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The northern Spotted-tailed QuollDasyurus maculatus gracilis is Endangered (QNCA 1994; EPBC Act 1999). This study therefore aims to develop a model for the species recovery in north Queensland. Due to the threatened status ofD. m. maculatus in all mainland states in which it occurs, and the similarity in threatening processes in these states, the model presented below is also broadly applicable throughout the species range. Fieldwork and desktop studies were conducted between 1992 and 1994 inclusive within the Wet Tropics Area of north Queensland. The ecology ofD. m. gracilis was studied in the field using capture-mark-recapture, radio-telemetry, mapping of latrine sites, scat analysis and quantification of the prey community. The distribution and abundance of the species within north Queensland was documented by accessing sighting records from a range of unpublished and published sources and by field survey. A rank-scoring approach was used to elucidate the potential impacts of eutherian carnivores onD. m. gracilis. These data are presented as a conceptual model for the species' conservation, based on the pressure-state-response model developed by the OECD and used in Australian State of the Environment reporting. This model identifies three ecological constraints and eight pressures which act to endanger populations of the Spotted-tailed Quoll in north Queensland. Ten responses required by managers and the community to ameliorate these pressures and return the species to a secure conservation status are also identified. Population Viability Analyses and patterns of historical extinction of marsupial carnivores suggest that even if other pressures are managed, the continued presence of feral populations of eutherian carnivores poses a serious threat to the survival of Australia's marsupial carnivores over evolutionary time.

Archer, M. 2002. Confronting crises in conservation: a talk on the wild side. Pp. 12-52 in A Zoological revolution. Using native fauna to assist in its own survival, edited by D. Lunney and C. Dickman. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, and the Australian Museum, Sydney.
Belcher, C.A. 1995. Diet of the Tiger quoll ( Dasyurus maculatus) in East Gippsland, Victoria. Wildlife Research. 22: 341-57.
Belcher, C. 1998. Susceptibility of the Tiger Quoll, D. maculatus, and the Eastern Quoll, D. viverrinus, to 1080-poisoned baits in control programs for vertebrate pests in eastern Australia. Australian Wildlife Research. 25: 33-40.
Belcher, C. 2003. Demographics of tiger quoll ( Dasyurus maculatus maculatus) populations in south-eastern Australia. Australian Journal of Zoology. 51: 611-626.
Bennett, A. F. 1990. Land use, forest fragmentation and the mammalian fauna at Naringal, south-western Victoria. Australian Wildlife Research. 17: 325-47.
Burnett, S. 1997. Colonising Cane Toads cause population declines in native predators: reliable anecdotal information and management implications. Pacific Conservation Biology 3: 65-72.
Burnett, S. E. 2001 Ecology and conservation status of the Spotted-tailed quoll Dasyurus maculatus with reference to the future of Australia's carnivorous mammals. PhD Thesis, James Cook University of North Queensland, Townsville.
Catling, P.C., and Burt, R.J. 1994. Studies of ground-dwelling mammals of Eucalypt forests in south-eastern New South Wales: the species, their abundance and distribution. Wildlife Research. 21: 219-39.
Catling, P. C. and Burt, R. J. 1997. Studies of ground-dwelling mammals of Eucalypt forests in north-eastern New South Wales: the species, their abundance and distribution. Wildlife Research. 24: 1-19.
Caughley, G. and Gunn, A. 1996 Conservation biology in theory and practice. Blackwell Scientific; Cambridge.
Christensen, P. and Burrows, 1994. Project desert dreaming: experimental reintroduction of mammals to the Gibson Desert, W. A. Pp. 199-207 in Reintroduction biology of Australian and new Zealand fauna. Edited by M. Serena. Surrey Beatty and Sons, Chipping Norton, NSW.
Collins, M. 1994. Patterns and rates of rainforest conversion on the Atherton and Evelyn Tablelands, northeastern Queensland, 1978-1988. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Queensland. 104: 1-10.
Commonwealth of Australia 2000 The Heat is on: Australia's greenhouse future. Report to the Senate Environment, Communication, Information Technology and the arts references committee, November 2000 (Submission # 220; Dr Barry Pittock).
Covacevich, J. and Archer, M. 1975. The distribution of the Cane toad, Bufo marinus, in Australia and its effects on indigenous vertebrates. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum. 17: 305-10.
Dixon, J. (ed.) 1974 Gould's Australian marsupials and monotremes, Fascimile edition. Macmillan Press, Melbourne.
Edgar, R. and Belcher, C. 1995. Spotted-tailed quoll Dasyurus maculatus. Pp. 67-68 in The Mammals of Australia, edited by R. Strahan. Australian Museum and Reed Books: Sydney.
Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999. Commonwealth of Australia.
Firestone, K., Elphinstone, M. S., Sherwin, W. B., and Houlden, B. A. 1999. Phylogeographical population structure of tiger quolls Dasyurus maculatus (Dasyuridae: Marsupialia), an endangered carnivorous marsupial. Molecular Ecology. 8: 1613-1625.
Frawley, K. J. 1987 The Maalan group settlement north Queensland 1954. Monograph Series 2. University of New South Wales. Australian Defence Force Academy.
Green, R. and Scarborough, T. 1990. The Spotted-tailed quoll Dasyurus maculatus in Tasmania. The Tasmanian Naturalist. 100: 1-15.
Hilbert, D. W., Ostendorf, B., and Hopkins, M. 2001. Sensitivity of tropical forests to climate change in the humid tropics of north Queensland. Austral Ecology 26:590-603.
Hopwood, P. 2002. Native Australian mammals as pets: an overview. Pp. 77-83 in A Zoological revolution. Using native fauna to assist in its own survival, edited by D. Lunney and C. Dickman. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, and the Australian Museum, Sydney.
Jackson, S. 2003 Australian mammals. Biology and captive management. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Victoria.
Jarman, P. 1986. The Red fox- an exotic large predator. Pp. 44-61The ecology of exotic animals and plants edited by R. L Kitching. John Wiley and Sons, Brisbane.
Kanowski, J. 2001. Effects of elevated CO2 on the foliar chemistry of seedlings of two rainforest trees from north-east Australia. Austral Ecology 26: 165-172.
Kortner, G. Gresser, S. and Harden, B. 2003. Does Fox baiting threaten the spotted-tailed quoll, Dasyurus maculatus? Wildlife Research 30: 111-118.
Krockenberger, A. K, Kitching, R.L. and Turton, S. M. 2004 Environmental crisis: climate change and biodiversity in Queensland. Cooperative Research Centre for Tropical Rainforest Ecology and management. Rainforest CRC, Cairns.
Laurance, W. F. 1989 Ecological impacts of tropical forest fragmentation on nonflying mammals and their habitats. Unpublished PhD Thesis, University of California, Berkeley, USA.
Long, J., Archer, M., Flannery, T., and hand, S. 2002 Prehistoric mammals of Australia and New Guinea. University of New South Wales Press Ltd, Sydney.
Lunney, D., and Leary, T. 1988. The impact on native mammals of land-use changes and exotic species in the Bega district, New South Wales, since settlement. Australian Journal of Ecology 13: 67-92.
Maxwell, S., Burbidge, A. and Morris, K. (eds). 1996 The 1996 Action Plan for Australian Marsupials and Monotremes. Endangered Species Program Project Number 500. Wildlife Australia: Canberra.
Mansergh, I. 1984. The status, distribution and abundance of Dasyurus maculatus (Tiger quoll) in Australia, with particular reference to Victoria. Australian Zoologist 21(2): 109-122.
McIlroy, J.C. 1981. The sensitivity of Australian animals to 1080 poison. II. Marsupial and eutherian carnivores. Australian Wildlife Research. 8: 385-99.
Menkhorst, P. (ed.) 1995 Mammals of Victoria: distribution, ecology and conservation. Oxford University Press, Melbourne.
Murray, A. 1998. Tigers and 1080The threat posed by buried poison baits to Spotted-tailed Quolls in the Australian Alps National Parks. Report to the Natural Heritage Working Group of the Australian Alps Liaison Committee. Project No. 3.6, 1995-1996 works program.
Murray, A. J., Belcher, C., Poole, R.N., and Darrant, J. 2000 The effect of aerial baiting on a population of Spotted-tailed Quolls. Unpublished Report to Alps Liaison Committee and New South Wales National Parks and Wildlife Service.
Nix, H. and Switzer, M. 1991 Rainforest animals. Atlas of vertebrates endemic to Australia's Wet Tropics. Kowari 1. Australian National Parks and Wildlife Service, Canberra.
Oakwood, M. and Hopwood, P. 1999. A survey of the attributes and requirements of quolls that may affect their suitability as household pets. Australian Zoologist. 31(2): 365- 375.
Queensland Nature Conservation (Wildlife) Regulation. 1994. Reprint 2G. Queensland Government.
Queensland Department of Natural Resources 1997 Vertebrate Pesticide Manual. A guide to the use of Vertebrate Pesticides in Queensland. Department of Natural Resources, Land Protection Branch. Brisbane.
Seabrook, W.A. and Dettman, E. B. 1996. Roads as activity corridors for Cane Toads in Australia. Journal of Wildlife Management. 60: 363-368.
Short, E. 1988 The nation builders. Edgar Short, Yungaburra.
Sutherst, R.W., Floyd, R. B., and Maywald, G. F. 1995. The potential geographical distribution of the Cane Toad, Bufo marinus L., in Australia. Conservation Biology 9(6): 294-299.
Watson, M., and Woinarski, J. 2003 Vertebrate monitoring and resampling in Kakadu National Park, 2002. Report to Parks Australia North. (Parks and Wildlife Commission of the Northern Territory: Darwin.)
Watt, A. M. 1993 Conservation status and draft management plan for Dasyurus maculatus and Dasyurus hallucatus in southern Queensland. Unpublished report to Queensland Department of Environment and Heritage, Brisbane.
Williams, S.E., Bolitho, E.E., and Fox, S. 2003. Climate change in Australian tropical rainforests: an impending environmental catastrophe. Proceedings of the Royal Society, London. Series B. In press.
Winter, J. W., Bell, F. C., Pahl, L., and Atherton, R. 1984 The specific habitats of selected northeastern Australian rainforest mammals. Report to World Wide Fund For Nature.
Winter, J. W., Bell, F. C., Pahl, L., and Atherton, R. 1987. Rainforest clearfelling in northeastern Australia. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Queensland. 98: 41-57.
Wroe, S. 2003. Chapter 7. Australian marsupial carnivores: recent advances in palaeontology. Pp. 102-123 in Predators with pouches The biology of carnivorous marsupials, edited by M, Jones, C. Dickman, and M. Archer. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood.
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References

Archer, M. 2002. Confronting crises in conservation: a talk on the wild side. Pp. 12-52 in A Zoological revolution. Using native fauna to assist in its own survival, edited by D. Lunney and C. Dickman. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, and the Australian Museum, Sydney.
Belcher, C.A. 1995. Diet of the Tiger quoll ( Dasyurus maculatus) in East Gippsland, Victoria. Wildlife Research. 22: 341-57.
Belcher, C. 1998. Susceptibility of the Tiger Quoll, D. maculatus, and the Eastern Quoll, D. viverrinus, to 1080-poisoned baits in control programs for vertebrate pests in eastern Australia. Australian Wildlife Research. 25: 33-40.
Belcher, C. 2003. Demographics of tiger quoll ( Dasyurus maculatus maculatus) populations in south-eastern Australia. Australian Journal of Zoology. 51: 611-626.
Bennett, A. F. 1990. Land use, forest fragmentation and the mammalian fauna at Naringal, south-western Victoria. Australian Wildlife Research. 17: 325-47.
Burnett, S. 1997. Colonising Cane Toads cause population declines in native predators: reliable anecdotal information and management implications. Pacific Conservation Biology 3: 65-72.
Burnett, S. E. 2001 Ecology and conservation status of the Spotted-tailed quoll Dasyurus maculatus with reference to the future of Australia's carnivorous mammals. PhD Thesis, James Cook University of North Queensland, Townsville.
Catling, P.C., and Burt, R.J. 1994. Studies of ground-dwelling mammals of Eucalypt forests in south-eastern New South Wales: the species, their abundance and distribution. Wildlife Research. 21: 219-39.
Catling, P. C. and Burt, R. J. 1997. Studies of ground-dwelling mammals of Eucalypt forests in north-eastern New South Wales: the species, their abundance and distribution. Wildlife Research. 24: 1-19.
Caughley, G. and Gunn, A. 1996 Conservation biology in theory and practice. Blackwell Scientific; Cambridge.
Christensen, P. and Burrows, 1994. Project desert dreaming: experimental reintroduction of mammals to the Gibson Desert, W. A. Pp. 199-207 in Reintroduction biology of Australian and new Zealand fauna. Edited by M. Serena. Surrey Beatty and Sons, Chipping Norton, NSW.
Collins, M. 1994. Patterns and rates of rainforest conversion on the Atherton and Evelyn Tablelands, northeastern Queensland, 1978-1988. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Queensland. 104: 1-10.
Commonwealth of Australia 2000 The Heat is on: Australia's greenhouse future. Report to the Senate Environment, Communication, Information Technology and the arts references committee, November 2000 (Submission # 220; Dr Barry Pittock).
Covacevich, J. and Archer, M. 1975. The distribution of the Cane toad, Bufo marinus, in Australia and its effects on indigenous vertebrates. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum. 17: 305-10.
Dixon, J. (ed.) 1974 Gould's Australian marsupials and monotremes, Fascimile edition. Macmillan Press, Melbourne.
Edgar, R. and Belcher, C. 1995. Spotted-tailed quoll Dasyurus maculatus. Pp. 67-68 in The Mammals of Australia, edited by R. Strahan. Australian Museum and Reed Books: Sydney.
Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999. Commonwealth of Australia.
Firestone, K., Elphinstone, M. S., Sherwin, W. B., and Houlden, B. A. 1999. Phylogeographical population structure of tiger quolls Dasyurus maculatus (Dasyuridae: Marsupialia), an endangered carnivorous marsupial. Molecular Ecology. 8: 1613-1625.
Frawley, K. J. 1987 The Maalan group settlement north Queensland 1954. Monograph Series 2. University of New South Wales. Australian Defence Force Academy.
Green, R. and Scarborough, T. 1990. The Spotted-tailed quoll Dasyurus maculatus in Tasmania. The Tasmanian Naturalist. 100: 1-15.
Hilbert, D. W., Ostendorf, B., and Hopkins, M. 2001. Sensitivity of tropical forests to climate change in the humid tropics of north Queensland. Austral Ecology 26:590-603.
Hopwood, P. 2002. Native Australian mammals as pets: an overview. Pp. 77-83 in A Zoological revolution. Using native fauna to assist in its own survival, edited by D. Lunney and C. Dickman. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, and the Australian Museum, Sydney.
Jackson, S. 2003 Australian mammals. Biology and captive management. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Victoria.
Jarman, P. 1986. The Red fox- an exotic large predator. Pp. 44-61The ecology of exotic animals and plants edited by R. L Kitching. John Wiley and Sons, Brisbane.
Kanowski, J. 2001. Effects of elevated CO2 on the foliar chemistry of seedlings of two rainforest trees from north-east Australia. Austral Ecology 26: 165-172.
Kortner, G. Gresser, S. and Harden, B. 2003. Does Fox baiting threaten the spotted-tailed quoll, Dasyurus maculatus? Wildlife Research 30: 111-118.
Krockenberger, A. K, Kitching, R.L. and Turton, S. M. 2004 Environmental crisis: climate change and biodiversity in Queensland. Cooperative Research Centre for Tropical Rainforest Ecology and management. Rainforest CRC, Cairns.
Laurance, W. F. 1989 Ecological impacts of tropical forest fragmentation on nonflying mammals and their habitats. Unpublished PhD Thesis, University of California, Berkeley, USA.
Long, J., Archer, M., Flannery, T., and hand, S. 2002 Prehistoric mammals of Australia and New Guinea. University of New South Wales Press Ltd, Sydney.
Lunney, D., and Leary, T. 1988. The impact on native mammals of land-use changes and exotic species in the Bega district, New South Wales, since settlement. Australian Journal of Ecology 13: 67-92.
Maxwell, S., Burbidge, A. and Morris, K. (eds). 1996 The 1996 Action Plan for Australian Marsupials and Monotremes. Endangered Species Program Project Number 500. Wildlife Australia: Canberra.
Mansergh, I. 1984. The status, distribution and abundance of Dasyurus maculatus (Tiger quoll) in Australia, with particular reference to Victoria. Australian Zoologist 21(2): 109-122.
McIlroy, J.C. 1981. The sensitivity of Australian animals to 1080 poison. II. Marsupial and eutherian carnivores. Australian Wildlife Research. 8: 385-99.
Menkhorst, P. (ed.) 1995 Mammals of Victoria: distribution, ecology and conservation. Oxford University Press, Melbourne.
Murray, A. 1998. Tigers and 1080The threat posed by buried poison baits to Spotted-tailed Quolls in the Australian Alps National Parks. Report to the Natural Heritage Working Group of the Australian Alps Liaison Committee. Project No. 3.6, 1995-1996 works program.
Murray, A. J., Belcher, C., Poole, R.N., and Darrant, J. 2000 The effect of aerial baiting on a population of Spotted-tailed Quolls. Unpublished Report to Alps Liaison Committee and New South Wales National Parks and Wildlife Service.
Nix, H. and Switzer, M. 1991 Rainforest animals. Atlas of vertebrates endemic to Australia's Wet Tropics. Kowari 1. Australian National Parks and Wildlife Service, Canberra.
Oakwood, M. and Hopwood, P. 1999. A survey of the attributes and requirements of quolls that may affect their suitability as household pets. Australian Zoologist. 31(2): 365- 375.
Queensland Nature Conservation (Wildlife) Regulation. 1994. Reprint 2G. Queensland Government.
Queensland Department of Natural Resources 1997 Vertebrate Pesticide Manual. A guide to the use of Vertebrate Pesticides in Queensland. Department of Natural Resources, Land Protection Branch. Brisbane.
Seabrook, W.A. and Dettman, E. B. 1996. Roads as activity corridors for Cane Toads in Australia. Journal of Wildlife Management. 60: 363-368.
Short, E. 1988 The nation builders. Edgar Short, Yungaburra.
Sutherst, R.W., Floyd, R. B., and Maywald, G. F. 1995. The potential geographical distribution of the Cane Toad, Bufo marinus L., in Australia. Conservation Biology 9(6): 294-299.
Watson, M., and Woinarski, J. 2003 Vertebrate monitoring and resampling in Kakadu National Park, 2002. Report to Parks Australia North. (Parks and Wildlife Commission of the Northern Territory: Darwin.)
Watt, A. M. 1993 Conservation status and draft management plan for Dasyurus maculatus and Dasyurus hallucatus in southern Queensland. Unpublished report to Queensland Department of Environment and Heritage, Brisbane.
Williams, S.E., Bolitho, E.E., and Fox, S. 2003. Climate change in Australian tropical rainforests: an impending environmental catastrophe. Proceedings of the Royal Society, London. Series B. In press.
Winter, J. W., Bell, F. C., Pahl, L., and Atherton, R. 1984 The specific habitats of selected northeastern Australian rainforest mammals. Report to World Wide Fund For Nature.
Winter, J. W., Bell, F. C., Pahl, L., and Atherton, R. 1987. Rainforest clearfelling in northeastern Australia. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Queensland. 98: 41-57.
Wroe, S. 2003. Chapter 7. Australian marsupial carnivores: recent advances in palaeontology. Pp. 102-123 in Predators with pouches The biology of carnivorous marsupials, edited by M, Jones, C. Dickman, and M. Archer. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood.
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