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Dasyurus maculatus maculatus is a forest-dependent species, the largest surviving marsupial carnivore on mainland Australia and the sole surviving member of its genus in south-east mainland Australia. It is classified as ‘Vulnerable’ nationally. The species' ecology, and the factors considered responsible for its continuing decline, are reviewed. Loss of forest cover, principally from clearing for agriculture, has resulted in fragmentation and reduction in range of approximately 50%. Clear-fell logging rotation cycles appear to be too short to enable the regrowth forest to develop the habitat characteristics required by tiger quolls. There is reasonably compelling evidence that 1080 poison baiting can cause substantial reductions in tiger quoll populations and poison baiting is likely to be at least partly responsible for the species' decline. There are no data to support competition or predation by introduced predators as a major causal factor in the continuing decline in abundance and range of the tiger quoll. Despite the lack of published studies on the ecology of theD. m. maculatus, sufficient is known to allow recommendations to be made for forest management, research and the management of the forest-farm interface.

Ambrose, G.J. 1982. An ecological and behavioural study of vertebrates using hollows in Eucalypt branches. PhD thesis, Latrobe University, Melbourne.
Archer, M. 2002. Confronting crises in conservation: a talk on the wild side. Pp 12-53 in A zoological revolution: using native fauna to assist in its own survival, edited by D. Lunney and C. Dickman. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales and Australian Museum, Mosman, NSW.
Belcher, C. A. 1994. Studies on the diet of the tiger quoll Dasyurus maculatus. MSc. Thesis. LaTrobe University, Melbourne.
Belcher, C. A. 1995. The diet of the tiger quoll, Dasyurus maculatus, in East Gippsland, Victoria. Wildlife Research 22: 341-357.
Belcher, C. A. 1998. Susceptibility of the tiger quoll, Dasyurus maculatus, and the eastern quoll, D. viverrinus, to 1080-poisoned baits in control programmes for vertebrate pests in eastern Australia. Wildlife Research 25: 33-40.
Belcher, C.A. 1999. The range, status and distribution of the spot-tailed quoll in the Otway Ranges, West Region, Regional Forest Agreement (RFA) area. Consultants report to the Department of Natural Resources and Environment, Victoria. Ecosystems Environmental Consultants, RMB 4269, Timboon, Victoria.
Belcher, C.A. 2000a. Spot-tailed quoll survey of Mount Eccles National Park. Consultants report to Parks Victoria. Ecosystems Environmental Consultants, RMB 4269, Timboon, Victoria.
Belcher, C.A. 2000b. The ecology of the tiger quoll, Dasyurus maculatus, in south-eastern Australia. PhD thesis, Deakin University, Geelong.
Belcher, C.A. 2003. Demographics of tiger quoll ( Dasyurus maculatus maculatus) populations in south-eastern Australia. Australian Journal of Zoology 51: 611-626.
Belcher, C.A. and Darrant, J.P. 2004. Home range and spatial organisation of the marsupial carnivore, Dasyurus maculatus maculatus (Marsupialia: Dasyuridae) in south-eastern Australia. J. Zoology, London 262: 271-280.
Burbidge, A.A. and McKenzie, N.L. 1989. Patterns in the modern decline of Western Australia's vertebrate fauna: causes and conservation implications. Biological Conservation 50: 143-98.
Burnett, S. 1993. The conservation status of the tiger quoll, Dasyurus maculatus gracilis in North Queensland. Queensland Department of Environment and Heritage.
Burnett, S. 1997. Colonising cane toads cause population declines in some Australian vertebrate predators: reliable anecdotal information and management implications. Pacific Conservation Biology 3: 65-72.
Catling, P.C. and Burt, R.J. 1995. Why are red foxes absent from some eucalypt forests in Eastern New South Wales? Wildlife Research 22: 535-46.
Caughley, J. 1980. Native quolls and tiger quolls. Pp 45-48 in Endangered Animals of New South Wales, edited by C. Haigh. New South Wales National Parks and Wildlife Service, Sydney.
Edgar, R. and Belcher, C. A. 1995. Spotted-tailed quoll. Pp. 67-69 in The Mammals of Australia, edited by R. Strahan. Australian Museum, Reed New Holland: Sydney.
Firestone, K.B., Elphinstone, M.S., Sherwin, W.B. and Houlden, B.A. 1999. Phylogeographical population structure of tiger quolls Dasyurus maculatus (Dasyuridae: Marsupialia), an endangered carnivorous marsupial. Molecular Ecology 8: 1613-25.
Fleay, D.H. 1932. The rare dasyures (native cats). Victorian Naturalist 49: 63-9.
Glen, A.S. 2001. Uptake of baits by non-target animals during control programmes for foxes and wild dogs. Honours thesis, School of Biological Sciences, University of Sydney.
Glen, A.S. and Dickman, C.R. 2003. Effects of bait-station design on the uptake of baits by target and non-target animals during control programmes for foxes and wild dogs. Wildlife Research 30: 147-150.
Green, R.H. 1973 The mammals of Tasmania. The author, Launceston.
Green, R.H. and Scarborough, T.J. 1990. The spotted-tailed quoll, Dasyurus maculatus (Dasyuridae, Marsupialia) in Tasmania. Tasmanian Naturalist 100: 1-15.
Howarth, M. 1992. The effects of varying intensity logging practices and time since logging on arboreal marsupials in moist hardwood forest in New South Wales. A report submitted in partial fulfillment for a Graduate Diploma in Natural Resources, University of New England, Armidale.
Iredale, T. and Troughton, E. LeG. 1934. A checklist of the mammals recorded from Australia. Australian Museum Memoirs VI, i-xi: 1-122.
Jones, M.E. and Barmuta, L.A. 1998. Diet overlap and relative abundance of sympatric dasyurid carnivores: a hypothesis of competition. Journal of Animal Ecology 67: 410-421.
Jones, M.E. and Barmuta, L.A. 2000. Niche differentiation among sympatric Australian dasyurid carnivores. Journal of Mammalogy 81: 434-447.
Jones, M.E. and Rose, R.K. 1996. Preliminary assessment of distribution and habitat associations of the spotted-tailed quoll ( Dasyurus maculatus maculatus) and eastern quoll ( D. viverrinus) in Tasmania to determine conservation and reservation status. Nature Conservation Branch, Parks and Wildlife Service. Report to the Tasmanian Regional Forest Agreement Environment and Heritage Technical Committee.
Kile, G.A., Greig, P.J. and Edgar, J.G. 1980. Tree decline in rural Victoria. Victorian Division of the Institute of Foresters of Australia: Melbourne.
King, D.R., Twigg, L.E. and Gardner, J.L. 1989. Tolerance to sodium monoflouroacetate in dasyurids from Western Australia. Australian Wildlife Research 16: 131-40.
King, D.R., Oliver, A.J. and Mead, R.J. 1978. The adaptation of some Western Australian mammals to food plants containing fluoroacetate. Australian Journal of Zoology 26: 699-712.
Körtner, G. Gresser, S. and Harden, R.H. 2003. Does fox baiting threaten the spotted-tailed quoll, Dasyurus maculatus? Wildlife Research 30:111-118.
Lindenmayer, D.B., Cunningham, R.B., Donnelly, C.F., Tanton, M.T. and Nix, H.A. 1993. The abundance and development of cavities in montane ash-type eucalypt trees in the montane forests of the Central Highlands of Victoria, south-eastern Australia. Forest Ecology and Management 60: 77-104.
Loyn, R.H., McFarlane, M.A., Chesterfield, E.A. and Harris, J.A. 1980. Forest utilization and the flora and fauna in Boola Boola State Forest in southeastern Victoria. Forest Commission of Victoria Bulletin 28.
Lunney, D. 1987. Effects of logging, fire and drought on possums and gliders in coastal forest near Bega, NSW. Australian Wildlife Research 14: 263-274.
Lunney, D. and Leary, T. 1988. The impact on native mammals of land-use changes and exotic species in the Bega District (New South Wales) since settlement. Australian Journal of Ecology 13: 67-92.
McIlroy, J.C. 1981a. The sensitivity of Australian animals to 1080 poison. I. Intra-specific variation and factors affecting acute toxicity. Australian Wildlife Research 8: 369-83.
McIlroy, J.C. 1981b. The sensitivity of Australian animals to 1080 poison. II. Marsupial and eutherian carnivores. Australian Wildlife Research 8: 385-99.
McIlroy, J.C. 1999. Species Impact Statement. Aerial baiting with 1080 poison for wild dog control in New South Wales National Parks and Wildlife Service reserves. Report to the NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service.
McIlroy, J.C. and Gifford, E.J. 1992. Secondary poisoning hazards associated with 1080-treated carrot-baiting campaigns against rabbits, Oryctolagus cuniculus. Wildlife Research 19:629-41.
Mansergh, I. 1984. The status, distribution and abundance of Dasyurus maculatus (tiger quoll) in Australia, with particular reference to Victoria. Australian Zoologist 21: 109-122.
Mansergh, I. and Belcher, C. A. 1992. Action Plan for the tiger quoll Dasyurus maculatus. Flora and Fauna Branch, Department of Natural Resources and Environment, Victoria.
Maxwell, S., Burbidge, A.A. and Morris, K. (eds) 1996. The 1996 Action Plan for Australian Marsupials and Monotremes. Wildlife Australia, Canberra.
Mead, R.J., Oliver, A.J., King, D.R. and Hubach, P.H. 1985. The co-evolutionary role of fluoroacetate in plant-animal interactions in Australia. Oikos 44: 55-60.
Munday, B.L. 1966. Diseases of Tasmania's free-living animals. Department of Agriculture Tasmania Resource Bulletin 5.
Oakwood, M. and Pritchard, D. 1999. Little evidence of toxoplasmosis in a declining species, the northern quoll ( Dasyurus hallucatus). Wildlife Research 26: 329-333.
Oliver, A.J. and King, D.R. 1983. The influence of ambient temperature on the susceptibility of mice, guinea-pigs and possums to compound 1080. Australian Wildlife Research 10: 297-302.
Pattemore, V. 1977. Effects of the pulpwood industry on wildlife in Tasmania. National Parks and Wildlife Service Tasmania, Wildlife Division Technical Report No. 77/1.
Phillip, A. 1789 The Voyage of Governor Phillip to Botany Bay. J. Stockdale, London.
Recher, H., Rohan-Jones, W. and Smith, P. 1980 Effects of the Eden woodchip industry on terrestrial vertebrates with recommendations for management. Research Note No. 42. Forestry Commission N.S.W.
Settle, G.A. 1978. The quiddity of tiger quolls. Australian Natural History 19: 164-9.
Soderquist, T.R. and Serena, M. 1993. Predicted susceptibility of Dasyurus geoffroii to canid baiting programmes: variation due to sex, season and bait type. Wildlife Research 20: 287-96.
Sullivan, J.L., Smith, F.A. and Garman, R.H. 1979. Effects of fluoracetate on the testis of the rat. Journal of Reproductive Fertility 56, 201-7.
Troughton, E. LeG. 1954. The marsupial tiger cat. Birth and growth in captivity. Australian Museum Magazine 11: 200-202.
Twigg, L.E. and King, D.R. 1991. The impact of fluoroacetate-bearing vegetation on native Australian fauna: a review. Oikos 61: 412-430.
Tyndale-Biscoe, C.H. and Smith, R.F. 1969. Studies on the marsupial glider Schoinobates volans (Kerr). III. Response to habitat destruction. Journal of Animal Ecology 38:651-659.
Tyndale-Biscoe, C.H. and Calaby, J.H. 1975. Eucalypt forests as refuge for wildlife. Australian Forestry 38: 117-33.
Watt, A. 1993. Conservation status and draft management plan for Dasyurus maculatus and D. hallucatus in southern Queensland. Department of Environment and Heritage, Queensland.
Williams, J. and Marshall, A. 2000. SFNSW-NPWS Mid North Coast Regions Joint Predator Control and Monitoring Exercise-Initial Results. State Forests of NSW and National Parks and Wildlife Service: Port Macquarie.
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Ambrose, G.J. 1982. An ecological and behavioural study of vertebrates using hollows in Eucalypt branches. PhD thesis, Latrobe University, Melbourne.
Archer, M. 2002. Confronting crises in conservation: a talk on the wild side. Pp 12-53 in A zoological revolution: using native fauna to assist in its own survival, edited by D. Lunney and C. Dickman. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales and Australian Museum, Mosman, NSW.
Belcher, C. A. 1994. Studies on the diet of the tiger quoll Dasyurus maculatus. MSc. Thesis. LaTrobe University, Melbourne.
Belcher, C. A. 1995. The diet of the tiger quoll, Dasyurus maculatus, in East Gippsland, Victoria. Wildlife Research 22: 341-357.
Belcher, C. A. 1998. Susceptibility of the tiger quoll, Dasyurus maculatus, and the eastern quoll, D. viverrinus, to 1080-poisoned baits in control programmes for vertebrate pests in eastern Australia. Wildlife Research 25: 33-40.
Belcher, C.A. 1999. The range, status and distribution of the spot-tailed quoll in the Otway Ranges, West Region, Regional Forest Agreement (RFA) area. Consultants report to the Department of Natural Resources and Environment, Victoria. Ecosystems Environmental Consultants, RMB 4269, Timboon, Victoria.
Belcher, C.A. 2000a. Spot-tailed quoll survey of Mount Eccles National Park. Consultants report to Parks Victoria. Ecosystems Environmental Consultants, RMB 4269, Timboon, Victoria.
Belcher, C.A. 2000b. The ecology of the tiger quoll, Dasyurus maculatus, in south-eastern Australia. PhD thesis, Deakin University, Geelong.
Belcher, C.A. 2003. Demographics of tiger quoll ( Dasyurus maculatus maculatus) populations in south-eastern Australia. Australian Journal of Zoology 51: 611-626.
Belcher, C.A. and Darrant, J.P. 2004. Home range and spatial organisation of the marsupial carnivore, Dasyurus maculatus maculatus (Marsupialia: Dasyuridae) in south-eastern Australia. J. Zoology, London 262: 271-280.
Burbidge, A.A. and McKenzie, N.L. 1989. Patterns in the modern decline of Western Australia's vertebrate fauna: causes and conservation implications. Biological Conservation 50: 143-98.
Burnett, S. 1993. The conservation status of the tiger quoll, Dasyurus maculatus gracilis in North Queensland. Queensland Department of Environment and Heritage.
Burnett, S. 1997. Colonising cane toads cause population declines in some Australian vertebrate predators: reliable anecdotal information and management implications. Pacific Conservation Biology 3: 65-72.
Catling, P.C. and Burt, R.J. 1995. Why are red foxes absent from some eucalypt forests in Eastern New South Wales? Wildlife Research 22: 535-46.
Caughley, J. 1980. Native quolls and tiger quolls. Pp 45-48 in Endangered Animals of New South Wales, edited by C. Haigh. New South Wales National Parks and Wildlife Service, Sydney.
Edgar, R. and Belcher, C. A. 1995. Spotted-tailed quoll. Pp. 67-69 in The Mammals of Australia, edited by R. Strahan. Australian Museum, Reed New Holland: Sydney.
Firestone, K.B., Elphinstone, M.S., Sherwin, W.B. and Houlden, B.A. 1999. Phylogeographical population structure of tiger quolls Dasyurus maculatus (Dasyuridae: Marsupialia), an endangered carnivorous marsupial. Molecular Ecology 8: 1613-25.
Fleay, D.H. 1932. The rare dasyures (native cats). Victorian Naturalist 49: 63-9.
Glen, A.S. 2001. Uptake of baits by non-target animals during control programmes for foxes and wild dogs. Honours thesis, School of Biological Sciences, University of Sydney.
Glen, A.S. and Dickman, C.R. 2003. Effects of bait-station design on the uptake of baits by target and non-target animals during control programmes for foxes and wild dogs. Wildlife Research 30: 147-150.
Green, R.H. 1973 The mammals of Tasmania. The author, Launceston.
Green, R.H. and Scarborough, T.J. 1990. The spotted-tailed quoll, Dasyurus maculatus (Dasyuridae, Marsupialia) in Tasmania. Tasmanian Naturalist 100: 1-15.
Howarth, M. 1992. The effects of varying intensity logging practices and time since logging on arboreal marsupials in moist hardwood forest in New South Wales. A report submitted in partial fulfillment for a Graduate Diploma in Natural Resources, University of New England, Armidale.
Iredale, T. and Troughton, E. LeG. 1934. A checklist of the mammals recorded from Australia. Australian Museum Memoirs VI, i-xi: 1-122.
Jones, M.E. and Barmuta, L.A. 1998. Diet overlap and relative abundance of sympatric dasyurid carnivores: a hypothesis of competition. Journal of Animal Ecology 67: 410-421.
Jones, M.E. and Barmuta, L.A. 2000. Niche differentiation among sympatric Australian dasyurid carnivores. Journal of Mammalogy 81: 434-447.
Jones, M.E. and Rose, R.K. 1996. Preliminary assessment of distribution and habitat associations of the spotted-tailed quoll ( Dasyurus maculatus maculatus) and eastern quoll ( D. viverrinus) in Tasmania to determine conservation and reservation status. Nature Conservation Branch, Parks and Wildlife Service. Report to the Tasmanian Regional Forest Agreement Environment and Heritage Technical Committee.
Kile, G.A., Greig, P.J. and Edgar, J.G. 1980. Tree decline in rural Victoria. Victorian Division of the Institute of Foresters of Australia: Melbourne.
King, D.R., Twigg, L.E. and Gardner, J.L. 1989. Tolerance to sodium monoflouroacetate in dasyurids from Western Australia. Australian Wildlife Research 16: 131-40.
King, D.R., Oliver, A.J. and Mead, R.J. 1978. The adaptation of some Western Australian mammals to food plants containing fluoroacetate. Australian Journal of Zoology 26: 699-712.
Körtner, G. Gresser, S. and Harden, R.H. 2003. Does fox baiting threaten the spotted-tailed quoll, Dasyurus maculatus? Wildlife Research 30:111-118.
Lindenmayer, D.B., Cunningham, R.B., Donnelly, C.F., Tanton, M.T. and Nix, H.A. 1993. The abundance and development of cavities in montane ash-type eucalypt trees in the montane forests of the Central Highlands of Victoria, south-eastern Australia. Forest Ecology and Management 60: 77-104.
Loyn, R.H., McFarlane, M.A., Chesterfield, E.A. and Harris, J.A. 1980. Forest utilization and the flora and fauna in Boola Boola State Forest in southeastern Victoria. Forest Commission of Victoria Bulletin 28.
Lunney, D. 1987. Effects of logging, fire and drought on possums and gliders in coastal forest near Bega, NSW. Australian Wildlife Research 14: 263-274.
Lunney, D. and Leary, T. 1988. The impact on native mammals of land-use changes and exotic species in the Bega District (New South Wales) since settlement. Australian Journal of Ecology 13: 67-92.
McIlroy, J.C. 1981a. The sensitivity of Australian animals to 1080 poison. I. Intra-specific variation and factors affecting acute toxicity. Australian Wildlife Research 8: 369-83.
McIlroy, J.C. 1981b. The sensitivity of Australian animals to 1080 poison. II. Marsupial and eutherian carnivores. Australian Wildlife Research 8: 385-99.
McIlroy, J.C. 1999. Species Impact Statement. Aerial baiting with 1080 poison for wild dog control in New South Wales National Parks and Wildlife Service reserves. Report to the NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service.
McIlroy, J.C. and Gifford, E.J. 1992. Secondary poisoning hazards associated with 1080-treated carrot-baiting campaigns against rabbits, Oryctolagus cuniculus. Wildlife Research 19:629-41.
Mansergh, I. 1984. The status, distribution and abundance of Dasyurus maculatus (tiger quoll) in Australia, with particular reference to Victoria. Australian Zoologist 21: 109-122.
Mansergh, I. and Belcher, C. A. 1992. Action Plan for the tiger quoll Dasyurus maculatus. Flora and Fauna Branch, Department of Natural Resources and Environment, Victoria.
Maxwell, S., Burbidge, A.A. and Morris, K. (eds) 1996. The 1996 Action Plan for Australian Marsupials and Monotremes. Wildlife Australia, Canberra.
Mead, R.J., Oliver, A.J., King, D.R. and Hubach, P.H. 1985. The co-evolutionary role of fluoroacetate in plant-animal interactions in Australia. Oikos 44: 55-60.
Munday, B.L. 1966. Diseases of Tasmania's free-living animals. Department of Agriculture Tasmania Resource Bulletin 5.
Oakwood, M. and Pritchard, D. 1999. Little evidence of toxoplasmosis in a declining species, the northern quoll ( Dasyurus hallucatus). Wildlife Research 26: 329-333.
Oliver, A.J. and King, D.R. 1983. The influence of ambient temperature on the susceptibility of mice, guinea-pigs and possums to compound 1080. Australian Wildlife Research 10: 297-302.
Pattemore, V. 1977. Effects of the pulpwood industry on wildlife in Tasmania. National Parks and Wildlife Service Tasmania, Wildlife Division Technical Report No. 77/1.
Phillip, A. 1789 The Voyage of Governor Phillip to Botany Bay. J. Stockdale, London.
Recher, H., Rohan-Jones, W. and Smith, P. 1980 Effects of the Eden woodchip industry on terrestrial vertebrates with recommendations for management. Research Note No. 42. Forestry Commission N.S.W.
Settle, G.A. 1978. The quiddity of tiger quolls. Australian Natural History 19: 164-9.
Soderquist, T.R. and Serena, M. 1993. Predicted susceptibility of Dasyurus geoffroii to canid baiting programmes: variation due to sex, season and bait type. Wildlife Research 20: 287-96.
Sullivan, J.L., Smith, F.A. and Garman, R.H. 1979. Effects of fluoracetate on the testis of the rat. Journal of Reproductive Fertility 56, 201-7.
Troughton, E. LeG. 1954. The marsupial tiger cat. Birth and growth in captivity. Australian Museum Magazine 11: 200-202.
Twigg, L.E. and King, D.R. 1991. The impact of fluoroacetate-bearing vegetation on native Australian fauna: a review. Oikos 61: 412-430.
Tyndale-Biscoe, C.H. and Smith, R.F. 1969. Studies on the marsupial glider Schoinobates volans (Kerr). III. Response to habitat destruction. Journal of Animal Ecology 38:651-659.
Tyndale-Biscoe, C.H. and Calaby, J.H. 1975. Eucalypt forests as refuge for wildlife. Australian Forestry 38: 117-33.
Watt, A. 1993. Conservation status and draft management plan for Dasyurus maculatus and D. hallucatus in southern Queensland. Department of Environment and Heritage, Queensland.
Williams, J. and Marshall, A. 2000. SFNSW-NPWS Mid North Coast Regions Joint Predator Control and Monitoring Exercise-Initial Results. State Forests of NSW and National Parks and Wildlife Service: Port Macquarie.
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