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Dry rainforest occurs throughout the wet-dry tropics as isolated patches in a matrix of savanna woodland. Dry rainforests may provide important stepping stones for migrating forest birds, resources for woodland birds, and a significant component of bird diversity in arid inland landscapes. Dry rainforest patches may provide both refuge from harsh environmental conditions and pulses of valuable resources not available in the less productive eucalypt woodland.

We investigated patterns of bird community composition and resource use in dry rainforest patches and adjacent eucalypt woodland in north Queensland. A preliminary aim was to describe the dry rainforest bird community and to then to assess the role of dry rainforest in the landscape, particularly to woodland birds.

Dry rainforest patches were found to have a distinctive bird community that rarely utilised resources in the surrounding eucalypt woodland. Thirteen bird species were characteristic of dry rainforest. Six of these were only ever recorded in dry rainforest. Woodland birds foraged in the dry rainforest, particularly during sporadic fruiting events. Bird density and species richness was higher in woodlands than dry rainforest.

Dry rainforest has a naturally patchy distribution and constitutes only 7% of the vegetation of the study region. The presence of this rainforest vegetation might buffer woodland vegetation from the long-term effects of drought by allowing the survival of bird pollinators during times of very low productivity in woodlands. Dry rainforests may also provide a refuge from fire, and resources immediately after fire when woodlands are burnt. If this unique vegetation type is to be conserved, active management is required to mitigate threats such as damage from cattle and feral pigs, weed invasion, fire and clearing.

Ash, J. 1988. The location and stability of rainforest boundaries in north-eastern Queensland, Australia. Journal of Biogeography 15:619-630.
Barker, R. and Vestjens, W. 1984 The Food of Australian Birds 2. Passerines. CSIRO, Melbourne.
Blackman, J. Lawrie, B. and Locke, D. 1987 Dalrymple Fauna Survey Data Report. Qld. National Parks and Wildlife Service, Unpublished Report, Townsville.
Blakers, M. Davies, S. and Reilly, P. 1984. The Atlas of Australian Birds. Melbourne University Press, Melbourne.
Bowman, DMJS. 1992. Monsoon forests in North-western Australia. II. Forest-savanna transitions. Australian Journal of Botany 40:89-102.
Bowman, D.M.J.S. 2000 Australian Rainforests: Islands of green in a land of fire. Cambridge University Press, Melbourne.
Bowman, D.M.J.S. and Fensham, R.J. 1991. Response of a monsoon forest-savanna boundary to fire protection, Weipa, northern Australia. Australian Journal of Ecology 16:111-118.
Catterall, C.P. Kingston, M.B. and Park, K. 1997. Use of remnant forest habitat by birds during winter in subtropical Australia: patterns and processes. Pacific Conservation Biology 3:262-274.
Chan, K. 1999. Bird numbers in drought and non-drought years in tropical central Queensland, Australia. Tropical Ecology 40:63-68.
Clayton-Greene, K. and Beard, J. 1985. The fire factor in vine thicket and woodland vegetation of the Admiralty Gulf region, north-west Kimberley, Western Australia. Proceedings Ecological Society of Australia 13:225-230.
Cody, M. 1993. Bird diversity components within and between habitats in Australia. Pp 147-58 in Species Diversity in Ecological Communities, edited by R.E. Ricklefs and D. Schluter. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Coughlan, J. 2000. Habitat and resource use by birds in dry rainforests and woodlands of the wet-dry tropics. PhD Thesis. James Cook University.
Crome, F.H.J. 1978. Foraging ecology of an assemblage of birds in lowland rainforest in northern Queensland. Australian Journal of Ecology 3:195-212.
Driscoll, P.V. and Kikkawa, J. 1989. Bird species diversity of lowland tropical rainforests of New Guinea and Northern Australia. Pp 123-52 in Vertebrates in complex tropical systems, edited by M.L. Harmelin-Vivien and F. Bourliere. Springer Verlag, New York.
Dufrene, M. and Legendre, P. 1997. Species assemblages and indicator species: the need for a flexible asymmetrical approach. Ecological Monographs. 67:345-366.
Dunlop, C.R. and Webb, L.J. 1991. Flora and Vegetation. Pp 48-60 in Monsoonal Australia: Landscape, Ecology and Man in the Northern Lowlands edited by C.D. Haynes, M.G. Ridpath and M.A.J. Williams. AA Balkema, Rotterdam.
Dwyer, P.D. 1972. Feature, patch and refuge area: some influences on diversity of bird species. Emu 72:149-156.
Fensham, R.J. 1995. Floristics and environmental relations of inland dry rainforest in north Queensland, Australia. Journal of Biogeography 22:1047-1063.
Fensham, R.J. 1996a. The floristics and structure of dry rainforest at Forty Mile Scrub National Park, north Queensland. Cunninghamia 4:483-495.
Fensham, R.J. 1996b. Land clearance and conservation of inland dry rainforest in North Queensland, Australia. Biological Conservation 75:289-298.
Fensham, R.J. Fairfax, R.J. and Cannell, R.J. 1994. The invasion of Lantana camara in Forty Mile Scrub National Park, north Queensland. Australian Journal of Ecology 19:297-305.
Floyd, A. 1990 Australian Rainforests in New South Wales, vol.1 Surrey Beatty and Sons, Chipping Norton, New South Wales.
Ford, H. 1993. The Role of Birds in Ecosystems: risks from Eucalypt forest fragmentation and degradation. Pp 33-40 in Birds and their habitats: status and conservation in Queensland, edited by C.P. Catterall, P.V. Driscoll, K. Hulsman, D. Muir and A. Taplin. Queensland Ornithological Society Inc., Brisbane.
Ford, H. 1985. Ecology and adaptations of forest and woodland birds. Pp 137-139 in Birds of eucalypt forests and woodlands, edited by A. Keast, H. Recher, H. Ford and D. Saunders. Surrey Beatty and Sons and The Royal Australasian Ornithologists Union, Chipping Norton, New South Wales.
Ford, H. and Paton, D.C. 1985. Habitat selection in Australian honeyeaters, with special reference to nectar productivity. Pp 367-388 in Habitat Selection in birds, edited by M.L. Cody. Princeton Uni Press, Princeton.
Frith, D.W. 1984. Foraging ecology of birds in an upland tropical rainforest in North Queensland. Australian Wildlife Research 11:325-347.
Gillison, A. 1987. The ‘dry’ rainforests of Terra Australis. Pp 305-321 in The Rainforest Legacy: Australian National Rainforests Study vol. 1The nature distribution and status of rainforest types. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
Greenwood, D.R. 1996. Eocene monsoon forests in central Australia. Australian Systematic Botany 9:95-112.
Herrera, C. 1998. Long-term dynamics of Mediterranean frugivorous birds and fleshy fruits: a 12 year study. Ecological Monographs 68:511-538.
Hill, M.O. 1979 TWINSPAN: a fortran program for arranging multivariate data in an ordered two-way table by classification of the individuals and attributes. Cornell University, New York.
Horsup, A. James, C. and Porter, G. 1993. Vertebrates of dry rainforest of south and mideastern Queensland. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 34:215-228.
Howe, R. 1984. Local dynamics of bird assemblages in small forest habitat islands in Australia and North America. Ecology 65:1585-1601.
Kahn, T.P. and Lawrie, B.C. 1987. Vine thickets of the inland Townsville region. Pp 159-199 in The Rainforest Legacy: Australian National Rainforests Study vol. 1The nature distribution and status of rainforest types. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
Keast, A. Recher, H. Ford, H. and Saunders, D. (eds). 1985 Birds of eucalypt forests and woodlands: ecology, conservation, management. Surrey Beatty and Sons Pty. Ltd. and The Royal Australasian Ornithologists Union, Chipping Norton, New South Wales.
Kikkawa, J. 1982. Ecological association of birds and vegetation structure in wet tropical forests of Australia. Australian Journal of Ecology 7:325-345.
Kikkawa J 1988. Bird communities of rainforests. Acta XIX Congressus International Ornithologia 1338-1345.
Kikkawa, J. 1993. Conservation of rainforest birds in Queensland. Pp 64-69 in Birds and their habitats: status and conservation in Queensland, edited by C.P. Catterall, P.V. Driscoll, K. Hulsman, D. Muir and A. Taplin. Queensland Ornithological Society Inc., Brisbane.
Kikkawa, J. Webb, L.J., Dale, M.B. Monteith, G.B. Tracey, J.G. and Williams, W.T. 1981. Gradients and boundaries of monsoon forests in Australia. Proceedings of the Ecological Society of Australia 11:39-52.
MacNally, R.C. 1996. A winter's tale: Among year variation in bird community structure in a southeastern Australian forest. Australian Journal of Ecology 21:280-291.
McGeoch, M. and Chown, S. 1998. Scaling up the value of bioindicators. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 13:46-47.
Menkhorst, K. and Woinarski, J. 1992. Distribution of mammals in monsoon rainforests of the Northern Territory. Wildlife Research 19:295-316.
Morton, S.R. and Brennan, K.G. 1991. Birds. Pp 133-149 in Monsoonal Australia: Landscape Ecology and Man in the Northern Lowlands, edited by C.D. Haynes, M.G. Ridpath and M.A.J. Williams. AA Balkema, Rotterdam.
Price, O. Bach, C. Palmer, C. and Shapcott, A. 1996 Reserve design for mobile rainforest species. Annual Final Report to NRSCP for Project N602. Parks and Wildlife Commission of the Northern Territory.
Price, O. Woinarski, J. and Robinson, D. 1999. Very large area requirements for frugivorous birds in monsoon rainforests of the Northern Territory, Australia. Biological Conservation 91:169-180.
Price, O. Woinarski, J., Liddle, D.L. and Russell-Smith, J. 1995. Patterns of species composition and reserve design for a fragmented estate: Monsoon rainforests in the Northern Territory, Australia. Biological Conservation 74:9-19.
Pyke, G. 1980. The foraging behaviour of Australian honeyeaters: a review and some comparisons with hummingbirds. Australian Journal of Ecology. 5:343-369.
Recher, H.F. and Holmes, R.T. 1985. Foraging ecology and seasonal patterns of abundance in a forest avifauna. Pp 79-96 in Birds of eucalypt forests and woodlands: ecology, conservation, management, edited by A Keast, H. Recher H. Ford and D. Saunders. Surrey Beatty and Sons and The Royal Australasian Ornithologists Union, Chipping Norton, New South Wales.
Ridpath, M.G. 1985. Ecology in the wet-dry tropics: how different? Proceedings of the Ecological Society of Australia 13:3-20.
Robinson, D. and Traill, B. 1996. RAOU Conservation Statement no. 10: Conserving woodland birds in the wheat and sheep belts of southern Australia. Wingspan 6: supplement 1-15.
Russell-Smith, J. 1991. Classification, species richness, and environmental relations of monsoon rain forest in northern Australia. Journal of Vegetation Science 2:259-278.
Shapcott, A. 1999. Vagility and the monsoon rainforest archipelago of northern Australia: patterns of genetic diversity in Syzygium nervosum (Myrtaceae). Biotropica 31:579-590.
Simpson, K. and Day, N. 1996 Field Guide to the birds of Australia. Penguin Books, Australia.
Smith, K. 1982. Drought-induced changes in avian community structure along a montane sere. Ecology 63 (4):952-961.
Solem, A. and McKenzie, N. 1991. The composition of land snail assemblages in Kimberley rainforests. Pp 247-263 in Kimberley Rainforests of Australia, edited by N. McKenzie, R.B. Johnston and P.G. Kendrick. Surrey Beatty and Sons, Chipping Norton, New South Wales.
Specht, R.L. 1988. Origin and evolution of terrestrial plant communities in the wet-dry tropics of Australia. Proceedings of the Ecological Society of Australia 15:19-30.
Stocker, G. Beneke, G. Hore-Lacy, I. Mackay, I. and Myers, R. 1961 Scientific Report on Expedition to North Queensland. The University of New England Exploration Society, New South Wales.
Stocker, G.C. and Crome, F. 1972 General report on the area known as the Barrabas Scrub. Unpublished Report, Queensland.
Webb, L.J. and Tracey, J.G. 1981. The rainforests of northern Australia. Pp 67-101 in Australian Vegetation, edited by R.K. Groves. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Wilcocks, J. and Young, P. 1991 Queensland's rainfall history: graphs of rainfall averages 1880-1988. Queensland Department of Primary Industries, Brisbane.
Woinarski, J.C.Z. 1993a. Australian tropical savannas, their avifauna conservation status and threats. Pp 45-63 in Birds and their habitats: status and conservation in Queensland, edited by C.P. Catterall, P.V. Driscoll, K. Hulsman, D. Muir and A. Taplin. Queensland Ornithological Society Inc., Brisbane.
Woinarski, J.C.Z. 1993b. A cut-and-paste community: Birds of monsoon rainforest in Kakadu National Park, Northern Territory. Emu 93:100-120.
Woinarski, J.C.Z. and Tidemann, S.C. 1991. The bird fauna of a deciduous woodland in the wet-dry tropics of Northern Australia. Wildlife Research 18:479-500.
Woinarski, J.C.Z. Press, A.J. and Russell-Smith, J. 1989. The bird community of a sandstone plateau monsoon forest at Kakadu National Park, Northern Territory. Emu 89:223-231.
Woinarski, J.C.Z., Tidemann, S.C. and Kerin, S. 1988. Birds in a tropical mosaic: the distribution of bird species in relation to vegetation patterns. Australian Wildlife Research 15:171-196.
Woinarski, J.C.Z. Whitehead, P.J. Bowman, D.M.J.S. and Russell-Smith, J. 1992. Conservation of mobile species in a variable environment: the problem of reserve design in the Northern Territory. Global Ecology and Biogeography Letters 2:1-10.
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References

Ash, J. 1988. The location and stability of rainforest boundaries in north-eastern Queensland, Australia. Journal of Biogeography 15:619-630.
Barker, R. and Vestjens, W. 1984 The Food of Australian Birds 2. Passerines. CSIRO, Melbourne.
Blackman, J. Lawrie, B. and Locke, D. 1987 Dalrymple Fauna Survey Data Report. Qld. National Parks and Wildlife Service, Unpublished Report, Townsville.
Blakers, M. Davies, S. and Reilly, P. 1984. The Atlas of Australian Birds. Melbourne University Press, Melbourne.
Bowman, DMJS. 1992. Monsoon forests in North-western Australia. II. Forest-savanna transitions. Australian Journal of Botany 40:89-102.
Bowman, D.M.J.S. 2000 Australian Rainforests: Islands of green in a land of fire. Cambridge University Press, Melbourne.
Bowman, D.M.J.S. and Fensham, R.J. 1991. Response of a monsoon forest-savanna boundary to fire protection, Weipa, northern Australia. Australian Journal of Ecology 16:111-118.
Catterall, C.P. Kingston, M.B. and Park, K. 1997. Use of remnant forest habitat by birds during winter in subtropical Australia: patterns and processes. Pacific Conservation Biology 3:262-274.
Chan, K. 1999. Bird numbers in drought and non-drought years in tropical central Queensland, Australia. Tropical Ecology 40:63-68.
Clayton-Greene, K. and Beard, J. 1985. The fire factor in vine thicket and woodland vegetation of the Admiralty Gulf region, north-west Kimberley, Western Australia. Proceedings Ecological Society of Australia 13:225-230.
Cody, M. 1993. Bird diversity components within and between habitats in Australia. Pp 147-58 in Species Diversity in Ecological Communities, edited by R.E. Ricklefs and D. Schluter. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Coughlan, J. 2000. Habitat and resource use by birds in dry rainforests and woodlands of the wet-dry tropics. PhD Thesis. James Cook University.
Crome, F.H.J. 1978. Foraging ecology of an assemblage of birds in lowland rainforest in northern Queensland. Australian Journal of Ecology 3:195-212.
Driscoll, P.V. and Kikkawa, J. 1989. Bird species diversity of lowland tropical rainforests of New Guinea and Northern Australia. Pp 123-52 in Vertebrates in complex tropical systems, edited by M.L. Harmelin-Vivien and F. Bourliere. Springer Verlag, New York.
Dufrene, M. and Legendre, P. 1997. Species assemblages and indicator species: the need for a flexible asymmetrical approach. Ecological Monographs. 67:345-366.
Dunlop, C.R. and Webb, L.J. 1991. Flora and Vegetation. Pp 48-60 in Monsoonal Australia: Landscape, Ecology and Man in the Northern Lowlands edited by C.D. Haynes, M.G. Ridpath and M.A.J. Williams. AA Balkema, Rotterdam.
Dwyer, P.D. 1972. Feature, patch and refuge area: some influences on diversity of bird species. Emu 72:149-156.
Fensham, R.J. 1995. Floristics and environmental relations of inland dry rainforest in north Queensland, Australia. Journal of Biogeography 22:1047-1063.
Fensham, R.J. 1996a. The floristics and structure of dry rainforest at Forty Mile Scrub National Park, north Queensland. Cunninghamia 4:483-495.
Fensham, R.J. 1996b. Land clearance and conservation of inland dry rainforest in North Queensland, Australia. Biological Conservation 75:289-298.
Fensham, R.J. Fairfax, R.J. and Cannell, R.J. 1994. The invasion of Lantana camara in Forty Mile Scrub National Park, north Queensland. Australian Journal of Ecology 19:297-305.
Floyd, A. 1990 Australian Rainforests in New South Wales, vol.1 Surrey Beatty and Sons, Chipping Norton, New South Wales.
Ford, H. 1993. The Role of Birds in Ecosystems: risks from Eucalypt forest fragmentation and degradation. Pp 33-40 in Birds and their habitats: status and conservation in Queensland, edited by C.P. Catterall, P.V. Driscoll, K. Hulsman, D. Muir and A. Taplin. Queensland Ornithological Society Inc., Brisbane.
Ford, H. 1985. Ecology and adaptations of forest and woodland birds. Pp 137-139 in Birds of eucalypt forests and woodlands, edited by A. Keast, H. Recher, H. Ford and D. Saunders. Surrey Beatty and Sons and The Royal Australasian Ornithologists Union, Chipping Norton, New South Wales.
Ford, H. and Paton, D.C. 1985. Habitat selection in Australian honeyeaters, with special reference to nectar productivity. Pp 367-388 in Habitat Selection in birds, edited by M.L. Cody. Princeton Uni Press, Princeton.
Frith, D.W. 1984. Foraging ecology of birds in an upland tropical rainforest in North Queensland. Australian Wildlife Research 11:325-347.
Gillison, A. 1987. The ‘dry’ rainforests of Terra Australis. Pp 305-321 in The Rainforest Legacy: Australian National Rainforests Study vol. 1The nature distribution and status of rainforest types. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
Greenwood, D.R. 1996. Eocene monsoon forests in central Australia. Australian Systematic Botany 9:95-112.
Herrera, C. 1998. Long-term dynamics of Mediterranean frugivorous birds and fleshy fruits: a 12 year study. Ecological Monographs 68:511-538.
Hill, M.O. 1979 TWINSPAN: a fortran program for arranging multivariate data in an ordered two-way table by classification of the individuals and attributes. Cornell University, New York.
Horsup, A. James, C. and Porter, G. 1993. Vertebrates of dry rainforest of south and mideastern Queensland. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 34:215-228.
Howe, R. 1984. Local dynamics of bird assemblages in small forest habitat islands in Australia and North America. Ecology 65:1585-1601.
Kahn, T.P. and Lawrie, B.C. 1987. Vine thickets of the inland Townsville region. Pp 159-199 in The Rainforest Legacy: Australian National Rainforests Study vol. 1The nature distribution and status of rainforest types. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
Keast, A. Recher, H. Ford, H. and Saunders, D. (eds). 1985 Birds of eucalypt forests and woodlands: ecology, conservation, management. Surrey Beatty and Sons Pty. Ltd. and The Royal Australasian Ornithologists Union, Chipping Norton, New South Wales.
Kikkawa, J. 1982. Ecological association of birds and vegetation structure in wet tropical forests of Australia. Australian Journal of Ecology 7:325-345.
Kikkawa J 1988. Bird communities of rainforests. Acta XIX Congressus International Ornithologia 1338-1345.
Kikkawa, J. 1993. Conservation of rainforest birds in Queensland. Pp 64-69 in Birds and their habitats: status and conservation in Queensland, edited by C.P. Catterall, P.V. Driscoll, K. Hulsman, D. Muir and A. Taplin. Queensland Ornithological Society Inc., Brisbane.
Kikkawa, J. Webb, L.J., Dale, M.B. Monteith, G.B. Tracey, J.G. and Williams, W.T. 1981. Gradients and boundaries of monsoon forests in Australia. Proceedings of the Ecological Society of Australia 11:39-52.
MacNally, R.C. 1996. A winter's tale: Among year variation in bird community structure in a southeastern Australian forest. Australian Journal of Ecology 21:280-291.
McGeoch, M. and Chown, S. 1998. Scaling up the value of bioindicators. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 13:46-47.
Menkhorst, K. and Woinarski, J. 1992. Distribution of mammals in monsoon rainforests of the Northern Territory. Wildlife Research 19:295-316.
Morton, S.R. and Brennan, K.G. 1991. Birds. Pp 133-149 in Monsoonal Australia: Landscape Ecology and Man in the Northern Lowlands, edited by C.D. Haynes, M.G. Ridpath and M.A.J. Williams. AA Balkema, Rotterdam.
Price, O. Bach, C. Palmer, C. and Shapcott, A. 1996 Reserve design for mobile rainforest species. Annual Final Report to NRSCP for Project N602. Parks and Wildlife Commission of the Northern Territory.
Price, O. Woinarski, J. and Robinson, D. 1999. Very large area requirements for frugivorous birds in monsoon rainforests of the Northern Territory, Australia. Biological Conservation 91:169-180.
Price, O. Woinarski, J., Liddle, D.L. and Russell-Smith, J. 1995. Patterns of species composition and reserve design for a fragmented estate: Monsoon rainforests in the Northern Territory, Australia. Biological Conservation 74:9-19.
Pyke, G. 1980. The foraging behaviour of Australian honeyeaters: a review and some comparisons with hummingbirds. Australian Journal of Ecology. 5:343-369.
Recher, H.F. and Holmes, R.T. 1985. Foraging ecology and seasonal patterns of abundance in a forest avifauna. Pp 79-96 in Birds of eucalypt forests and woodlands: ecology, conservation, management, edited by A Keast, H. Recher H. Ford and D. Saunders. Surrey Beatty and Sons and The Royal Australasian Ornithologists Union, Chipping Norton, New South Wales.
Ridpath, M.G. 1985. Ecology in the wet-dry tropics: how different? Proceedings of the Ecological Society of Australia 13:3-20.
Robinson, D. and Traill, B. 1996. RAOU Conservation Statement no. 10: Conserving woodland birds in the wheat and sheep belts of southern Australia. Wingspan 6: supplement 1-15.
Russell-Smith, J. 1991. Classification, species richness, and environmental relations of monsoon rain forest in northern Australia. Journal of Vegetation Science 2:259-278.
Shapcott, A. 1999. Vagility and the monsoon rainforest archipelago of northern Australia: patterns of genetic diversity in Syzygium nervosum (Myrtaceae). Biotropica 31:579-590.
Simpson, K. and Day, N. 1996 Field Guide to the birds of Australia. Penguin Books, Australia.
Smith, K. 1982. Drought-induced changes in avian community structure along a montane sere. Ecology 63 (4):952-961.
Solem, A. and McKenzie, N. 1991. The composition of land snail assemblages in Kimberley rainforests. Pp 247-263 in Kimberley Rainforests of Australia, edited by N. McKenzie, R.B. Johnston and P.G. Kendrick. Surrey Beatty and Sons, Chipping Norton, New South Wales.
Specht, R.L. 1988. Origin and evolution of terrestrial plant communities in the wet-dry tropics of Australia. Proceedings of the Ecological Society of Australia 15:19-30.
Stocker, G. Beneke, G. Hore-Lacy, I. Mackay, I. and Myers, R. 1961 Scientific Report on Expedition to North Queensland. The University of New England Exploration Society, New South Wales.
Stocker, G.C. and Crome, F. 1972 General report on the area known as the Barrabas Scrub. Unpublished Report, Queensland.
Webb, L.J. and Tracey, J.G. 1981. The rainforests of northern Australia. Pp 67-101 in Australian Vegetation, edited by R.K. Groves. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Wilcocks, J. and Young, P. 1991 Queensland's rainfall history: graphs of rainfall averages 1880-1988. Queensland Department of Primary Industries, Brisbane.
Woinarski, J.C.Z. 1993a. Australian tropical savannas, their avifauna conservation status and threats. Pp 45-63 in Birds and their habitats: status and conservation in Queensland, edited by C.P. Catterall, P.V. Driscoll, K. Hulsman, D. Muir and A. Taplin. Queensland Ornithological Society Inc., Brisbane.
Woinarski, J.C.Z. 1993b. A cut-and-paste community: Birds of monsoon rainforest in Kakadu National Park, Northern Territory. Emu 93:100-120.
Woinarski, J.C.Z. and Tidemann, S.C. 1991. The bird fauna of a deciduous woodland in the wet-dry tropics of Northern Australia. Wildlife Research 18:479-500.
Woinarski, J.C.Z. Press, A.J. and Russell-Smith, J. 1989. The bird community of a sandstone plateau monsoon forest at Kakadu National Park, Northern Territory. Emu 89:223-231.
Woinarski, J.C.Z., Tidemann, S.C. and Kerin, S. 1988. Birds in a tropical mosaic: the distribution of bird species in relation to vegetation patterns. Australian Wildlife Research 15:171-196.
Woinarski, J.C.Z. Whitehead, P.J. Bowman, D.M.J.S. and Russell-Smith, J. 1992. Conservation of mobile species in a variable environment: the problem of reserve design in the Northern Territory. Global Ecology and Biogeography Letters 2:1-10.
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