Skip to Main Content
Skip Nav Destination

The forests of New South Wales (NSW) contain a diverse fauna of frogs and reptiles (herpetofauna) with approximately 139 species occurring in forests and around 59 species that are forest-dependent. Prior to 1991, this fauna group received scant attention in research or forest management. However, legislative and policy changes in the early 1990s have largely reversed this situation. This review documents the changes in forest management that now require closer attention be given to the requirements of forest herpetofauna. We also provide an overview of research that contributes to a greater understanding of the management requirements of forest-dependent species. The introduction of theEndangered Fauna (Interim Protection) Act 1991 in NSW led to the need for comprehensive surveys of all forest vertebrate wildlife and detailed consideration of potential impacts on forest species listed as endangered by this Act. This process was replaced in 1995 by Comprehensive Regional Assessments (CRAs) in States with timber industries under the National Forest Policy Statement. Herpetofauna featured prominently in this process overall, though poorly in the southeast (Eden) region of NSW. The CRA process culminated in the identification of areas to comprise a Comprehensive, Adequate and Representative system of reserves. Workshops with fauna experts were conducted to select habitat areas for reservation that aimed to conserve viable populations of priority species. Herpetofauna in two of four regional areas fared poorly compared to birds and mammals. In order to achieve Ecologically Sustainable Forest Management, as required under the National Forest Policy, forest management within areas remaining as production forest must establish conservation protocols that aim to minimise potential impacts on threatened species. Although such management is a substantial improvement on the situation pre-1991, its effectiveness rests with how appropriate individual protocols may be. This cannot be determined currently so we strongly urge research and monitoring to resolve this issue.

Research on forest-dependent herpetofauna has been slow to respond to the challenge of providing insights to management but has gathered pace in the last six years. Only a small number of species have been targeted to any degree. It is inappropriate to assume that if species are now largely confined to protected areas that they are adequately conserved. Many forest reserves are now more likely to be subject to wildfire because of the change in forest management practices and the resources available to manage fire. An increase in the recreational use of the new reserves may also have an impact on the quality of some key habitats if not managed appropriately. Because the ecology of herpetofauna is intimately associated with temperature profiles, many species may be vulnerable to predicted climate change. We believe there is a need for a substantial increase in research so that forest-dependent herpetofauna can be adequately conserved in NSW.

Anstis, M. 2002 Tadpoles of South-eastern Australia; a guide with keys. Reed New Holland, Sydney.
Austeco. 1994 Description and assessment of forestry impacts on fauna of the Urbenville Management Area. Prepared for the State Forests of NSW.
Barker, J., Grigg G C, and M. J. Tyler. 1995 A field guide to Australian frogs. Surrey Beatty & Sons, Chipping Norton, NSW.
Blaustein, A.R. and Wake, D.B. 1990. Declining amphibian populations: a global phenomenon? Trends in Ecology and Evolution 5: 203-4.
Brown, G.W. and Nelson, J.L. 1993. Influence of successional stage of Eucalyptus regnans (Mountain Ash) on habitat use by repotiles in the central highlands, Victoria. Australian Journal of Ecology 18: 405-17.
Brown, G.W. and Nicholls, A.O. 1993. Comparative census techniques and modelling of habitat utilization by reptiles in northern Victoria. Pp. 283-90. In Herpetology in Australia: a diverse discipline edited by D. Lunney and D. Ayers. Transactions of the Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Brown, D., Hines, H., Ferrier, S. and K. McKay. 2000 Establishment of a biological information base for regional conservation planning in north-east New South Wales. Occasional Paper No 26. National Parks and Wildlife Service, Hurstville.
Brown, G. W. 2001. The influence of habitat disturbance on reptiles in a Box-Ironbark eucalypt forest of south-eastern Australia. Biodiversity and Conservation 10: 161-76.
Clancy, G.P. 1992. Fauna Survey, Wingham Management Area, Port Macquarie Region. Part 3. Reptiles and Amphibians. Forest Resources Series No. 21.
Cogger, H. G. 2000 Reptiles & Amphibians of Australia. 6th Edition. Reed New Holland, Sydney.
Commonwealth of Australia. 1997 Nationally agreed criteria for the establishment of a comprehensive, adequate and representative reserve system for forest in Australia. A report by the joint ANZECC/MCFFA National Forest Policy Statement Implementation Sub-committee, Commonwealth of Australia, Canberra.
CSIRO. 1995 Murwillumbah Management Area, Fauna Survey. Prepared for the State Forests of NSW.
Daly, G., Pennay, M., and D. Coombes. 2002. Surveys for the Stuttering frog Mixophyes balbus on the south coast of New South Wales. Herpetofauna 32(2), 110-20.
Davey, S. M., Hoare, J.R.L. and K.E. Rumba. 2002. Science and its role in Australian regional forest agreements. International Forestry Review 4(1):39-55.
Donnellan, S., Adams, M., Hutchinson, M., and P.R. Baverstock. 1993. The identification of cryptic species in the Australian herpetofauna: a high research priority. Pp 121-26. In Herpetology in Australia: a diverse discipline edited by D. Lunney and D. Ayers. Transactions of the Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman NSW.
Donnellan, S., McGuigan, K., Knowles, R., Mahony, M. and C. Moritz. 1999. Genetic evidence for species boundaries in frogs of the Litoria citropa species-group (Anura: Hylidae). Australian Journal of Zoology 47: 275-293.
Downes S. 1999. Prey odour influences retreat-site selection by naive broadheaded snakes ( Hoplocephalus bungaroides). Journal of Herpetology 33, 156-159.
Downes S and R. Shine. 1998a. Heat, safety or solitude? Using habitat selection experiments to identify a lizard's priorities. Animal Behaviour 55, 1387-1396.
Downes S and R. Shine. 1998b. Sedentary snakes and gullible geckos: predator-prey coevolution in nocturnal rockd-welling reptiles. Animal Behaviour 55, 1373-1385.
Ecotone. 1994 Fauna Survey of the Gloucester and Chichester Management Areas. Prepared for the State Forests of NSW.
Ehmann, H. 1997 Threatened frogs of New South Wales: habitats, status and conservation. Frog and Tadpole Study Group of NSW: South Sydney, Australian Heritage Commission, NSW Department of Urban Affairs & Planning.
Fanning, F.D. 1995 Native Fauna of the Tenterfield Management Area. Gunninah Consultants. Prepared for the State Forests of NSW.
Ferrier, S. and G. Watson. 1997 An evaluation of the effectiveness of environmental surrogates and modelling techniques in predicting the distribution of biological diversity. Environment Australia, Canberra.
Ferrier, S., Drielsma, M., Manion, G. and G. Watson. 2002. Extended statistical approaches to modelling spatial pattern in biodiversity in northeast New South Wales. I. Species-level modelling. Biodiversity and Conservation 11: 2275-2307.
Fischer, J. Lindenmayer, D. and A. Cowling. 2003. Habitat models for the four-fingered skink ( Carlia tetradactyla) at the microhabitat and landscape scale. Wildlife Research 30: 495-504.
Fitzgerald M, Shine R, and F. Lemckert. 2002a. Radiotelemetric study of habitat use by the arboreal snake Hoplocephalus stephensii (Elapidae) in eastern Australia. Copeia, 321-332.
Fitzgerald M, Shine R, and F. Lemckert. 2002b. Spatial ecology of arboreal snakes ( Hoplocephalus stephensii, Elapidae) in an eastern Australian forest. Austral Ecology 27: 537-45.
Fitzgerald M, Shine R, and F. Lemckert. 2003. A reluctant heliotherm: thermal ecology of the arboreal snake Hoplocephalus stephensii (Elapidae) in dense forest. Journal of Thermal Biology 28, 515-524.
Gillespie, G. 2001. The role of introduced trout in the decline of the spotted tree frog ( Litoria spenceri) in south-eastern Australia. Biological Conservation 100: 187-98.
Gillespie, G. and Hero, J.M. 1999. Potential Impacts of Introduced Fish and Fish Translocations on Australian Amphibians. Pp131-44. In Declines and Disappearances of Australian Frogs, edited by A. Campbell. Environment Australia, Canberra.
Gillespie, G. and Hines, H. 1999. Status of temperate riverine frogs in south-eastern Australia. Pp. 109-30 in Declines and Disappearances of Australian Frogs, edited by A. Campbell. Environment Australia, Canberra.
Gillespie, G. and Hollis, G.J. 1996. Distribution and habitat of the spotted tree frog, Litoria spenceri Dubois (Anura: Hylidae), and an assessment of potential causes of population declines. Wildlife Research 23: 49-75.
Goldingay, R.L., Daly, G. and F. Lemckert. 1996. Assessing the impacts of logging on reptiles and frogs in the montane forests of southern NSW. Wildlife Research 23: 495-510.
Goldingay, R. 1998. Between a rock and a hard place: Conserving the broad-headed snake in Australia's oldest national park. Proceedings of the Linnean Society 120: 1-10.
Goldingay, R., Newell, D. and Graham, M. 1999. Status of rainforest stream frogs in north-eastern New South Wales: decline or recovery? Pp. 64-71 in Declines and Disappearances of Australian Frogs, edited by A. Campbell. Environment Australia, Canberra.
Goldingay, R.L. and Newell D.A. 2000. Experimental rock outcrops reveal continuing habitat disturbance for an endangered Australian snake. Conservation Biology 14: 1908-1912.
Hazell, D., Cunnningham, R., Lindenmayer, D., Mackey, B. and W. Osborne 2001. Use of farm dams as frog habitat in an Australian agricultural landscape: factors affecting species richness and distribution. Biological Conservation 102(2): 155-169.
Hines, H., Mahony, M. and McDonald, K. 1999. An assessment of frog declines in wet subtropical Australia. Pp. 44-63 in Declines and Disappearances of Australian Frogs, edited by A. Campbell. Environment Australia, Canberra.
Hines, H. and Brown D. 2000. Summary of biological data and models. Pp 131-49 in Establishment of a biological information base for regional conservation planning in north-east New South Wales, edited by Brown et al. Occasional Paper No 26. National Parks and Wildlife Service, Hurstville.
Hunter, D., and Gillespie G. R. 1999. The distribution, abundance and conservation status of riverine frogs in Kosciuszko National Park. Australian Zoologist 31: 198-209.
Ingram, G.J. and McDonald, K.R., 1993. An update on the decline of Queensland's frogs. Pp 297-303. In Herpetology in Australia: a diverse discipline, edited by D. Lunney and D. Ayers. Transactions of the Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman NSW.
Kavanagh, R.P. and Webb, G.A. 1998. Effects of variable-intensity logging on mammals, reptiles and amphibians at Waratah Creek, southeastern New South Wales. Pacific Conservation Biology 4: 326-47.
Kearney, M. 2002. Hot rocks and much-too-hot rocks: seasonal patterns of retreat-site selection by a nocturnal ectotherm. Journal of Thermal Biology 27(3): 205-218.
Kearney, M. and Predavec M. 2000. Do nocturnal ectotherms thermoregulate? A study of the temperate gecko Christinus marmoratus. Ecology 81(11): 2984-2996.
Klingenbock, A., Osterwalder, K. and Shine R. 2000. Habitat use and thermal biology of the “Land mullet” Egernia major, a large Scincid lizard from remnant rainforest in southeastern Australia. Copeia (4): 931-939.
Knowles, R., Mahony, M., Armstrong, J. and Donnellan S. (in press). Systematics of sphagnum frogs of the genus Philoria (Anura: Myobatrachidae) in eastern Australia. Records of the Australian Museum.
Kutt, A. 1993. Initial observations on the effect of thinning Eucalypt regrowth on heliothermic skinks in lowland forest, East Gippsland, Victoria. Pp. 187-96 In Herpetology in Australia: a diverse discipline, edited by D. Lunney and D. Ayers. Transactions of the Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman NSW.
Langkilde, T., O'Connor, D. and Shine R. 2003. Shelter-site use by five species of montane scincid lizards in south-eastern Australia. Australian Journal of Zoology 51(2):175-86.
Lemckert, F. 1998. A survey for threatened herpetofauna of the south-west slopes of New South Wales. Australian Zoologist 30: 492-500.
Lemckert, F. 1999. Impacts of selective logging on frogs in a forested area of northern New South Wales. Biological Conservation 89:321-328.
Lemckert, F. and Morse, R. 1999. Frogs in the timber production forests of the Dorrigo escarpment in northern NSW: an inventory of species present and the conservation of threatened species. Pp. 72-80 in Declines and Disappearances of Australian Frogs, edited by A. Campbell. Environment Australia, Canberra.
Lemckert, F. 2000. Observations on the effects of fire on the hip-pocket frog, Assa darlingtoni. Herpetofauna 30(2): 32-3.
Lemckert, F. and Brassil, T. 2000. Movements and habitat use of the endangered giant barred river frog ( Mixophyes iteratus) and the implications for its conservation in timber production forests. Biological Conservation 96: 177-84.
Lemckert, F. and Slatyer, C. 2002. Short-term movements and habitat use by the threatened green thighed frog Litoria brevipalmata in mid-coastal New South Wales. Australian Zoologist 32: 56-61.
Lim, L. 1995 Fauna report. Dorrigo interim EIS. Countrywide Ecological Service. Prepared for the State Forests of NSW.
Lindenmayer, D.B., Cunningham, R.B., MacGregor, C., Tribolet, C. and Donnelly, C.F. 2001. A prospective longitudinal study of landscape matrix effects on fauna in woodland remnants: experimental design and baseline data. Biological Conservation 101: 157-69.
Lunney, D and Barker, J. 1986. Survey of the reptiles and amphibians of the coastal forests near Bega, New South Wales. Australian Zoologist 22, 1-9.
Lunney, D. (ed.) 1991 Conservation of Australia's forest fauna. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
Lunney, D., Eby, P. and O'Connell, M. 1991. Effects of logging, fire and drought on three species of lizards in Mumbulla State Forest on the south coast of New South Wales. Australian Journal of Ecology 16: 33-46.
Lunney, D. and Ayers, D. 1993. The official status of frogs and reptiles in New South Wales. Pp 404-08 In Herpetology in Australia: a diverse discipline, edited by D. Lunney and D. Ayers. Transactions of the Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman NSW.
Lunney, D., Curtin, A., Ayers, D. Cogger, H. and Dickman C.R. 1996. An ecological approach to identifying the endangered fauna of New South Wales. Pacific Conservation Biology 2(3): 212-31.
Mac Nally, R., and Brown G. W. 2001. Reptiles and habitat fragmentation in the box-ironbark forests of central Victoria, Australia: predictions, compositional change and faunal nestedness. Oecologia 128:116-125.
Mahony, M.J. 1993. The status of frogs in the Watagan Mountains area, the central coast of New South Wales. Pp 257-64 In Herpetology in Australia: a diverse discipline, edited by D. Lunney and D. Ayers. Transactions of the Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman NSW.
Manning, A. and Ehmann H. 1991. A study of the activity and behaviour of the southern angle-headed dragon using the spool tracking technique. Herpetofauna 21(1): 5-16.
McGuigan, K., McDonald, K., Parris, K. and Moritz, C. 1998. Mitochondrial DNA diversity and historical biogeography of a wet forest-restricted frog ( Litoria pearsoniana) from mid-east Australia. Molecular Ecology 7: 175-186.
Milledge, D. 1993. The herpetofauna of northeastern New South Wales forests and the forestry EIS process. Pp. 353-5 In Herpetology in Australia: a diverse discipline, edited by D. Lunney and D. Ayers. Transactions of the Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Mt King Ecological Surveys 1993 Fauna Survey of the Kempsey and Wauchope Forestry Management Areas. Prepared for the State Forests of NSW.
Murphy, M.M. and Turbill J. 1999. A new locality for the threatened Green-thighed Frog Litoria brevipalmata in coastal north-east New South Wales. Australian Zoologist 31: 225-229
NPWS 1998 Vertebrate Fauna Survey. A project undertaken for the Joint Commonwealth NSW Regional Forest Agreement Steering Committee as part of the NSW Comprehensive Regional Assessmentts. National Parks and Wildlife Service, Hurstville, NSW
Parris, K. M., and McCarthy, M. A. 1999. What influences the structure of frog assemblages at forest streams? Australian Journal of Ecology 24, 495-502.
Parris, K. M. 2001. Distribution, habitat requirements and conservation of the cascade treefrog ( Litoria pearsoniana, Anura: Hylidae). Biological Conservation 99(3): 285-292.
Pearce, J., Ferrier, S. and Scotts D. 2001. An evaluation of the predictive performance of distributional models for flora and fauna in north-east New South Wales. Journal of Environmental Management 62: 171-84.
Pringle, R. M., Webb, J. K. and Shine R. 2003. Canopy structure, microclimate, and habitat selection by a nocturnal snake, Hoplocephalus bungaroides. Ecology 84(10): 2668-2679.
Recher, H.F., Rohan-Jones, W. and Smith, P. 1980 Effects of the Eden woodchip industry on terrestrial vertebrates with recommendations for management. Forestry Commission of New South Wales Research Note No.42.
Richards, S.J., McDonald, K.R. and Alford, R.A. 1993. Declines in populations of Australia's endemic tropical rainforest frogs. Pacific Conservation Biology 1: 66-77.
Schwarzkopf, L., and Shine R. 1991. Thermal biology of reproduction in viviparous skinks, Eulamprus tympanum: why do gravid females bask more? Oecologia 88: 562-569.
Shea, G. 1993. Hidden herpetology: a list of theses in Australian universities to mid-1993. Pp. 1-15. In Herpetology in Australia: a diverse discipline, edited by D. Lunney and D. Ayers. Transactions of the Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman NSW.
Shine, R., Webb, J.K., Fitzgerald, M. and Sumner J. 1998. The impact of bush-rock removal on an endangered snake species, Hoplocephalus bungaroides. Wildlife Research 25: 285-95.
Shine, R., Barrott, E. G. and Elphick M. J. 2002. Some like it hot: effects of forest clearing on nest temperatures of montane reptiles. Ecology 83(10): 2808-15.
Smith, A.P., Andrews, S.P. and Moore, D.M. 1994 Terrestrial fauna survey of the Grafton and Casino State Forest Management Areas-description and assessment of forestry impacts, northern region State Forests of New South Wales. Prepared for the State Forests of NSW.
Swan, G., Shea, G., and Sadlier R. 2004 A field guide to reptiles of New South Wales. 2nd Edn. Reed New Holland.
Taylor, J. E. and Fox B. J. 2001. Disturbance effects from fire and mining produce different lizard communities in eastern Australian forests. Austral Ecology 26: 193-204.
Thumm, K. and Mahony M. 1997. The Red-crowned Toadlet, Pseudophryne australis. Pp143-56 In Threatened frogs of New South Wales: habitats, status and conservation, edited by H. Ehmann, Frog and Tadpole Study Group of NSW: South Sydney, Australian Heritage Commission, NSW Department of Urban Affairs & Planning.
Thumm, K. and Mahony M. 1999. Loss and Degradation of Red-crowned Toadlet Habitat in the Sydney Region. Pp 99-108 in Declines and Disappearances of Australian Frogs, edited. by A. Campbell. Environment Australia, Canberra.
Tribe, J. 1998. The law of the jungles: regional forest agreements. Environmental and Planning Law Journal 15: 136-46.
Webb, G.A. 1991. A survey of the reptiles and amphibians of Bondi State Forest and surrounding areas, near Bombala, New South Wales. Australian Zoologist 27, 14-19.
Webb, G.A. 1995. Effects of logging on lizards in eucalypt forest at Eden, New South Wales. Australian Forestry 58: 155-9.
Webb, G.A. 1999. Effectiveness of pitfall/drift-fence systems for sampling small ground-dwelling lizards and frogs in southeastern Australian forests. Australian Zoologist 31: 118-26.
Webb, J. K. and Shine R. 1997a. Out on a limb: conservation implications of tree-hollow use by a threatened snake species ( Hoplocephalus bungaroides: Serpentes, Elapidae). Biological Conservation 81: 21-33.
Webb, J. K. and Shine R. 1997b. A field study of spatial ecology and movements of a threatened snake species, Hoplocephalus bungaroides. Biological Conservation 82: 203-17.
Webb, J. K. and Shine R. 1998. Using thermal ecology to predict retreat-site selection by an endangered snake species. Biological Conservation 86(2): 233-242.
Wellington, R. and Wells, R. 1995 Reptiles and amphibians of the Morriset Management Area. Prepared for the State Forests of NSW.
White, A. 1994 Frog survey. Gloucester and Chichester Forestry Management Areas. Biosphere Ecological Consultants. Prepared for the State Forests of NSW.
York, A., Binns, D. and Shields, J. 1991 Flora and Fauna Assessment in NSW State Forests: Survey Guidelines. Version 1.1. (Forestry Commission of NSW.)
This content is PDF only. Please click on the PDF icon to access.

Contents

Figures & Tables

References

Anstis, M. 2002 Tadpoles of South-eastern Australia; a guide with keys. Reed New Holland, Sydney.
Austeco. 1994 Description and assessment of forestry impacts on fauna of the Urbenville Management Area. Prepared for the State Forests of NSW.
Barker, J., Grigg G C, and M. J. Tyler. 1995 A field guide to Australian frogs. Surrey Beatty & Sons, Chipping Norton, NSW.
Blaustein, A.R. and Wake, D.B. 1990. Declining amphibian populations: a global phenomenon? Trends in Ecology and Evolution 5: 203-4.
Brown, G.W. and Nelson, J.L. 1993. Influence of successional stage of Eucalyptus regnans (Mountain Ash) on habitat use by repotiles in the central highlands, Victoria. Australian Journal of Ecology 18: 405-17.
Brown, G.W. and Nicholls, A.O. 1993. Comparative census techniques and modelling of habitat utilization by reptiles in northern Victoria. Pp. 283-90. In Herpetology in Australia: a diverse discipline edited by D. Lunney and D. Ayers. Transactions of the Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Brown, D., Hines, H., Ferrier, S. and K. McKay. 2000 Establishment of a biological information base for regional conservation planning in north-east New South Wales. Occasional Paper No 26. National Parks and Wildlife Service, Hurstville.
Brown, G. W. 2001. The influence of habitat disturbance on reptiles in a Box-Ironbark eucalypt forest of south-eastern Australia. Biodiversity and Conservation 10: 161-76.
Clancy, G.P. 1992. Fauna Survey, Wingham Management Area, Port Macquarie Region. Part 3. Reptiles and Amphibians. Forest Resources Series No. 21.
Cogger, H. G. 2000 Reptiles & Amphibians of Australia. 6th Edition. Reed New Holland, Sydney.
Commonwealth of Australia. 1997 Nationally agreed criteria for the establishment of a comprehensive, adequate and representative reserve system for forest in Australia. A report by the joint ANZECC/MCFFA National Forest Policy Statement Implementation Sub-committee, Commonwealth of Australia, Canberra.
CSIRO. 1995 Murwillumbah Management Area, Fauna Survey. Prepared for the State Forests of NSW.
Daly, G., Pennay, M., and D. Coombes. 2002. Surveys for the Stuttering frog Mixophyes balbus on the south coast of New South Wales. Herpetofauna 32(2), 110-20.
Davey, S. M., Hoare, J.R.L. and K.E. Rumba. 2002. Science and its role in Australian regional forest agreements. International Forestry Review 4(1):39-55.
Donnellan, S., Adams, M., Hutchinson, M., and P.R. Baverstock. 1993. The identification of cryptic species in the Australian herpetofauna: a high research priority. Pp 121-26. In Herpetology in Australia: a diverse discipline edited by D. Lunney and D. Ayers. Transactions of the Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman NSW.
Donnellan, S., McGuigan, K., Knowles, R., Mahony, M. and C. Moritz. 1999. Genetic evidence for species boundaries in frogs of the Litoria citropa species-group (Anura: Hylidae). Australian Journal of Zoology 47: 275-293.
Downes S. 1999. Prey odour influences retreat-site selection by naive broadheaded snakes ( Hoplocephalus bungaroides). Journal of Herpetology 33, 156-159.
Downes S and R. Shine. 1998a. Heat, safety or solitude? Using habitat selection experiments to identify a lizard's priorities. Animal Behaviour 55, 1387-1396.
Downes S and R. Shine. 1998b. Sedentary snakes and gullible geckos: predator-prey coevolution in nocturnal rockd-welling reptiles. Animal Behaviour 55, 1373-1385.
Ecotone. 1994 Fauna Survey of the Gloucester and Chichester Management Areas. Prepared for the State Forests of NSW.
Ehmann, H. 1997 Threatened frogs of New South Wales: habitats, status and conservation. Frog and Tadpole Study Group of NSW: South Sydney, Australian Heritage Commission, NSW Department of Urban Affairs & Planning.
Fanning, F.D. 1995 Native Fauna of the Tenterfield Management Area. Gunninah Consultants. Prepared for the State Forests of NSW.
Ferrier, S. and G. Watson. 1997 An evaluation of the effectiveness of environmental surrogates and modelling techniques in predicting the distribution of biological diversity. Environment Australia, Canberra.
Ferrier, S., Drielsma, M., Manion, G. and G. Watson. 2002. Extended statistical approaches to modelling spatial pattern in biodiversity in northeast New South Wales. I. Species-level modelling. Biodiversity and Conservation 11: 2275-2307.
Fischer, J. Lindenmayer, D. and A. Cowling. 2003. Habitat models for the four-fingered skink ( Carlia tetradactyla) at the microhabitat and landscape scale. Wildlife Research 30: 495-504.
Fitzgerald M, Shine R, and F. Lemckert. 2002a. Radiotelemetric study of habitat use by the arboreal snake Hoplocephalus stephensii (Elapidae) in eastern Australia. Copeia, 321-332.
Fitzgerald M, Shine R, and F. Lemckert. 2002b. Spatial ecology of arboreal snakes ( Hoplocephalus stephensii, Elapidae) in an eastern Australian forest. Austral Ecology 27: 537-45.
Fitzgerald M, Shine R, and F. Lemckert. 2003. A reluctant heliotherm: thermal ecology of the arboreal snake Hoplocephalus stephensii (Elapidae) in dense forest. Journal of Thermal Biology 28, 515-524.
Gillespie, G. 2001. The role of introduced trout in the decline of the spotted tree frog ( Litoria spenceri) in south-eastern Australia. Biological Conservation 100: 187-98.
Gillespie, G. and Hero, J.M. 1999. Potential Impacts of Introduced Fish and Fish Translocations on Australian Amphibians. Pp131-44. In Declines and Disappearances of Australian Frogs, edited by A. Campbell. Environment Australia, Canberra.
Gillespie, G. and Hines, H. 1999. Status of temperate riverine frogs in south-eastern Australia. Pp. 109-30 in Declines and Disappearances of Australian Frogs, edited by A. Campbell. Environment Australia, Canberra.
Gillespie, G. and Hollis, G.J. 1996. Distribution and habitat of the spotted tree frog, Litoria spenceri Dubois (Anura: Hylidae), and an assessment of potential causes of population declines. Wildlife Research 23: 49-75.
Goldingay, R.L., Daly, G. and F. Lemckert. 1996. Assessing the impacts of logging on reptiles and frogs in the montane forests of southern NSW. Wildlife Research 23: 495-510.
Goldingay, R. 1998. Between a rock and a hard place: Conserving the broad-headed snake in Australia's oldest national park. Proceedings of the Linnean Society 120: 1-10.
Goldingay, R., Newell, D. and Graham, M. 1999. Status of rainforest stream frogs in north-eastern New South Wales: decline or recovery? Pp. 64-71 in Declines and Disappearances of Australian Frogs, edited by A. Campbell. Environment Australia, Canberra.
Goldingay, R.L. and Newell D.A. 2000. Experimental rock outcrops reveal continuing habitat disturbance for an endangered Australian snake. Conservation Biology 14: 1908-1912.
Hazell, D., Cunnningham, R., Lindenmayer, D., Mackey, B. and W. Osborne 2001. Use of farm dams as frog habitat in an Australian agricultural landscape: factors affecting species richness and distribution. Biological Conservation 102(2): 155-169.
Hines, H., Mahony, M. and McDonald, K. 1999. An assessment of frog declines in wet subtropical Australia. Pp. 44-63 in Declines and Disappearances of Australian Frogs, edited by A. Campbell. Environment Australia, Canberra.
Hines, H. and Brown D. 2000. Summary of biological data and models. Pp 131-49 in Establishment of a biological information base for regional conservation planning in north-east New South Wales, edited by Brown et al. Occasional Paper No 26. National Parks and Wildlife Service, Hurstville.
Hunter, D., and Gillespie G. R. 1999. The distribution, abundance and conservation status of riverine frogs in Kosciuszko National Park. Australian Zoologist 31: 198-209.
Ingram, G.J. and McDonald, K.R., 1993. An update on the decline of Queensland's frogs. Pp 297-303. In Herpetology in Australia: a diverse discipline, edited by D. Lunney and D. Ayers. Transactions of the Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman NSW.
Kavanagh, R.P. and Webb, G.A. 1998. Effects of variable-intensity logging on mammals, reptiles and amphibians at Waratah Creek, southeastern New South Wales. Pacific Conservation Biology 4: 326-47.
Kearney, M. 2002. Hot rocks and much-too-hot rocks: seasonal patterns of retreat-site selection by a nocturnal ectotherm. Journal of Thermal Biology 27(3): 205-218.
Kearney, M. and Predavec M. 2000. Do nocturnal ectotherms thermoregulate? A study of the temperate gecko Christinus marmoratus. Ecology 81(11): 2984-2996.
Klingenbock, A., Osterwalder, K. and Shine R. 2000. Habitat use and thermal biology of the “Land mullet” Egernia major, a large Scincid lizard from remnant rainforest in southeastern Australia. Copeia (4): 931-939.
Knowles, R., Mahony, M., Armstrong, J. and Donnellan S. (in press). Systematics of sphagnum frogs of the genus Philoria (Anura: Myobatrachidae) in eastern Australia. Records of the Australian Museum.
Kutt, A. 1993. Initial observations on the effect of thinning Eucalypt regrowth on heliothermic skinks in lowland forest, East Gippsland, Victoria. Pp. 187-96 In Herpetology in Australia: a diverse discipline, edited by D. Lunney and D. Ayers. Transactions of the Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman NSW.
Langkilde, T., O'Connor, D. and Shine R. 2003. Shelter-site use by five species of montane scincid lizards in south-eastern Australia. Australian Journal of Zoology 51(2):175-86.
Lemckert, F. 1998. A survey for threatened herpetofauna of the south-west slopes of New South Wales. Australian Zoologist 30: 492-500.
Lemckert, F. 1999. Impacts of selective logging on frogs in a forested area of northern New South Wales. Biological Conservation 89:321-328.
Lemckert, F. and Morse, R. 1999. Frogs in the timber production forests of the Dorrigo escarpment in northern NSW: an inventory of species present and the conservation of threatened species. Pp. 72-80 in Declines and Disappearances of Australian Frogs, edited by A. Campbell. Environment Australia, Canberra.
Lemckert, F. 2000. Observations on the effects of fire on the hip-pocket frog, Assa darlingtoni. Herpetofauna 30(2): 32-3.
Lemckert, F. and Brassil, T. 2000. Movements and habitat use of the endangered giant barred river frog ( Mixophyes iteratus) and the implications for its conservation in timber production forests. Biological Conservation 96: 177-84.
Lemckert, F. and Slatyer, C. 2002. Short-term movements and habitat use by the threatened green thighed frog Litoria brevipalmata in mid-coastal New South Wales. Australian Zoologist 32: 56-61.
Lim, L. 1995 Fauna report. Dorrigo interim EIS. Countrywide Ecological Service. Prepared for the State Forests of NSW.
Lindenmayer, D.B., Cunningham, R.B., MacGregor, C., Tribolet, C. and Donnelly, C.F. 2001. A prospective longitudinal study of landscape matrix effects on fauna in woodland remnants: experimental design and baseline data. Biological Conservation 101: 157-69.
Lunney, D and Barker, J. 1986. Survey of the reptiles and amphibians of the coastal forests near Bega, New South Wales. Australian Zoologist 22, 1-9.
Lunney, D. (ed.) 1991 Conservation of Australia's forest fauna. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
Lunney, D., Eby, P. and O'Connell, M. 1991. Effects of logging, fire and drought on three species of lizards in Mumbulla State Forest on the south coast of New South Wales. Australian Journal of Ecology 16: 33-46.
Lunney, D. and Ayers, D. 1993. The official status of frogs and reptiles in New South Wales. Pp 404-08 In Herpetology in Australia: a diverse discipline, edited by D. Lunney and D. Ayers. Transactions of the Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman NSW.
Lunney, D., Curtin, A., Ayers, D. Cogger, H. and Dickman C.R. 1996. An ecological approach to identifying the endangered fauna of New South Wales. Pacific Conservation Biology 2(3): 212-31.
Mac Nally, R., and Brown G. W. 2001. Reptiles and habitat fragmentation in the box-ironbark forests of central Victoria, Australia: predictions, compositional change and faunal nestedness. Oecologia 128:116-125.
Mahony, M.J. 1993. The status of frogs in the Watagan Mountains area, the central coast of New South Wales. Pp 257-64 In Herpetology in Australia: a diverse discipline, edited by D. Lunney and D. Ayers. Transactions of the Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman NSW.
Manning, A. and Ehmann H. 1991. A study of the activity and behaviour of the southern angle-headed dragon using the spool tracking technique. Herpetofauna 21(1): 5-16.
McGuigan, K., McDonald, K., Parris, K. and Moritz, C. 1998. Mitochondrial DNA diversity and historical biogeography of a wet forest-restricted frog ( Litoria pearsoniana) from mid-east Australia. Molecular Ecology 7: 175-186.
Milledge, D. 1993. The herpetofauna of northeastern New South Wales forests and the forestry EIS process. Pp. 353-5 In Herpetology in Australia: a diverse discipline, edited by D. Lunney and D. Ayers. Transactions of the Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Mt King Ecological Surveys 1993 Fauna Survey of the Kempsey and Wauchope Forestry Management Areas. Prepared for the State Forests of NSW.
Murphy, M.M. and Turbill J. 1999. A new locality for the threatened Green-thighed Frog Litoria brevipalmata in coastal north-east New South Wales. Australian Zoologist 31: 225-229
NPWS 1998 Vertebrate Fauna Survey. A project undertaken for the Joint Commonwealth NSW Regional Forest Agreement Steering Committee as part of the NSW Comprehensive Regional Assessmentts. National Parks and Wildlife Service, Hurstville, NSW
Parris, K. M., and McCarthy, M. A. 1999. What influences the structure of frog assemblages at forest streams? Australian Journal of Ecology 24, 495-502.
Parris, K. M. 2001. Distribution, habitat requirements and conservation of the cascade treefrog ( Litoria pearsoniana, Anura: Hylidae). Biological Conservation 99(3): 285-292.
Pearce, J., Ferrier, S. and Scotts D. 2001. An evaluation of the predictive performance of distributional models for flora and fauna in north-east New South Wales. Journal of Environmental Management 62: 171-84.
Pringle, R. M., Webb, J. K. and Shine R. 2003. Canopy structure, microclimate, and habitat selection by a nocturnal snake, Hoplocephalus bungaroides. Ecology 84(10): 2668-2679.
Recher, H.F., Rohan-Jones, W. and Smith, P. 1980 Effects of the Eden woodchip industry on terrestrial vertebrates with recommendations for management. Forestry Commission of New South Wales Research Note No.42.
Richards, S.J., McDonald, K.R. and Alford, R.A. 1993. Declines in populations of Australia's endemic tropical rainforest frogs. Pacific Conservation Biology 1: 66-77.
Schwarzkopf, L., and Shine R. 1991. Thermal biology of reproduction in viviparous skinks, Eulamprus tympanum: why do gravid females bask more? Oecologia 88: 562-569.
Shea, G. 1993. Hidden herpetology: a list of theses in Australian universities to mid-1993. Pp. 1-15. In Herpetology in Australia: a diverse discipline, edited by D. Lunney and D. Ayers. Transactions of the Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman NSW.
Shine, R., Webb, J.K., Fitzgerald, M. and Sumner J. 1998. The impact of bush-rock removal on an endangered snake species, Hoplocephalus bungaroides. Wildlife Research 25: 285-95.
Shine, R., Barrott, E. G. and Elphick M. J. 2002. Some like it hot: effects of forest clearing on nest temperatures of montane reptiles. Ecology 83(10): 2808-15.
Smith, A.P., Andrews, S.P. and Moore, D.M. 1994 Terrestrial fauna survey of the Grafton and Casino State Forest Management Areas-description and assessment of forestry impacts, northern region State Forests of New South Wales. Prepared for the State Forests of NSW.
Swan, G., Shea, G., and Sadlier R. 2004 A field guide to reptiles of New South Wales. 2nd Edn. Reed New Holland.
Taylor, J. E. and Fox B. J. 2001. Disturbance effects from fire and mining produce different lizard communities in eastern Australian forests. Austral Ecology 26: 193-204.
Thumm, K. and Mahony M. 1997. The Red-crowned Toadlet, Pseudophryne australis. Pp143-56 In Threatened frogs of New South Wales: habitats, status and conservation, edited by H. Ehmann, Frog and Tadpole Study Group of NSW: South Sydney, Australian Heritage Commission, NSW Department of Urban Affairs & Planning.
Thumm, K. and Mahony M. 1999. Loss and Degradation of Red-crowned Toadlet Habitat in the Sydney Region. Pp 99-108 in Declines and Disappearances of Australian Frogs, edited. by A. Campbell. Environment Australia, Canberra.
Tribe, J. 1998. The law of the jungles: regional forest agreements. Environmental and Planning Law Journal 15: 136-46.
Webb, G.A. 1991. A survey of the reptiles and amphibians of Bondi State Forest and surrounding areas, near Bombala, New South Wales. Australian Zoologist 27, 14-19.
Webb, G.A. 1995. Effects of logging on lizards in eucalypt forest at Eden, New South Wales. Australian Forestry 58: 155-9.
Webb, G.A. 1999. Effectiveness of pitfall/drift-fence systems for sampling small ground-dwelling lizards and frogs in southeastern Australian forests. Australian Zoologist 31: 118-26.
Webb, J. K. and Shine R. 1997a. Out on a limb: conservation implications of tree-hollow use by a threatened snake species ( Hoplocephalus bungaroides: Serpentes, Elapidae). Biological Conservation 81: 21-33.
Webb, J. K. and Shine R. 1997b. A field study of spatial ecology and movements of a threatened snake species, Hoplocephalus bungaroides. Biological Conservation 82: 203-17.
Webb, J. K. and Shine R. 1998. Using thermal ecology to predict retreat-site selection by an endangered snake species. Biological Conservation 86(2): 233-242.
Wellington, R. and Wells, R. 1995 Reptiles and amphibians of the Morriset Management Area. Prepared for the State Forests of NSW.
White, A. 1994 Frog survey. Gloucester and Chichester Forestry Management Areas. Biosphere Ecological Consultants. Prepared for the State Forests of NSW.
York, A., Binns, D. and Shields, J. 1991 Flora and Fauna Assessment in NSW State Forests: Survey Guidelines. Version 1.1. (Forestry Commission of NSW.)
Close Modal

or Create an Account

Close Modal
Close Modal