cockburn, A. 1981. Population regulation and dispersion of the smoky mouse, Pseudomys fumeus: II Spring decline, breeding success and habitat heterogeneity. Australian Journal of Ecology 6: 255-266
Cogger, H., Sadlier, R., Cameron, E. 1983 The Terrestrial Reptiles of Australia's Island Territories. Special Publication 11, Australian National Parks and Wildlife Service, Canberra.
Ellis, W.A.H, Sullivan, B.J., Lisle, A.T. and Carrick, F.N. 1998. The spatial and temporal distribution of koala faecal pellets. Wildlife Research 25: 663-668.
Ellis, W., Carrick, F., Lundgren, P., Veary, A. and Cohen, B. 2000. The use of faecal cuticle examination to determine the dietary composition of koalas. Australian Zoologist 31: 127-133.
Flannery, T. 2003. Beautiful Lies: Population and Environment in Australia. Quarterly Essays 9: 1-73.
Fox, B.J, Higgs, P. and Luo, J. 1993. Extension of the breeding season of New Holland Mouse: a response to above-average rainfall. Wildlife Research 20: 599-606.
Gross, C. 1999. Field surveys to determine the locations and distribution of the threatened plant Olearia flocktoniae, 1999. Unpublished report to NSW NPWS.
Gross, C. 2000. Field surveys to determine the locations and distribution of the threatened plant Olearia flocktoniae, 2000. Unpublished report to NSW NPWS.
Hey, E. 1992. The precautionary principle concept in environmental policy and law: institutionalising caution. The Georgetown International Environmental Law Review 4: 303-318.
Holling, C.S. and Meffe, G.K. 1996. Command and control and the pathology of natural resource management. Conservation Biology 10: 328-337.
King, G.C and Chapman, B. 1983. Rediscovery of the Hastings River Rat. Forest and Timber 19: 19.
King, G.C. 1984. Habitat utilised by Pseudomys oralis THOMAS (RODENTIA: MURIDAE). Australian Mammalogy 7: 139-147.
Kirkpatrick, T.H. 1995. Hastings River Mouse Pseudomys oralis. P614-15 in. The Mammals of Australia, edited by R. Strahan. Reed Books, Chatswood, NSW.
Law, B.S. 2004. Challenges for managing bats in the State Forests of New South Wales. Pp. 748-60 in Conservation of Australia's Forest Fauna (second edition), edited by D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Mackay, D. and Gross, C.L. 1998. The population structure of the endangered shrub Olearia flocktoniae (Dorrigo Daisy), across its natural distribution. Unpublished Report to NSW NPWS.
Mackay, D. and Gross, CL. 2001. Field surveys to determine the locations and distribution of the threatened plant Olearia flocktoniae, 2001. Unpublished report to NSW NPWS.
Mackay, D. and Gross, C.L. 2002. Field surveys to determine the locations and distribution of the threatened plant Olearia flocktoniae, 2002. Unpublished report to NSW NPWS.
Meek, P.D. 1999. A record of Hastings River Mouse Pseudomys oralis in a fox Vulpes vulpes scat from New South Wales. Proceedings of the Linnean Society 121: 193-197.
Meek, P.D. 2002a. Radio Tracking and Spool-and-line Study of the Hastings River Mouse Pseudomys oralis (MURIDAE) in Marengo State Forest, NSW. State Forests NSW Unpublished Report.
Meek, P.D. 2002b. The nest of the Hastings River Mouse Pseudomys oralis.Australian Mammalogy 24: 225-227.
Meek, P.D., McCray, K. and Cann, B. 2003. New records of Pseudomys oralis from State Forest pre-logging Surveys. Australian Mammalogy 25: 101-105.
NSW National Parks & Wildlife Service. 1999. Modelling areas of habitat significance for vertebrate fauna and vascular flora in North East NSW. Unpublished report NSW Comprehensive Regional Assessment project number NA 23/EH.
NSW National Parks & Wildlife Service 2003. Draft Recovery Plan for the Hastings River Mouse, Pseudomys oralis. NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service, Hurstville.
Pearce, J, and Ferrier, S. 2000. Evaluating the predictive performance of habitat models developed using logistic regression. Ecological Modelling 133: 225-245.
Read, D.G. 1993a. Prescriptions for the identification of habitats of the Hastings River Mouse Pseudomys oralis.Forestry Commission NSW Technical Paper No. 58.
Read, D.G. 1993b. Body size in Hastings River Mouse Pseudomys oralis from old and new locations. Australian Zoologist 29: 117-23.
Shields, J. 2004. Wildlife management in New South Wales public forests: a personal history 1974-2004. Pp. 1039-54 in Conservation of Australia's Forest Fauna (second edition), edited by D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Smith, A.P. and Quin, D.G. 1997. Microhabitat requirements of the Hastings River Mouse ( Pseudomys oralis) (Rodentia: Muridae). Unpublished report to the Hastings River Mouse Recovery Team. AUSTECO Environmental Consultants.
Tasker, E. M. and Dickman, C. R. 2004. Small mammal community composition in relation to cattle grazing and associated burning in eucalypt forests of the Northern Tablelands of New South Wales. Pp. 721-40 in Conservation of Australia's Forest Fauna (second edition), edited by D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Townley, S. 2000. The ecology of the Hastings River Mouse Pseudomys oralis in North eastern NSW and Queensland. PhD Thesis, Southern Cross University.
Tweedie, T.D. and York, A. 1993 Survey Guidelines for the Hastings River Mouse (Pseudomys oralis), Forestry Commission of NSW Technical Paper No. 62: Forestry Commission of NSW, Sydney.
Walters, C.J. 1986 Adaptive management of renewable resources. Macmillan, New York, N.Y.
Walters, C.J. and Holling, C.S. 1990. Large-scale management experiments and learning by doing. Ecology 71: 2060-2068.
Warner, F. 1994. What if? Versus if it ain't broke, why fix it? Pp 102-107. in Interpreting the Precautionary Principle edited by T. O'Riordan and J. Cameron. Earthscan Publications, London.
Watts, C.H.S, and Aslin, H.J. 1981 The Rodents of Australia. Angus and Robertson, Australia.
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References

Anon. 1992 National Forest Policy Statement: A New Focus for Australia's Forests. Commonwealth of Australia, Advance Press, Perth.
Arcese, P. and Sinclair, A.R.E. 1997. The role of protected areas as ecological baselines. Journal of Wildlife Management 61: 587-602.
Barrett, G. and Silcocks, A. 2002 Comparison of the first and second Atlas of Australian Birds to determine the conservation status of woodland-dependent and other bird species in New South Wales over the last 20 years. Unpublished Report by Birds Australia.
Burgman, M. A. 2002. Turner Review No. 5: Are listed threatened plant species actually at risk? Australian Journal of Botany 50: 1-13.
Brunton, R. 1995. The perils of the precautionary principle. Australian Biotechnology 4:236-238.
Catling, P. 1991. Ecological effects of prescribed burning practices on the mammals of south-eastern Australia. Pp. 353-364 in Conservation of Australia's Forest Fauna, edited by D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Christensen, P. 1998. The precautionary principle and grazing, burning and medium sized mammals in northern New South Wales. Australian Forestry 61: 195-203.
Cockburn, A. 1978. The distribution of Pseudomys shortridgei (MURIDAE: Rodentia) and its relevance to that of other Heathland Pseudomys.Australian Wildlife Research. 5: 213-219.
Cockburn, A. 1981. Population regulation and dispersion of the smoky mouse, Pseudomys fumeus: II Spring decline, breeding success and habitat heterogeneity. Australian Journal of Ecology 6: 255-266
Cogger, H., Sadlier, R., Cameron, E. 1983 The Terrestrial Reptiles of Australia's Island Territories. Special Publication 11, Australian National Parks and Wildlife Service, Canberra.
Ellis, W.A.H, Sullivan, B.J., Lisle, A.T. and Carrick, F.N. 1998. The spatial and temporal distribution of koala faecal pellets. Wildlife Research 25: 663-668.
Ellis, W., Carrick, F., Lundgren, P., Veary, A. and Cohen, B. 2000. The use of faecal cuticle examination to determine the dietary composition of koalas. Australian Zoologist 31: 127-133.
Flannery, T. 2003. Beautiful Lies: Population and Environment in Australia. Quarterly Essays 9: 1-73.
Fox, B.J, Higgs, P. and Luo, J. 1993. Extension of the breeding season of New Holland Mouse: a response to above-average rainfall. Wildlife Research 20: 599-606.
Gross, C. 1999. Field surveys to determine the locations and distribution of the threatened plant Olearia flocktoniae, 1999. Unpublished report to NSW NPWS.
Gross, C. 2000. Field surveys to determine the locations and distribution of the threatened plant Olearia flocktoniae, 2000. Unpublished report to NSW NPWS.
Hey, E. 1992. The precautionary principle concept in environmental policy and law: institutionalising caution. The Georgetown International Environmental Law Review 4: 303-318.
Holling, C.S. and Meffe, G.K. 1996. Command and control and the pathology of natural resource management. Conservation Biology 10: 328-337.
King, G.C and Chapman, B. 1983. Rediscovery of the Hastings River Rat. Forest and Timber 19: 19.
King, G.C. 1984. Habitat utilised by Pseudomys oralis THOMAS (RODENTIA: MURIDAE). Australian Mammalogy 7: 139-147.
Kirkpatrick, T.H. 1995. Hastings River Mouse Pseudomys oralis. P614-15 in. The Mammals of Australia, edited by R. Strahan. Reed Books, Chatswood, NSW.
Law, B.S. 2004. Challenges for managing bats in the State Forests of New South Wales. Pp. 748-60 in Conservation of Australia's Forest Fauna (second edition), edited by D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Mackay, D. and Gross, C.L. 1998. The population structure of the endangered shrub Olearia flocktoniae (Dorrigo Daisy), across its natural distribution. Unpublished Report to NSW NPWS.
Mackay, D. and Gross, CL. 2001. Field surveys to determine the locations and distribution of the threatened plant Olearia flocktoniae, 2001. Unpublished report to NSW NPWS.
Mackay, D. and Gross, C.L. 2002. Field surveys to determine the locations and distribution of the threatened plant Olearia flocktoniae, 2002. Unpublished report to NSW NPWS.
Meek, P.D. 1999. A record of Hastings River Mouse Pseudomys oralis in a fox Vulpes vulpes scat from New South Wales. Proceedings of the Linnean Society 121: 193-197.
Meek, P.D. 2002a. Radio Tracking and Spool-and-line Study of the Hastings River Mouse Pseudomys oralis (MURIDAE) in Marengo State Forest, NSW. State Forests NSW Unpublished Report.
Meek, P.D. 2002b. The nest of the Hastings River Mouse Pseudomys oralis.Australian Mammalogy 24: 225-227.
Meek, P.D., McCray, K. and Cann, B. 2003. New records of Pseudomys oralis from State Forest pre-logging Surveys. Australian Mammalogy 25: 101-105.
NSW National Parks & Wildlife Service. 1999. Modelling areas of habitat significance for vertebrate fauna and vascular flora in North East NSW. Unpublished report NSW Comprehensive Regional Assessment project number NA 23/EH.
NSW National Parks & Wildlife Service 2003. Draft Recovery Plan for the Hastings River Mouse, Pseudomys oralis. NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service, Hurstville.
Pearce, J, and Ferrier, S. 2000. Evaluating the predictive performance of habitat models developed using logistic regression. Ecological Modelling 133: 225-245.
Read, D.G. 1993a. Prescriptions for the identification of habitats of the Hastings River Mouse Pseudomys oralis.Forestry Commission NSW Technical Paper No. 58.
Read, D.G. 1993b. Body size in Hastings River Mouse Pseudomys oralis from old and new locations. Australian Zoologist 29: 117-23.
Shields, J. 2004. Wildlife management in New South Wales public forests: a personal history 1974-2004. Pp. 1039-54 in Conservation of Australia's Forest Fauna (second edition), edited by D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Smith, A.P. and Quin, D.G. 1997. Microhabitat requirements of the Hastings River Mouse ( Pseudomys oralis) (Rodentia: Muridae). Unpublished report to the Hastings River Mouse Recovery Team. AUSTECO Environmental Consultants.
Tasker, E. M. and Dickman, C. R. 2004. Small mammal community composition in relation to cattle grazing and associated burning in eucalypt forests of the Northern Tablelands of New South Wales. Pp. 721-40 in Conservation of Australia's Forest Fauna (second edition), edited by D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Townley, S. 2000. The ecology of the Hastings River Mouse Pseudomys oralis in North eastern NSW and Queensland. PhD Thesis, Southern Cross University.
Tweedie, T.D. and York, A. 1993 Survey Guidelines for the Hastings River Mouse (Pseudomys oralis), Forestry Commission of NSW Technical Paper No. 62: Forestry Commission of NSW, Sydney.
Walters, C.J. 1986 Adaptive management of renewable resources. Macmillan, New York, N.Y.
Walters, C.J. and Holling, C.S. 1990. Large-scale management experiments and learning by doing. Ecology 71: 2060-2068.
Warner, F. 1994. What if? Versus if it ain't broke, why fix it? Pp 102-107. in Interpreting the Precautionary Principle edited by T. O'Riordan and J. Cameron. Earthscan Publications, London.
Watts, C.H.S, and Aslin, H.J. 1981 The Rodents of Australia. Angus and Robertson, Australia.
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