Skip to Main Content
Skip Nav Destination

Genetic analysis can be a powerful tool in species conservation and management, but it has perhaps not been embraced as wholeheartedly in Australia as in other parts of the world. Its many applications in fauna management include: 1/ Clarification of taxonomic and evolutionary relationships, thus enabling separate management and conservation of evolutionarily divergent groups, and informing reintroduction/translocation planning. 2/ Identification of population structure to enable conservation management plans to be targeted at local populations. 3/ Examination of the effects of landscape modification on dispersal patterns to provide an understanding of potential threats to populations. 4/ Identification of populations, species and regions important for the conservation of evolutionary biodiversity. 5/ Detection, abundance estimation and population monitoring of rare or cryptic species via genetic analysis of field signs such as hair and faeces. In this chapter we describe and provide examples of them, and suggest ways to facilitate their increased use in Australian fauna conservation.

Alacs, E., Alpers, D., de Tores, P., Dillon, M. and Spencer, P. 2003. Identifying the presence of quokkas ( Setonix brachyurus) and other macropods using cytochrome b analyses from faeces. Wildlife Research 30: 41-47.
Allendorf, F.W., Leary, R.F., Spruell, P. and Wenburg, J.K. 2001. The problems with hybrids: Setting conservation guidelines. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 16: 613-622.
Banks, S.C., Piggott, M.P., Hansen, B.D., Robinson, N.A. and Taylor, A.C. 2002a. Wombat coprogenetics: Enumerating a common wombat population by analysis of faecal DNA. Australian Journal of Zoology 50: 193-204.
Banks, S.C., Skerratt, L.F. and Taylor, A.C. 2002b. Female dispersal and relatedness structure in the common wombat Vombatus ursinus. Journal of Zoology (London) 256: 389-399.
Banks, S.C., Hoyle, S.D., Horsup, A., Sunnucks, P. and Taylor, A.C. 2003a. Demographic monitoring of an entire species by genetic analysis of non-invasively collected material. Animal Conservation 6: 101-107.
Banks, S.C., Wilton, A.N., Horsup, A.C. and Taylor, A.C. 2003b. Genetic marker investigation of the source and impact of predation on a highly endangered species. Molecular Ecology 12: 1663-1667.
Beaumont, M.A. 1999. Detecting population expansion and decline using microsatellites. Genetics 153: 2013-2029.
Beaumont, M.A., Barratt, E.M., Gottelli, D., Kitchener, A.C., Daniels, M.J., Pritchard, J.K. and Bruford, M.W. 2001. Genetic diversity and introgression in the Scottish wildcat. Molecular Ecology 10: 319-336.
Berger, J. and Cunningham, C. 1995. Multiple bottlenecks, allopatric lineages and Badlands bison Bos bison: Consequences of lineage mixing. Biological Conservation 71: 13-23.
Bohonak, A.J. 1999. Dispersal, gene flow and population structure. Quarterly Review of Biology 74: 21-45.
Bowen, B.W. 1999. Preserving genes, species or ecosystems? Healing the fractured foundations of conservation policy. Molecular Ecology 8: S5-S10.
Brouat, C., Sennedot, F., Audiot, P., Leblois, R. and Rasplus, J.-Y. 2003. Fine-scale genetic structure of two carabid species with contrasted levels of habitat specialization. Molecular Ecology 12: 1731-1745.
Bulinski, J. and McArthur, C. 2000. Observer error in counts of macropod scats. Wildlife Research 27: 277-282.
Caughley, G. 1994. Directions in conservation biology. Journal of Animal Ecology 63: 215-244.
Clark, A.M., Bowen, B.W. and Branch, L.C. 1999. Effects of natural habitat fragmentation on an endemic scrub lizard (Sceloporus woodi): an historical perspective based on a mitochondrial DNA gene genealogy. Molecular Ecology 8: 1093-1104
Clarke, R.H., Gordon, I.R. and Clarke, F. 2001. Intraspecific phenotypic variability in the black-eared miner ( Manorina melanotis); human-facilitated introgression and the consequences for an endangered taxon. Biological Conservation 99: 145-155.
Clegg, S.M., Hale, P. and Moritz, C. 1998. Molecular population genetics of the red kangaroo ( Macropus rufus)-mtDNA variation. Molecular Ecology 7:, 679-686.
Colgan, D.J., Brown, S., Major, R.E., Christie, F., Gray, M.R. and Cassis, G. 2002. Population genetics of wolf spiders of fragmented habitat in the wheat belt of New South Wales. Molecular Ecology 11: 2295-2305.
Cooper, S.J.B., Adams, M., and Labrinidis, A. 2000. Phylogeography of the Australian dunnart Sminthopsis crassicaudata (Marsupialia: Dasyuridae). Australian Journal of Zoology 48: 461-473.
Corbett, L. 2001 The Dingo in Australia and Asia. J.B. Books, Marleston, South Australia.
Cornuet, J.M., Piry, S., Luikart, G., Estoup, A. and Solignac, M. 1999. New methods employing multilocus genotypes to select or exclude populations as origins of individuals. Genetics 153: 1989-2000.
Crandall, K.A., Bininda-Edmonds, O.R.P., Mace, G.M. and Wayne, R.K. 2000. Considering evolutionary processes in conservation biology. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 15: 290-295.
Crowther, M.S. 2002. Distributions of species of the Antechinus stuartii-A, flavipes complex as predicted by bioclimatic modelling. Australian Journal of Zoology 50: 77-91.
Crozier, R.H. 1992. Genetic diversity and the agony of choice. Biological Conservation 61: 11-15.
Crozier, R.H. 1997. Preserving the information content of species: genetic diversity, phylogeny and conservation worth. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics. 28: 243-268.
Crozier, R.H. 1999. Phylogenetic aspects of biodiversity assessment. Australian Biologist 12: 118-124.
Dickman, C.R., King, D.H., Adams, M. and Baverstock, P.R. 1988a. Electrophoretic identification of a new species of Antechinus (Marsupialia: Dasyuridae) in south-eastern Australia. Australian Journal of Zoology 36: 455-463.
Dickman, C.R., Parnaby, H.E., Crowther, M.S. and King, D.H. 1998b Antechinus agilis (Marsupialia: Dasyuridae), a new species from the A. stuartii complex in south-eastern Australia. Australian Journal of Zoology 46: 1-26.
Dickman, C.R. and Lunney, D. 2001. Last howl of the dingo: the legislative, ecological and practical issues arising from the kill-or-conserve dilemma. Pp 95-107 in A Symposium on the Dingo, edited by C. R. Dickman and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
Dunstan, C.E. and Fox, B.J. 1996. The effects of fragmentation and disturbance of rainforest on ground-dwelling small mammals on the Robertson Plateau, New South Wales, Australia. Journal of Biogeography 23: 187-201.
Edmands, S. 2002. Does parental divergence predict reproductive compatibility? Trends in Ecology and Evolution 17: 520-527.
Edmands, S. and Timmerman, C. 2003. Modeling factors affecting the severity of outbreeding depression. Conservation Biology 17: 883-892.
Eldridge, M.D.B., Kinnear, J.E. and Onus, M.L. 2001. Source population of dispersing rock-wallabies ( Petrogale lateralis) identified by assignment tests on multilocus genotypic data. Molecular Ecology 10: 2867-2876.
Elgar, M.A. and Clode, D. 2001. Inbreeding and extinction in island populations: a cautionary note. Conservation Biology 14: 284-286.
Fernando, P., Pfrender, M.E., Encalada, S.E. and Lande, R. 2000. Mitochondrial DNA variation, phylogeography and population structure of the Asian elephant. Heredity 84: 362-372.
Firestone, K.B., Elphinstone, M.S., Sherwin, W.B., and Houlden, B. 1999. Phylogenetic population structure of tiger quolls Dasyurus maculatus (Dasyuridae: Marsupialia), an endangered carnivorous marsupial. Molecular Ecology 8: 1613-1625.
Frankham, R. 1995a Conservation Genetics. Annual Review of Genetics 29: 305-327.
Frankham, R. 1995b Inbreeding and extinction: a threshold effect. Conservation Biology 9: 792-799.
Frankham, R. 1995c. Effective population size/adult population size ratios in wildlife-a review. Genetical Research 66: 95-107.
Frankham, R. 2001. Inbreeding and extinction in island populations: reply to Elgar and Clode. Conservation Biology 15: 287-289.
Fraser, D.J. and Bernatchez, L. 2001. Adaptive evolutionary conservation: towards a unified concept for defining conservation units. Molecular Ecology 10: 2741-2752.
Fumagalli, L., Pope, L., Taberlet, P. and Moritz, C. 1997. Versatile primers for the amplification of the mitochondrial DNA control region in marsupials. Molecular Ecology 6: 1199-1201.
Garnier, J.N., Bruford, M.W. and Goossens, B. 2001. Mating system and reproductive skew in the black rhinoceros. Molecular Ecology 10: 2031-2041.
Gerlach, G. and Musolf, K. 2000. Fragmentation of landscape as a cause for genetic subdivision in bank voles. Conservation Biology 14: 1066-1074.
Goldstein, D.B. and Schlotterer, C. 1999 Microsatellites: Evolution and Applications, Oxford University Press.
Hale, M.L., Lurz, P.W.W., Shirley, M.D.F., Rushton, S., Fuller, R.M. and Wolff, K. 2000. Impact of Landscape Management on the Genetic Structure of Red Squirrel Populations. Science 293: 2246-2248.
James, C.H. and Moritz, C. 2000. Intraspecific phylogeography in the sedge frog Litoria fallax (Hylidae). indicates pre-Pleistocene vicariance of an open forest species from eastern Australia. Molecular Ecology 9: 349-385.
Jamieson, A. and Taylor, St.C.S. 1997. Comparisons of three probability formulae for parentage exclusion. Animal Genetics 28: 397-400.
Jarne, P. and Lagoda, J.L. 1996. Microsatellites: from molecules to populations and back. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 11: 424-429.
Ji, W. and Leberg, P. 2002. A GIS-based approach for assessing the regional conservation status of genetic diversity, an example from the Southern Appalachians. Environmental Management 29: 531-544.
Johnson, C.N. and Jarman, P.J. 1987. Macropod studies at Wallaby Creek. VI. A validation of the use of dung-pellet counts for measuring absolute densities of populations of macropodids. Australian Wildlife Research 14: 139-145.
Johnson, M.S. 2000. Measuring and interpreting genetic structure to minimise the genetic risks of translocations. Aquaculture Research 31: 133-143.
Keller, L.F. and Waller, D.M. 2002. Inbreeding effects in wild populations. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 17: 230-241.
Keller, I. and Largiader C.R. 2003. Recent habitat fragmentation caused by major roads leads to reduction of gene flow and loss of genetic variability in ground beetles. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B 270: 417-423.
Keogh, S.J., Scott, I.A.W., Fitzgerald, M. and Shine, R. 2003. Molecular phylogeny of the Australian venomous snake genus Hoplocephalus (Serpentes, Elapidae). and conservation genetics of the threatened H. stephensii. Conservation Genetics 4:57-65.
Keogh, S.J., Scott, I.A.W. and Scanlon, J.D. 2002. Molecular phylogeny of viviparous Australian elapid snakes: affinities of Echiopsis atriceps (Storr, 1980). and Drysdalia coronata (Schlegel, 1837)., with a description of a new genus. Journal of Zoology, (London) 252:317-326.
Knight, M.E., Van Oppen, M.J.H., Smith, H.L., Rico, C., Hewitt, G.M. and Turner, G.F. 1999. Evidence for male-biased dispersal in Lake Malawi cichlids from microsatellites Molecular Ecology 8: 1521-1527.
Kocher T.D., Thomas W.K., Meyer, S.A., Edwards, S.V., Paabo S., Villablanca, F.X. and Wilson, A.C. 1989. Dynamics of mitochondrial DNA evolution in animals: amplification and sequencing with conserved primers. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 86: 6196-6200.
Kohn, M.H., York, E.C., Kamradt, D.A., Haught, G., Sauvajot, R.M. and Wayne, R.K. 1999. Estimating population size by genotyping faeces. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B 266: 657-663.
Laurance, W.F. 1994. Rainforest fragmentation and the structure of small mammal communities in tropical Queensland. Biological Conservation 69: 23-32.
Lobert, B., Lumsden, L., Brunner, H. and Triggs, B. 2001. An assessment of the accuracy and reliability of hair identification of south-east Australian mammals. Wildlife Research 28: 637-641.
Lucchini, V., Fabbri, E., Marucco, F., Ricci, S., Biotani, L. and Randi, E. 2002. Noninvasive molecular tracking of colonising wolf ( Canis lupus) packs in the western Italian Alps. Molecular Ecology 11: 857-868.
Luikart, G. and England. P.R. 1999. Statistical analysis of microsatellite DNA data. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 14: 253-256.
McNeely, J.A., Miller, K.R., Reid, W.V., Mittermeier, R.A. and Werner, T.B. 1990 Conserving the world's biological diversity. World Conservation Union.
Madsen, T., Shine, R., Olsson, M. and Wittzell, H. 1999. Restoration of an inbred adder population. Nature 402: 34-35.
Manel, S., Berthier, P. and Luikart, G. 2002. Detecting wildlife poaching: identifying the origin of individuals with Bayesian assignment tests and multilocus genotypes. Conservation Biology 16: 650-659.
Manel, S., Schwartz, M.K., Luikart, G. and Taberlet, P. 2003. Landscape genetics: combining landscape ecology and population genetics. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 18: 189-197.
Marr, A.B., Keller, L.F., Arcese, P. 2002. Heterosis and outbreeding depression in descendants of natural immigrants to an inbred population of song sparrows Melospiza melodia. Evolution 56: 131-142.
Marshall, T.C. and Spalton, J.A. 2000. Simultaneous inbreeding and outbreeding depression in reintroduced Arabian oryx. Animal Conservation 3: 241-248.
Mech, S.G. and Hallett, J.G. 2001. Evaluating the effectiveness of corridors: a genetic approach. Conservation Biology 15: 467-474.
Meffe, G.K. 1994 Principles of Conservation Biology. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA.
Metrick, A. and Weitzman, M.L. 1998. Conflicts and choices in biodiversity preservation. The Journal of Economic Perspectives 12: 21-34.
Mills, L.S., Citta, J.C., Lair, K.P., Schwartz, M.K. and Tallmon, D.A. 2000. Estimating animal abundance using noninvasive DNA sampling: promise and pitfalls. Ecological Applications 10: 283-294.
Mock, K.E., Theimer, T.C., Wakeling, B.F., Rhodes, O.E., Greenberg, D.L. and Keim, P. 2001. Verifying the origins of a reintroduced population of Gould's wild turkey. Journal of Wildlife Management 65: 871-879.
Moritz, C. 1994. Defining 'Evolutionary Significant Units' for conservation. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 9: 373-375.
Moritz, C. 1999. Conservation units and translocations: strategies for conserving evolutionary processes. Hereditas 130: 217-228.
Moritz, C. 2002. Strategies to protect biological diversity and the evolutionary processes that sustain it. Systematic Biology 51: 238-254.
Moritz, C. and Faith, D.P. 1998. Comparative phylogeography and the identification of genetically divergent areas for conservation. Molecular Ecology 7: 419-429.
Mowat, G. and Strobeck, C. 2000. Estimating population size of grizzly bears using hair capture, DNA profiling, and mark-recapture analysis. Journal of Wildlife Management 64: 183-193.
Paetkau, D. 1999. Using genetics to identify intraspecific conservation units: a critique of current methods. Conservation Biology 13: 1507-1509.
Paetkau, D., Calvert, W., Stirling, I. and Strobeck, C. 1995. Microsatellite analysis of population structure in Canadian brown bears. Molecular Ecology 4: 347-354.
Patten, M.A. and Campbell, K.F. 2000. Typological thinking and the conservation of subspecies: The case of the San Clemente Island loggerhead shrike. Diversity and Distributions 6: 177-188.
Petit, R.J., El Mousadik, A. and Pons, O. 1998. Identifying populations for conservation on the basis of genetic markers. Conservation Biology 12: 844-855.
Piertney, S.B., MacColl, A.D.C., Jackson. P.J. and Dallas, J.F. 1999. Local genetic structure in red grouse Lagopus lagopus scoticus.: evidence from microsatellite DNA markers. Molecular Ecology 7: 1645-1654.
Piggott, M.P. and Taylor, A.C. 2003. Remote collection of animal DNA and its applications in conservation management and understanding the population biology of rare and cryptic species. Wildlife Research 30: 1-13.
Primmer, C.R., Koskinen, M.T. and Piironen, J. 2000. The one that did not get away: individual assignment using microsatellite data detects a case of fishing competition fraud. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B 267: 1699-1704.
Pritchard, J.K., Stephens, M. and Donnelly, P. 2000. Inference of population structure using multilocus genotype data. Genetics 155: 945-959.
Ramey, R.R., Luikart, G. and Singer, F.J. 2000. Genetic bottlenecks resulting from restoration efforts: The case of bighorn sheep in Badlands National Park. Restoration Ecology 8: 85-90.
Rhymer, J.M. and Simberloff, D. 1996. Extinction by hybridization and introgression. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 27: 83-109.
Ryder, O. 1986. Species conservation and systematics. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 1: 9-10.
Saccheri, I., Kuussaari, M., Kankare, M., Vikman, P., Fortelius, W. and Hanski, I. 1998. Inbreeding and extinction in a butterfly metapopulation. Nature 392: 491-494.
Saiki, R.K., Scharf, S., Faloona, F., Mullis, K.B., Horn, B.T., Erlich, H.A. and Arnheim, N. 1985. Enzymatic amplification of B-globin genomic sequences and restriction site analysis for diagnosis of sickle cell anaemia. Science 230: 1350-1354.
Schauble, C.S. and Moritz, C. 2001. Comparative phylogeography of two open forest frogs from eastern Australia. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 74: 157-170.
Sherwin, W.B., Timms, P., Wilcken, J. and Houlden B. 2000. Analysis and conservation implications of koala genetics. Conservation Biology 14: 639-649.
Slatkin, M. 1995. A measure of population subdivision based on microsatellite allele frequencies. Genetics 139: 457-462.
Spencer, P.B.S., Rhind, S.G. and Eldridge, M.D.B. 2001. Phylogeographic structure within Phascogale (Marsupialia: Dasyuridae) based on partial cytochrome b sequence. Australian Journal of Zoology 49: 369-377.
Srikwan, S. and Woodruff, D. 2000. Genetic erosion in isolated small-mammal populations following rainforest fragmentation. Pp 149-172 in Genetics, demography and viability of fragmented populations, edited by Young, AG and Clarke, GM. Cambridge University Press, New York.
Storfer, A. 2003. Amphibian declines: Future directions. Diversity and Distributions 9: 151-163.
Stow, A.J., Sunnucks, P., Briscoe, D. A. and Gardner, M.G. 2001. The impact of habitat fragmentation on dispersal of Cunningham's skink Egernia cunninghami: evidence from allelic and genotypic analyses of microsatellites. Molecular Ecology 10: 867-878.
Stow, A.J. and Sunnucks, P. 2004. Inbreeding avoidance in Cunningham's skinks ( Egernia cunninghamii) in natural and fragmented habitat. Molecular Ecology 13: 443-447.
Sumner, J.M. and Dickman, C.R. 1998. Distribution and identity of species in the Antechinus stuartii-A. flavipes group (Marsupialia: Dasyuridae). in south-eastern Australia. Australian Journal of Zoology 46: 27-41.
Sunnucks, P. 2000. Efficient genetic markers for population biology. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 15: 199-203.
Sunnucks, P., Wilson, A.C.C., Beheregaray, L.B., Zenger, K., French, J. and Taylor, A.C. 2000. SSCP is not so difficult: the application and utility of single-stranded conformation polymorphism in evolutionary biology and molecular ecology. Molecular Ecology 9: 1699-1710.
Taberlet, P. and Luikart, G. 1999. Non-invasive genetic sampling and individual identification. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 68: 41-55.
Taberlet, P., Waits, L. P. and Luikart, G. 1999. Noninvasive genetic sampling: look before you leap. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 14: 323-327.
Taberlet, P., Camarra, J.J., Griffin, S., Uhres, E., Hanotte, O., Waits, L.P., Dubois-Paganon, C., Burke, T. and Bouvet, J. 1997. Noninvasive genetic tracking of the endangered Pyrenean brown bear population. Molecular Ecology 6: 869-876.
Tallmon, D.A., Draheim, M., Mills, L.S. and Allendorf, F.W. 2002. Insights into recently fragmented vole populations from combined genetic and demographic data. Molecular Ecology 11: 699-709.
Taylor, A.C., Horsup, A., Johnson, C.N., Sunnucks, P. and Sherwin, B. 1997. Relatedness structure detected by microsatellite analysis and attempted pedigree reconstruction in an endangered marsupial, the northern hairy-nosed wombat Lasiorhinus krefftii. Molecular Ecology 6: 9-19.
Taylor, A.C. 2003. Assessing the consequences of inbreeding for population fitness: past challenges and future prospects. Pp 67-81 in Reproductive Science and Integrated Conservation, edited by WV Holt, AR Pickard, JC Rodger, DE Wildt. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Taylor, B.L. and Dizon, A.E. 1999. First policy then science: why a management unit based solely on genetic criteria cannot work. Molecular Ecology 8: S11-S16.
Utami, S.S., Goossens, B., Bruford, M.W., de Ruiter, J. and van Hoof, J.A.R.A.M. 2002. Male bimaturism and reproductive success in Sumatran orangutans. Behavioural Ecology 13: 643-652.
Van den Bussche, R.A., Hoofer, S.R., Wiedenfeld, D.A., Wolfe, D.H. and Sherrod, S.K. 2003. Genetic variation within and among fragmented populations of lesser prairie-chickens Tympanuchus pallidicinctus. Molecular Ecology 12: 675-683.
Van Dyck, S., and Crowther, M.S. 2000. Reassessment of northern representatives of the Antechinus stuartii complex (Marsupialia: Dasyuridae): A. subtropicus sp. nov. and A. adustus new status. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 45: 451-475.
Vane-Wright, R.I, Humphries, C.J. and Williams, P.H. 1991. What to protect? Systematics and the agony of choice. Biological Conservation 55: 235-254.
Vasarhelyi, K. 2002. The nature of relationships among founders in the captive population of Goeldi's monkey Callimico goeldii. Evolutionary Anthropology 11 Suppl 1: 155-158.
Waits, J.L. and Leberg, P.L. 2000. Biases associated with population estimation using molecular tagging. Animal Conservation 3: 191-199.
Waits, L. P., Luikart, G. and Taberlet, P. 2001. Estimating the probability of identity among genotypes in natural populations: cautions and guidelines. Molecular Ecology 10: 249-256.
Wakefield, N.A. and Warneke, R.M. 1967. Some revision in Antechinus (Marsupialia)-2. Victorian Naturalist 84: 69-99.
Waser, P.M. and Strobeck, C. 1998. Genetic signatures of interpopulation dispersal. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 13: 43-44.
Wilson, E.O. 1992 The diversity of life. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Wright, S. 1946. Isolation by distance under diverse systems of mating. Genetics 31: 39-59.
This content is PDF only. Please click on the PDF icon to access.

Contents

Figures & Tables

References

Alacs, E., Alpers, D., de Tores, P., Dillon, M. and Spencer, P. 2003. Identifying the presence of quokkas ( Setonix brachyurus) and other macropods using cytochrome b analyses from faeces. Wildlife Research 30: 41-47.
Allendorf, F.W., Leary, R.F., Spruell, P. and Wenburg, J.K. 2001. The problems with hybrids: Setting conservation guidelines. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 16: 613-622.
Banks, S.C., Piggott, M.P., Hansen, B.D., Robinson, N.A. and Taylor, A.C. 2002a. Wombat coprogenetics: Enumerating a common wombat population by analysis of faecal DNA. Australian Journal of Zoology 50: 193-204.
Banks, S.C., Skerratt, L.F. and Taylor, A.C. 2002b. Female dispersal and relatedness structure in the common wombat Vombatus ursinus. Journal of Zoology (London) 256: 389-399.
Banks, S.C., Hoyle, S.D., Horsup, A., Sunnucks, P. and Taylor, A.C. 2003a. Demographic monitoring of an entire species by genetic analysis of non-invasively collected material. Animal Conservation 6: 101-107.
Banks, S.C., Wilton, A.N., Horsup, A.C. and Taylor, A.C. 2003b. Genetic marker investigation of the source and impact of predation on a highly endangered species. Molecular Ecology 12: 1663-1667.
Beaumont, M.A. 1999. Detecting population expansion and decline using microsatellites. Genetics 153: 2013-2029.
Beaumont, M.A., Barratt, E.M., Gottelli, D., Kitchener, A.C., Daniels, M.J., Pritchard, J.K. and Bruford, M.W. 2001. Genetic diversity and introgression in the Scottish wildcat. Molecular Ecology 10: 319-336.
Berger, J. and Cunningham, C. 1995. Multiple bottlenecks, allopatric lineages and Badlands bison Bos bison: Consequences of lineage mixing. Biological Conservation 71: 13-23.
Bohonak, A.J. 1999. Dispersal, gene flow and population structure. Quarterly Review of Biology 74: 21-45.
Bowen, B.W. 1999. Preserving genes, species or ecosystems? Healing the fractured foundations of conservation policy. Molecular Ecology 8: S5-S10.
Brouat, C., Sennedot, F., Audiot, P., Leblois, R. and Rasplus, J.-Y. 2003. Fine-scale genetic structure of two carabid species with contrasted levels of habitat specialization. Molecular Ecology 12: 1731-1745.
Bulinski, J. and McArthur, C. 2000. Observer error in counts of macropod scats. Wildlife Research 27: 277-282.
Caughley, G. 1994. Directions in conservation biology. Journal of Animal Ecology 63: 215-244.
Clark, A.M., Bowen, B.W. and Branch, L.C. 1999. Effects of natural habitat fragmentation on an endemic scrub lizard (Sceloporus woodi): an historical perspective based on a mitochondrial DNA gene genealogy. Molecular Ecology 8: 1093-1104
Clarke, R.H., Gordon, I.R. and Clarke, F. 2001. Intraspecific phenotypic variability in the black-eared miner ( Manorina melanotis); human-facilitated introgression and the consequences for an endangered taxon. Biological Conservation 99: 145-155.
Clegg, S.M., Hale, P. and Moritz, C. 1998. Molecular population genetics of the red kangaroo ( Macropus rufus)-mtDNA variation. Molecular Ecology 7:, 679-686.
Colgan, D.J., Brown, S., Major, R.E., Christie, F., Gray, M.R. and Cassis, G. 2002. Population genetics of wolf spiders of fragmented habitat in the wheat belt of New South Wales. Molecular Ecology 11: 2295-2305.
Cooper, S.J.B., Adams, M., and Labrinidis, A. 2000. Phylogeography of the Australian dunnart Sminthopsis crassicaudata (Marsupialia: Dasyuridae). Australian Journal of Zoology 48: 461-473.
Corbett, L. 2001 The Dingo in Australia and Asia. J.B. Books, Marleston, South Australia.
Cornuet, J.M., Piry, S., Luikart, G., Estoup, A. and Solignac, M. 1999. New methods employing multilocus genotypes to select or exclude populations as origins of individuals. Genetics 153: 1989-2000.
Crandall, K.A., Bininda-Edmonds, O.R.P., Mace, G.M. and Wayne, R.K. 2000. Considering evolutionary processes in conservation biology. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 15: 290-295.
Crowther, M.S. 2002. Distributions of species of the Antechinus stuartii-A, flavipes complex as predicted by bioclimatic modelling. Australian Journal of Zoology 50: 77-91.
Crozier, R.H. 1992. Genetic diversity and the agony of choice. Biological Conservation 61: 11-15.
Crozier, R.H. 1997. Preserving the information content of species: genetic diversity, phylogeny and conservation worth. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics. 28: 243-268.
Crozier, R.H. 1999. Phylogenetic aspects of biodiversity assessment. Australian Biologist 12: 118-124.
Dickman, C.R., King, D.H., Adams, M. and Baverstock, P.R. 1988a. Electrophoretic identification of a new species of Antechinus (Marsupialia: Dasyuridae) in south-eastern Australia. Australian Journal of Zoology 36: 455-463.
Dickman, C.R., Parnaby, H.E., Crowther, M.S. and King, D.H. 1998b Antechinus agilis (Marsupialia: Dasyuridae), a new species from the A. stuartii complex in south-eastern Australia. Australian Journal of Zoology 46: 1-26.
Dickman, C.R. and Lunney, D. 2001. Last howl of the dingo: the legislative, ecological and practical issues arising from the kill-or-conserve dilemma. Pp 95-107 in A Symposium on the Dingo, edited by C. R. Dickman and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
Dunstan, C.E. and Fox, B.J. 1996. The effects of fragmentation and disturbance of rainforest on ground-dwelling small mammals on the Robertson Plateau, New South Wales, Australia. Journal of Biogeography 23: 187-201.
Edmands, S. 2002. Does parental divergence predict reproductive compatibility? Trends in Ecology and Evolution 17: 520-527.
Edmands, S. and Timmerman, C. 2003. Modeling factors affecting the severity of outbreeding depression. Conservation Biology 17: 883-892.
Eldridge, M.D.B., Kinnear, J.E. and Onus, M.L. 2001. Source population of dispersing rock-wallabies ( Petrogale lateralis) identified by assignment tests on multilocus genotypic data. Molecular Ecology 10: 2867-2876.
Elgar, M.A. and Clode, D. 2001. Inbreeding and extinction in island populations: a cautionary note. Conservation Biology 14: 284-286.
Fernando, P., Pfrender, M.E., Encalada, S.E. and Lande, R. 2000. Mitochondrial DNA variation, phylogeography and population structure of the Asian elephant. Heredity 84: 362-372.
Firestone, K.B., Elphinstone, M.S., Sherwin, W.B., and Houlden, B. 1999. Phylogenetic population structure of tiger quolls Dasyurus maculatus (Dasyuridae: Marsupialia), an endangered carnivorous marsupial. Molecular Ecology 8: 1613-1625.
Frankham, R. 1995a Conservation Genetics. Annual Review of Genetics 29: 305-327.
Frankham, R. 1995b Inbreeding and extinction: a threshold effect. Conservation Biology 9: 792-799.
Frankham, R. 1995c. Effective population size/adult population size ratios in wildlife-a review. Genetical Research 66: 95-107.
Frankham, R. 2001. Inbreeding and extinction in island populations: reply to Elgar and Clode. Conservation Biology 15: 287-289.
Fraser, D.J. and Bernatchez, L. 2001. Adaptive evolutionary conservation: towards a unified concept for defining conservation units. Molecular Ecology 10: 2741-2752.
Fumagalli, L., Pope, L., Taberlet, P. and Moritz, C. 1997. Versatile primers for the amplification of the mitochondrial DNA control region in marsupials. Molecular Ecology 6: 1199-1201.
Garnier, J.N., Bruford, M.W. and Goossens, B. 2001. Mating system and reproductive skew in the black rhinoceros. Molecular Ecology 10: 2031-2041.
Gerlach, G. and Musolf, K. 2000. Fragmentation of landscape as a cause for genetic subdivision in bank voles. Conservation Biology 14: 1066-1074.
Goldstein, D.B. and Schlotterer, C. 1999 Microsatellites: Evolution and Applications, Oxford University Press.
Hale, M.L., Lurz, P.W.W., Shirley, M.D.F., Rushton, S., Fuller, R.M. and Wolff, K. 2000. Impact of Landscape Management on the Genetic Structure of Red Squirrel Populations. Science 293: 2246-2248.
James, C.H. and Moritz, C. 2000. Intraspecific phylogeography in the sedge frog Litoria fallax (Hylidae). indicates pre-Pleistocene vicariance of an open forest species from eastern Australia. Molecular Ecology 9: 349-385.
Jamieson, A. and Taylor, St.C.S. 1997. Comparisons of three probability formulae for parentage exclusion. Animal Genetics 28: 397-400.
Jarne, P. and Lagoda, J.L. 1996. Microsatellites: from molecules to populations and back. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 11: 424-429.
Ji, W. and Leberg, P. 2002. A GIS-based approach for assessing the regional conservation status of genetic diversity, an example from the Southern Appalachians. Environmental Management 29: 531-544.
Johnson, C.N. and Jarman, P.J. 1987. Macropod studies at Wallaby Creek. VI. A validation of the use of dung-pellet counts for measuring absolute densities of populations of macropodids. Australian Wildlife Research 14: 139-145.
Johnson, M.S. 2000. Measuring and interpreting genetic structure to minimise the genetic risks of translocations. Aquaculture Research 31: 133-143.
Keller, L.F. and Waller, D.M. 2002. Inbreeding effects in wild populations. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 17: 230-241.
Keller, I. and Largiader C.R. 2003. Recent habitat fragmentation caused by major roads leads to reduction of gene flow and loss of genetic variability in ground beetles. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B 270: 417-423.
Keogh, S.J., Scott, I.A.W., Fitzgerald, M. and Shine, R. 2003. Molecular phylogeny of the Australian venomous snake genus Hoplocephalus (Serpentes, Elapidae). and conservation genetics of the threatened H. stephensii. Conservation Genetics 4:57-65.
Keogh, S.J., Scott, I.A.W. and Scanlon, J.D. 2002. Molecular phylogeny of viviparous Australian elapid snakes: affinities of Echiopsis atriceps (Storr, 1980). and Drysdalia coronata (Schlegel, 1837)., with a description of a new genus. Journal of Zoology, (London) 252:317-326.
Knight, M.E., Van Oppen, M.J.H., Smith, H.L., Rico, C., Hewitt, G.M. and Turner, G.F. 1999. Evidence for male-biased dispersal in Lake Malawi cichlids from microsatellites Molecular Ecology 8: 1521-1527.
Kocher T.D., Thomas W.K., Meyer, S.A., Edwards, S.V., Paabo S., Villablanca, F.X. and Wilson, A.C. 1989. Dynamics of mitochondrial DNA evolution in animals: amplification and sequencing with conserved primers. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 86: 6196-6200.
Kohn, M.H., York, E.C., Kamradt, D.A., Haught, G., Sauvajot, R.M. and Wayne, R.K. 1999. Estimating population size by genotyping faeces. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B 266: 657-663.
Laurance, W.F. 1994. Rainforest fragmentation and the structure of small mammal communities in tropical Queensland. Biological Conservation 69: 23-32.
Lobert, B., Lumsden, L., Brunner, H. and Triggs, B. 2001. An assessment of the accuracy and reliability of hair identification of south-east Australian mammals. Wildlife Research 28: 637-641.
Lucchini, V., Fabbri, E., Marucco, F., Ricci, S., Biotani, L. and Randi, E. 2002. Noninvasive molecular tracking of colonising wolf ( Canis lupus) packs in the western Italian Alps. Molecular Ecology 11: 857-868.
Luikart, G. and England. P.R. 1999. Statistical analysis of microsatellite DNA data. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 14: 253-256.
McNeely, J.A., Miller, K.R., Reid, W.V., Mittermeier, R.A. and Werner, T.B. 1990 Conserving the world's biological diversity. World Conservation Union.
Madsen, T., Shine, R., Olsson, M. and Wittzell, H. 1999. Restoration of an inbred adder population. Nature 402: 34-35.
Manel, S., Berthier, P. and Luikart, G. 2002. Detecting wildlife poaching: identifying the origin of individuals with Bayesian assignment tests and multilocus genotypes. Conservation Biology 16: 650-659.
Manel, S., Schwartz, M.K., Luikart, G. and Taberlet, P. 2003. Landscape genetics: combining landscape ecology and population genetics. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 18: 189-197.
Marr, A.B., Keller, L.F., Arcese, P. 2002. Heterosis and outbreeding depression in descendants of natural immigrants to an inbred population of song sparrows Melospiza melodia. Evolution 56: 131-142.
Marshall, T.C. and Spalton, J.A. 2000. Simultaneous inbreeding and outbreeding depression in reintroduced Arabian oryx. Animal Conservation 3: 241-248.
Mech, S.G. and Hallett, J.G. 2001. Evaluating the effectiveness of corridors: a genetic approach. Conservation Biology 15: 467-474.
Meffe, G.K. 1994 Principles of Conservation Biology. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA.
Metrick, A. and Weitzman, M.L. 1998. Conflicts and choices in biodiversity preservation. The Journal of Economic Perspectives 12: 21-34.
Mills, L.S., Citta, J.C., Lair, K.P., Schwartz, M.K. and Tallmon, D.A. 2000. Estimating animal abundance using noninvasive DNA sampling: promise and pitfalls. Ecological Applications 10: 283-294.
Mock, K.E., Theimer, T.C., Wakeling, B.F., Rhodes, O.E., Greenberg, D.L. and Keim, P. 2001. Verifying the origins of a reintroduced population of Gould's wild turkey. Journal of Wildlife Management 65: 871-879.
Moritz, C. 1994. Defining 'Evolutionary Significant Units' for conservation. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 9: 373-375.
Moritz, C. 1999. Conservation units and translocations: strategies for conserving evolutionary processes. Hereditas 130: 217-228.
Moritz, C. 2002. Strategies to protect biological diversity and the evolutionary processes that sustain it. Systematic Biology 51: 238-254.
Moritz, C. and Faith, D.P. 1998. Comparative phylogeography and the identification of genetically divergent areas for conservation. Molecular Ecology 7: 419-429.
Mowat, G. and Strobeck, C. 2000. Estimating population size of grizzly bears using hair capture, DNA profiling, and mark-recapture analysis. Journal of Wildlife Management 64: 183-193.
Paetkau, D. 1999. Using genetics to identify intraspecific conservation units: a critique of current methods. Conservation Biology 13: 1507-1509.
Paetkau, D., Calvert, W., Stirling, I. and Strobeck, C. 1995. Microsatellite analysis of population structure in Canadian brown bears. Molecular Ecology 4: 347-354.
Patten, M.A. and Campbell, K.F. 2000. Typological thinking and the conservation of subspecies: The case of the San Clemente Island loggerhead shrike. Diversity and Distributions 6: 177-188.
Petit, R.J., El Mousadik, A. and Pons, O. 1998. Identifying populations for conservation on the basis of genetic markers. Conservation Biology 12: 844-855.
Piertney, S.B., MacColl, A.D.C., Jackson. P.J. and Dallas, J.F. 1999. Local genetic structure in red grouse Lagopus lagopus scoticus.: evidence from microsatellite DNA markers. Molecular Ecology 7: 1645-1654.
Piggott, M.P. and Taylor, A.C. 2003. Remote collection of animal DNA and its applications in conservation management and understanding the population biology of rare and cryptic species. Wildlife Research 30: 1-13.
Primmer, C.R., Koskinen, M.T. and Piironen, J. 2000. The one that did not get away: individual assignment using microsatellite data detects a case of fishing competition fraud. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B 267: 1699-1704.
Pritchard, J.K., Stephens, M. and Donnelly, P. 2000. Inference of population structure using multilocus genotype data. Genetics 155: 945-959.
Ramey, R.R., Luikart, G. and Singer, F.J. 2000. Genetic bottlenecks resulting from restoration efforts: The case of bighorn sheep in Badlands National Park. Restoration Ecology 8: 85-90.
Rhymer, J.M. and Simberloff, D. 1996. Extinction by hybridization and introgression. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 27: 83-109.
Ryder, O. 1986. Species conservation and systematics. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 1: 9-10.
Saccheri, I., Kuussaari, M., Kankare, M., Vikman, P., Fortelius, W. and Hanski, I. 1998. Inbreeding and extinction in a butterfly metapopulation. Nature 392: 491-494.
Saiki, R.K., Scharf, S., Faloona, F., Mullis, K.B., Horn, B.T., Erlich, H.A. and Arnheim, N. 1985. Enzymatic amplification of B-globin genomic sequences and restriction site analysis for diagnosis of sickle cell anaemia. Science 230: 1350-1354.
Schauble, C.S. and Moritz, C. 2001. Comparative phylogeography of two open forest frogs from eastern Australia. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 74: 157-170.
Sherwin, W.B., Timms, P., Wilcken, J. and Houlden B. 2000. Analysis and conservation implications of koala genetics. Conservation Biology 14: 639-649.
Slatkin, M. 1995. A measure of population subdivision based on microsatellite allele frequencies. Genetics 139: 457-462.
Spencer, P.B.S., Rhind, S.G. and Eldridge, M.D.B. 2001. Phylogeographic structure within Phascogale (Marsupialia: Dasyuridae) based on partial cytochrome b sequence. Australian Journal of Zoology 49: 369-377.
Srikwan, S. and Woodruff, D. 2000. Genetic erosion in isolated small-mammal populations following rainforest fragmentation. Pp 149-172 in Genetics, demography and viability of fragmented populations, edited by Young, AG and Clarke, GM. Cambridge University Press, New York.
Storfer, A. 2003. Amphibian declines: Future directions. Diversity and Distributions 9: 151-163.
Stow, A.J., Sunnucks, P., Briscoe, D. A. and Gardner, M.G. 2001. The impact of habitat fragmentation on dispersal of Cunningham's skink Egernia cunninghami: evidence from allelic and genotypic analyses of microsatellites. Molecular Ecology 10: 867-878.
Stow, A.J. and Sunnucks, P. 2004. Inbreeding avoidance in Cunningham's skinks ( Egernia cunninghamii) in natural and fragmented habitat. Molecular Ecology 13: 443-447.
Sumner, J.M. and Dickman, C.R. 1998. Distribution and identity of species in the Antechinus stuartii-A. flavipes group (Marsupialia: Dasyuridae). in south-eastern Australia. Australian Journal of Zoology 46: 27-41.
Sunnucks, P. 2000. Efficient genetic markers for population biology. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 15: 199-203.
Sunnucks, P., Wilson, A.C.C., Beheregaray, L.B., Zenger, K., French, J. and Taylor, A.C. 2000. SSCP is not so difficult: the application and utility of single-stranded conformation polymorphism in evolutionary biology and molecular ecology. Molecular Ecology 9: 1699-1710.
Taberlet, P. and Luikart, G. 1999. Non-invasive genetic sampling and individual identification. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 68: 41-55.
Taberlet, P., Waits, L. P. and Luikart, G. 1999. Noninvasive genetic sampling: look before you leap. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 14: 323-327.
Taberlet, P., Camarra, J.J., Griffin, S., Uhres, E., Hanotte, O., Waits, L.P., Dubois-Paganon, C., Burke, T. and Bouvet, J. 1997. Noninvasive genetic tracking of the endangered Pyrenean brown bear population. Molecular Ecology 6: 869-876.
Tallmon, D.A., Draheim, M., Mills, L.S. and Allendorf, F.W. 2002. Insights into recently fragmented vole populations from combined genetic and demographic data. Molecular Ecology 11: 699-709.
Taylor, A.C., Horsup, A., Johnson, C.N., Sunnucks, P. and Sherwin, B. 1997. Relatedness structure detected by microsatellite analysis and attempted pedigree reconstruction in an endangered marsupial, the northern hairy-nosed wombat Lasiorhinus krefftii. Molecular Ecology 6: 9-19.
Taylor, A.C. 2003. Assessing the consequences of inbreeding for population fitness: past challenges and future prospects. Pp 67-81 in Reproductive Science and Integrated Conservation, edited by WV Holt, AR Pickard, JC Rodger, DE Wildt. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Taylor, B.L. and Dizon, A.E. 1999. First policy then science: why a management unit based solely on genetic criteria cannot work. Molecular Ecology 8: S11-S16.
Utami, S.S., Goossens, B., Bruford, M.W., de Ruiter, J. and van Hoof, J.A.R.A.M. 2002. Male bimaturism and reproductive success in Sumatran orangutans. Behavioural Ecology 13: 643-652.
Van den Bussche, R.A., Hoofer, S.R., Wiedenfeld, D.A., Wolfe, D.H. and Sherrod, S.K. 2003. Genetic variation within and among fragmented populations of lesser prairie-chickens Tympanuchus pallidicinctus. Molecular Ecology 12: 675-683.
Van Dyck, S., and Crowther, M.S. 2000. Reassessment of northern representatives of the Antechinus stuartii complex (Marsupialia: Dasyuridae): A. subtropicus sp. nov. and A. adustus new status. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 45: 451-475.
Vane-Wright, R.I, Humphries, C.J. and Williams, P.H. 1991. What to protect? Systematics and the agony of choice. Biological Conservation 55: 235-254.
Vasarhelyi, K. 2002. The nature of relationships among founders in the captive population of Goeldi's monkey Callimico goeldii. Evolutionary Anthropology 11 Suppl 1: 155-158.
Waits, J.L. and Leberg, P.L. 2000. Biases associated with population estimation using molecular tagging. Animal Conservation 3: 191-199.
Waits, L. P., Luikart, G. and Taberlet, P. 2001. Estimating the probability of identity among genotypes in natural populations: cautions and guidelines. Molecular Ecology 10: 249-256.
Wakefield, N.A. and Warneke, R.M. 1967. Some revision in Antechinus (Marsupialia)-2. Victorian Naturalist 84: 69-99.
Waser, P.M. and Strobeck, C. 1998. Genetic signatures of interpopulation dispersal. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 13: 43-44.
Wilson, E.O. 1992 The diversity of life. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Wright, S. 1946. Isolation by distance under diverse systems of mating. Genetics 31: 39-59.
Close Modal

or Create an Account

Close Modal
Close Modal