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The spatial distribution of suitable habitat for animal taxa has been a major topic of ecological research. Information on the spatial distribution of habitat and its temporal variability provides a basis, both theoretically and practically, for habitat management. As a result, the use of geographic information system (GIS) algorithms and approaches for assessing fauna habitat has become a vital tool in wildlife management. The advent of high spatial resolution remotely sensed imagery (as obtained, for example, from airborne camera, videography or satellite based sensors) provides the possibility of providing base layer spatial information on habitat distributions and quality as well as an efficient means of updating this information based on natural and anthropogenic change

Airola, T. M. 1989. Monitoring the impact of arsenic contamination on forest vegetation in New Jersey. Pp. 94-98 in Proceedings of the 12th Biennial workshop on Colour Aerial Photography and Videography in the Plant Sciences. American Society of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Falls Church, Virginia.
Anon, 1991 Endangered Fauna (Interim Protection) Act 1991 No. 66. NSW Government Printer, Sydney.
Anon, 1992 National Forest Policy Statement. Commonwealth of Australia.
Anon, 1995a National Forest Conservation Reserves. Commonwealth Proposed Criteria. Commonwealth of Australia.
Anon, 1995b Regional Forest Agreements - The Commonwealth Position February 1995. Commonwealth of Australia.
Austin, M. P. and Heyligers, P. C. 1989. Vegetation survey design for conservation: Gradsect sampling of forests in north-eastern New South Wales. Biological Conservation, 50: 12-32.
Austin, M. P., and Heyligers, P. C. 1991. New Approach to Vegetation Survey Design: Gradsect Sampling. Pp. 31-36 in Nature Conservation: Cost Effective Surveys and Data Analysis, edited by C. R. Margules and M. P. Austin. CSIRO: Australia.
Austin, M. P., Nicholls, A. O. and Margules, C. R., 1990. Measurement of the realised qualitative niche: environmental niches of five Eucalyptus species. Ecological Monographs 60: 161-177.
Bideau, E., Gerard, J.F., Vincent, J.P., and Maublanc, M.L. 1993. Effects of age and sex on space occupation by European roe deer. Journal of Mammalogy 74:745-751.
Braithwaite, L. W. 1983. Studies on the arboreal marsupial fauna of eucalypt forests being harvested for woodpulp at Eden, N.S.W. I. The species and distribution of animals. Australian Wildlife Research 10: 219-29.
Braithwaite, L. W., Binns, D. L., and Nowlan, R. D. 1988. The Distribution of Arboreal Marsupials in Relation to Eucalypt Forest Types in the Eden (N.S.W.) Woodchip Concession Area. Australian Wildlife Research 15:363-73.
Braithwaite, L. W., Dudzinski, M. L., and Turner, J. 1983. Studies on the arboreal marsupial fauna of eucalypt forests being harvested for woodpulp at Eden, N.S.W. II. Relationship between the fauna density, richness and diversity, and measured variables of the habitat. Australian Wildlife Research 10: 231-47.
Braithwaite, L. W., Turner, J., and Kelly, J. 1984. Studies on the arboreal marsupial fauna of eucalypt forests being harvested for woodpulp at Eden, N.S.W. III. Relationships between faunal densities, eucalypt occurrence and foliage nutrients, and soil parent materials. Australian Wildlife Research 11: 41-8.
Braithwaite, R.W. and Gullan, P.K. 1978. Habitat selection by small mammals in a Victorian heathland. Australian Journal of Ecology, 3: 109-127.
Braithwaite, R. W., and Muller, W. J. 1997. Rainfall, groundwater and refuges: predicting extinctions of Australian tropical mammal species. Australian Journal of Ecology 22: 57-67.
Briggs, S., Seddon, J. and Doyle, S. 2001. Birds in woodland remnants of the central wheat/sheep belt of New South Wales: report on NHT project: predicting biodiversity of woodland remnants for on-ground conservation. NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service, Sydney.
Byron, A.M.H., 1981. Distribution patterns of roe deer ( Capreolus capreolus) related to the availability of food and cover. Notes of the Mammal. Society 42:271-275.
Catling, P. C. 1991. Ecological effects of prescribed burning practices on the mammals of south-eastern Australia. Pp 353-63Conservation of Australia's Forest Fauna, edited by D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales: Mosman, NSW.
Catling, P. C., and Burt, R. J. 1994. Studies of the ground-dwelling mammals of eucalypt forests in Southeastern New South Wales - the species, their abundance and distribution. Wildlife Research 21:219-39.
Catling, P. C., and Burt, R. J. 1995. Studies of the ground-dwelling mammals of eucalypt forests in Southeastern New South Wales: the effect of habitat variables on distribution and abundance. Wildlife Research 22: 271-88.
Catling, P. C., Burt, R. J., and Forrester, R. I. 1998. Models of the distribution and abundance of ground-dwelling mammals in the forests of south-eastern New South Wales. Wildlife Research 25 (5): 449-466.
Catling, P. C., Burt, R. J., and Forrester, R. I. 2000. Models of the distribution and abundance of ground-dwelling mammals in the eucalypt forests of north-eastern New South Wales from habitat variables. Wildlife Research 27 (6): 639-654.
Catling, P.C., and Coops, N.C. 1999. Prediction of the Distribution and abundance of small mammals in Eucalypt forests of South-eastern Australia from airborne videography. Wildlife Research 26(5): 641-650.
Catling, P. C., Coops, N.C., and Burt, R. J. 2001. The distribution and abundance of ground-dwelling mammals in relation to time since wildfire and vegetation structure in southeastern Australia. Wildlife Research 28 (6): 555-564.
Catling, P. C. and Newsome, A. E. 1981. Responses of the Australian Vertebrate Fauna to Fire: An Evolutionary Approach. Pp. 273-310 on Fire and the Australian Biota, edited by R. H. Groves, I. R. Noble and A. M. Gill. Australian Academy of Science: Canberra.
Catling, P.C., Newsome, A.E. and Dudzinski, M.L. 1982. Small Mammals, Habitat Components & Fire in South-eastern Australia. Pp. 199-206 in Proceedings of Symposium on Dynamics & Management of Mediterranean-type Ecosystems: An International Symposium. June 1981. San Diego, California.
Coops, N.C., and Catling, P.C. 1997a. Predicting forest structure from airborne videography for wildlife management. International Journal of Remote Sensing 18: 2677-2682.
Coops, N.C., and Catling, P.C. 1997b. Utilising airborne multispectral videography to predict habitat complexity in Eucalypt forests for wildlife management. Wildlife Research 24: 691-702.
Coops, N.C., and Catling, P.C. 2000. Estimating forests habitat complexity in relation to time since fire. Austral Ecology 25: 344-351
Coops, N.C., and Catling, P.C. 2001. Prediction of historical forest habitat patterns using binomial distributions and simple boolean logic from high spatial resolution remote sensing. Computers and Geoscience 27: 795-805.
Coops, N., Culvenor, D., Preston, R., and Catling, P. 1998. Procedures for predicting habitat and structural attributes in eucalypt forests using high spatial resolution remotely sensed imagery. Australian Forestry 61: 244-252.
Cork, S. J., and Catling, P. C. 1996. Modelling distributions of arboreal and ground- dwelling mammals in relation to climate, nutrients, plant chemical defences and vegetation structure in the eucalypt forests of southeastern Australia. Forest Ecology and Management 85:163-175.
Crawley, M. J., 1993 GLIM for Ecologists. Blackwell, Oxford.
Culvenor, D.S. 2002. TIDA: an algorithm for the delineation of tree crowns in high spatial resolution remotely sensed imagery. Computers and Geoscience 28(1): 33-44
Davey, S. M. 1984. Habitat preferences of aboreal marsupials within a coastal forest in southern New South Wales. Pp. 509-16 in Possums and Gliders, edited by A. Smith and I. Hume. Surrey Beatty & Sons in association with the Australian Mammal Society: Chipping Norton.
Davey, S. M. 1989 The environmental relationships of arboreal marsupials in a eucalypt forest: a basis for Australian forest wildlife management. Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Forestry, Australian National University, Canberra.
Everitt, J. H., Escobar, D. E., Blazquez, C. H., Hussey, M. R., and Nixon, P. R. 1986. Evaluation of mid-infrared (1.45-2.0 μm) with a black and white infrared video camera. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing 52: 1655-60.
Everitt, J. H., Escobar, D. E., and Davis, M. R. 1989. Mid-Infrared video: A possible tool for thermal analysis of wildfires. Geocarto International 4: 39-45.
Everitt, J. H., Lulla, K., Escobar, D. E., and Richardson, A. J. 1990. Aerospace video imaging systems for rangeland management. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing 56: 343-49.
Freudenberger, D. (1999). Guidelines for enhancing grassy woodlands for the Vegetation Investment Project. A report commissioned by Greening Australia, ACT & SE NSW. CSIRO Wildlife and Ecology. pp.34.
Gausman, H. W., Escobar, D. E., and Bowen, R. L. 1983. A video system to demonstrate interactions of near infrared radiation with plant leaves. Remote Sensing the Environment 13: 363-66.
Gill, A. M., and Nicholls, A. O. 1989. Monitoring fire-prone flora in reserves for nature conservation. Pp. 137-51 in Fire management on Nature Conservation Lands, edited by N. Burrows, L. McCaw and G. Friend. Western Australian Department of Conservation and Land Management, Occasional Paper 1/89.
Holt, R.D., Pacala, S.W., Smith, T.W., and Liu, J. 1995. Linking contemporary vegetation models with spatially explicit animal population models. Ecological Applications 5:20-27.
Kavanagh, R. P., Debus, S., Tweedie, T., and Webster, R. 1995. Distribution of nocturnal forest birds and mammals in north-eastern New South Wales: relationships with environmental variables and management history. Wildlife Research 22: 359-77.
Kavanagh, R. P., and Webb, G. A. 1998. Effects of variable-intensity logging on mammals, reptiles and amphibians at Waratah Creek, southeastern New South Wales. Pacific Conservation Biology 4: 326-47.
Lindenmayer, D. B. 1989. The ecology and habitat requirements of Leadbeater's Possum. Ph.D. Thesis, The Australian National University, Canberra.
Lindenmayer, D. B., Nix, H. A., McMahon, J. P. and Hutchinson, M. F. 1990. Bioclimatic modelling and wildlife conservation and management - a case study on Leadbeater's Possum. Pp. 253-74 in Proceedings of a conference on small mammals. Melbourne Zoo, Melbourne.
Lindenmayer, D. B., Cunningham, R. B., Tanton, M. T., Nix, H. A. and Smith, A. P. 1991. The conservation of arboreal marsupials in the montane ash forests of the central highlands of Victoria, south-east Australia: III. The habitat requirements of Leadbeater's possum Gymnobelideus leadbeateri and models of the diversity and abundance of arboreal marsupials. Biological Conservation 56: 295-315.
Lindenmayer, D. B., Cunningham, R. B. and Donnelly, C. F., 1994. The conservation of arboreal marsupials in the montane ash forests of the central highlands of Victoria, south-eastern Australia, VI. The performance of statistical models of the nest tree and habitat requirements of arboreal marsupials applied to survey data. Biological Conservation, 70: 143-147.
Lindenmayer, D. B., Welsh, A., Donnelly, C.F., and Cunningham, R.B. 1996. Use of Nest Trees by the Mountain Brushtail Possum ( Trichosurus caninus) (Phalangeridae: Marsupialia). II Characteristics of Occupied Trees. Wildlife Research 23 (5): 531-45.
Lovell, J., Jupp, D.L.B., Culvenor.,D., Coops, N.C. In press. Using airborne and ground based ranging Lidar to measure canopy structure in Australian forests. Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing.
Lunney, D., and Ashby, A. 1987. Population changes in Sminthopsis leucopus (Gray) (Marsupialia: Dasyuridae), and other small mammal species, in forest regenerating from logging and fire near Bega, New South Wales. Australian Wildlife Research 14: 275-84.
Lunney, D., Cullis, B., and Eby, P. 1987. Effects of Logging and Fire on Small Mammals in Mumbulla State Forest, near Bega, New South Wales. Australian Wildlife Research, 14: 163-81.
Lunney, D., and O'Connell, M. 1988. Habitat selection by the Swamp Wallaby, Wallabia bicolor, and Red-necked Wallaby, Macropus rufogriseus, and the Common Wombat, Vombatus ursinus, in Logged, Burnt Forest near Bega, New South Wales. Australian Wildlife Research, 15: 695-706.
Mausel, P. W., Kalaluke, G., Mudderman, D., Escobar, D. and Davis, M. 1990. Multispectral video analysis of micro-relief dominated poorly drained soils in western Indiana. Journal of Imaging Technology 16: 113-19.
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References

Airola, T. M. 1989. Monitoring the impact of arsenic contamination on forest vegetation in New Jersey. Pp. 94-98 in Proceedings of the 12th Biennial workshop on Colour Aerial Photography and Videography in the Plant Sciences. American Society of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Falls Church, Virginia.
Anon, 1991 Endangered Fauna (Interim Protection) Act 1991 No. 66. NSW Government Printer, Sydney.
Anon, 1992 National Forest Policy Statement. Commonwealth of Australia.
Anon, 1995a National Forest Conservation Reserves. Commonwealth Proposed Criteria. Commonwealth of Australia.
Anon, 1995b Regional Forest Agreements - The Commonwealth Position February 1995. Commonwealth of Australia.
Austin, M. P. and Heyligers, P. C. 1989. Vegetation survey design for conservation: Gradsect sampling of forests in north-eastern New South Wales. Biological Conservation, 50: 12-32.
Austin, M. P., and Heyligers, P. C. 1991. New Approach to Vegetation Survey Design: Gradsect Sampling. Pp. 31-36 in Nature Conservation: Cost Effective Surveys and Data Analysis, edited by C. R. Margules and M. P. Austin. CSIRO: Australia.
Austin, M. P., Nicholls, A. O. and Margules, C. R., 1990. Measurement of the realised qualitative niche: environmental niches of five Eucalyptus species. Ecological Monographs 60: 161-177.
Bideau, E., Gerard, J.F., Vincent, J.P., and Maublanc, M.L. 1993. Effects of age and sex on space occupation by European roe deer. Journal of Mammalogy 74:745-751.
Braithwaite, L. W. 1983. Studies on the arboreal marsupial fauna of eucalypt forests being harvested for woodpulp at Eden, N.S.W. I. The species and distribution of animals. Australian Wildlife Research 10: 219-29.
Braithwaite, L. W., Binns, D. L., and Nowlan, R. D. 1988. The Distribution of Arboreal Marsupials in Relation to Eucalypt Forest Types in the Eden (N.S.W.) Woodchip Concession Area. Australian Wildlife Research 15:363-73.
Braithwaite, L. W., Dudzinski, M. L., and Turner, J. 1983. Studies on the arboreal marsupial fauna of eucalypt forests being harvested for woodpulp at Eden, N.S.W. II. Relationship between the fauna density, richness and diversity, and measured variables of the habitat. Australian Wildlife Research 10: 231-47.
Braithwaite, L. W., Turner, J., and Kelly, J. 1984. Studies on the arboreal marsupial fauna of eucalypt forests being harvested for woodpulp at Eden, N.S.W. III. Relationships between faunal densities, eucalypt occurrence and foliage nutrients, and soil parent materials. Australian Wildlife Research 11: 41-8.
Braithwaite, R.W. and Gullan, P.K. 1978. Habitat selection by small mammals in a Victorian heathland. Australian Journal of Ecology, 3: 109-127.
Braithwaite, R. W., and Muller, W. J. 1997. Rainfall, groundwater and refuges: predicting extinctions of Australian tropical mammal species. Australian Journal of Ecology 22: 57-67.
Briggs, S., Seddon, J. and Doyle, S. 2001. Birds in woodland remnants of the central wheat/sheep belt of New South Wales: report on NHT project: predicting biodiversity of woodland remnants for on-ground conservation. NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service, Sydney.
Byron, A.M.H., 1981. Distribution patterns of roe deer ( Capreolus capreolus) related to the availability of food and cover. Notes of the Mammal. Society 42:271-275.
Catling, P. C. 1991. Ecological effects of prescribed burning practices on the mammals of south-eastern Australia. Pp 353-63Conservation of Australia's Forest Fauna, edited by D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales: Mosman, NSW.
Catling, P. C., and Burt, R. J. 1994. Studies of the ground-dwelling mammals of eucalypt forests in Southeastern New South Wales - the species, their abundance and distribution. Wildlife Research 21:219-39.
Catling, P. C., and Burt, R. J. 1995. Studies of the ground-dwelling mammals of eucalypt forests in Southeastern New South Wales: the effect of habitat variables on distribution and abundance. Wildlife Research 22: 271-88.
Catling, P. C., Burt, R. J., and Forrester, R. I. 1998. Models of the distribution and abundance of ground-dwelling mammals in the forests of south-eastern New South Wales. Wildlife Research 25 (5): 449-466.
Catling, P. C., Burt, R. J., and Forrester, R. I. 2000. Models of the distribution and abundance of ground-dwelling mammals in the eucalypt forests of north-eastern New South Wales from habitat variables. Wildlife Research 27 (6): 639-654.
Catling, P.C., and Coops, N.C. 1999. Prediction of the Distribution and abundance of small mammals in Eucalypt forests of South-eastern Australia from airborne videography. Wildlife Research 26(5): 641-650.
Catling, P. C., Coops, N.C., and Burt, R. J. 2001. The distribution and abundance of ground-dwelling mammals in relation to time since wildfire and vegetation structure in southeastern Australia. Wildlife Research 28 (6): 555-564.
Catling, P. C. and Newsome, A. E. 1981. Responses of the Australian Vertebrate Fauna to Fire: An Evolutionary Approach. Pp. 273-310 on Fire and the Australian Biota, edited by R. H. Groves, I. R. Noble and A. M. Gill. Australian Academy of Science: Canberra.
Catling, P.C., Newsome, A.E. and Dudzinski, M.L. 1982. Small Mammals, Habitat Components & Fire in South-eastern Australia. Pp. 199-206 in Proceedings of Symposium on Dynamics & Management of Mediterranean-type Ecosystems: An International Symposium. June 1981. San Diego, California.
Coops, N.C., and Catling, P.C. 1997a. Predicting forest structure from airborne videography for wildlife management. International Journal of Remote Sensing 18: 2677-2682.
Coops, N.C., and Catling, P.C. 1997b. Utilising airborne multispectral videography to predict habitat complexity in Eucalypt forests for wildlife management. Wildlife Research 24: 691-702.
Coops, N.C., and Catling, P.C. 2000. Estimating forests habitat complexity in relation to time since fire. Austral Ecology 25: 344-351
Coops, N.C., and Catling, P.C. 2001. Prediction of historical forest habitat patterns using binomial distributions and simple boolean logic from high spatial resolution remote sensing. Computers and Geoscience 27: 795-805.
Coops, N., Culvenor, D., Preston, R., and Catling, P. 1998. Procedures for predicting habitat and structural attributes in eucalypt forests using high spatial resolution remotely sensed imagery. Australian Forestry 61: 244-252.
Cork, S. J., and Catling, P. C. 1996. Modelling distributions of arboreal and ground- dwelling mammals in relation to climate, nutrients, plant chemical defences and vegetation structure in the eucalypt forests of southeastern Australia. Forest Ecology and Management 85:163-175.
Crawley, M. J., 1993 GLIM for Ecologists. Blackwell, Oxford.
Culvenor, D.S. 2002. TIDA: an algorithm for the delineation of tree crowns in high spatial resolution remotely sensed imagery. Computers and Geoscience 28(1): 33-44
Davey, S. M. 1984. Habitat preferences of aboreal marsupials within a coastal forest in southern New South Wales. Pp. 509-16 in Possums and Gliders, edited by A. Smith and I. Hume. Surrey Beatty & Sons in association with the Australian Mammal Society: Chipping Norton.
Davey, S. M. 1989 The environmental relationships of arboreal marsupials in a eucalypt forest: a basis for Australian forest wildlife management. Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Forestry, Australian National University, Canberra.
Everitt, J. H., Escobar, D. E., Blazquez, C. H., Hussey, M. R., and Nixon, P. R. 1986. Evaluation of mid-infrared (1.45-2.0 μm) with a black and white infrared video camera. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing 52: 1655-60.
Everitt, J. H., Escobar, D. E., and Davis, M. R. 1989. Mid-Infrared video: A possible tool for thermal analysis of wildfires. Geocarto International 4: 39-45.
Everitt, J. H., Lulla, K., Escobar, D. E., and Richardson, A. J. 1990. Aerospace video imaging systems for rangeland management. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing 56: 343-49.
Freudenberger, D. (1999). Guidelines for enhancing grassy woodlands for the Vegetation Investment Project. A report commissioned by Greening Australia, ACT & SE NSW. CSIRO Wildlife and Ecology. pp.34.
Gausman, H. W., Escobar, D. E., and Bowen, R. L. 1983. A video system to demonstrate interactions of near infrared radiation with plant leaves. Remote Sensing the Environment 13: 363-66.
Gill, A. M., and Nicholls, A. O. 1989. Monitoring fire-prone flora in reserves for nature conservation. Pp. 137-51 in Fire management on Nature Conservation Lands, edited by N. Burrows, L. McCaw and G. Friend. Western Australian Department of Conservation and Land Management, Occasional Paper 1/89.
Holt, R.D., Pacala, S.W., Smith, T.W., and Liu, J. 1995. Linking contemporary vegetation models with spatially explicit animal population models. Ecological Applications 5:20-27.
Kavanagh, R. P., Debus, S., Tweedie, T., and Webster, R. 1995. Distribution of nocturnal forest birds and mammals in north-eastern New South Wales: relationships with environmental variables and management history. Wildlife Research 22: 359-77.
Kavanagh, R. P., and Webb, G. A. 1998. Effects of variable-intensity logging on mammals, reptiles and amphibians at Waratah Creek, southeastern New South Wales. Pacific Conservation Biology 4: 326-47.
Lindenmayer, D. B. 1989. The ecology and habitat requirements of Leadbeater's Possum. Ph.D. Thesis, The Australian National University, Canberra.
Lindenmayer, D. B., Nix, H. A., McMahon, J. P. and Hutchinson, M. F. 1990. Bioclimatic modelling and wildlife conservation and management - a case study on Leadbeater's Possum. Pp. 253-74 in Proceedings of a conference on small mammals. Melbourne Zoo, Melbourne.
Lindenmayer, D. B., Cunningham, R. B., Tanton, M. T., Nix, H. A. and Smith, A. P. 1991. The conservation of arboreal marsupials in the montane ash forests of the central highlands of Victoria, south-east Australia: III. The habitat requirements of Leadbeater's possum Gymnobelideus leadbeateri and models of the diversity and abundance of arboreal marsupials. Biological Conservation 56: 295-315.
Lindenmayer, D. B., Cunningham, R. B. and Donnelly, C. F., 1994. The conservation of arboreal marsupials in the montane ash forests of the central highlands of Victoria, south-eastern Australia, VI. The performance of statistical models of the nest tree and habitat requirements of arboreal marsupials applied to survey data. Biological Conservation, 70: 143-147.
Lindenmayer, D. B., Welsh, A., Donnelly, C.F., and Cunningham, R.B. 1996. Use of Nest Trees by the Mountain Brushtail Possum ( Trichosurus caninus) (Phalangeridae: Marsupialia). II Characteristics of Occupied Trees. Wildlife Research 23 (5): 531-45.
Lovell, J., Jupp, D.L.B., Culvenor.,D., Coops, N.C. In press. Using airborne and ground based ranging Lidar to measure canopy structure in Australian forests. Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing.
Lunney, D., and Ashby, A. 1987. Population changes in Sminthopsis leucopus (Gray) (Marsupialia: Dasyuridae), and other small mammal species, in forest regenerating from logging and fire near Bega, New South Wales. Australian Wildlife Research 14: 275-84.
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