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The squirrel gliderPetaurus norfolcensis is listed as a vulnerable species across New South Wales. The population in the Wagga Wagga Local Government Area was considered to be at a higher level of threat (i.e. in immediate danger of extinction) and was classified as an endangered population in 2000. The determination to list this population was made largely on the basis of limited point locality records of the species and an assessment of the extent of habitat clearing. This decision to designate the population as endangered was valid at the time and we do not dispute the fact that squirrel gliders within the Wagga LGA are at serious risk of extinction. However, recent surveys have revealed that the species is more widespread across the South West Slopes Bioregion of NSW than initially recognised. Despite this situation, the future conservation status of the squirrel glider is still uncertain due to extensive historic clearing and fragmentation of habitat as well as ongoing incremental loss and degradation of key resources. The new information about the distribution of squirrel gliders raises questions about the most effective approach, including the spatial scale, at which to manage and recover widespread but vulnerable species. We recommend that a landscape-scale approach that incorporates metapopulation theory be adopted to define and manage disjunct populations. There are likely to be numerous disjunct populations across the south-west slopes that are as equally endangered as the population(s) in the Wagga LGA. Therefore, a necessary first step in recovering squirrel gliders is to develop habitat models that describe and predict the occurrence of the species and delineate population boundaries. Other critical steps include: (i) reducing threats; (ii) maintaining a perpetual supply of key resources; and (iii) undertaking strategically located revegetation programs to increase total habitat and link isolated populations. Finally, the need to test and potentially revise the feedback process under theThreatened Species Conservation Act 1995 is also recommended.

Benson, J.S. and Ashby, E.M. 2000. Vegetation of the Guyra 1:100000 map sheet New England Bioregion, New South Wales. Cunninghamia 6(3): 747-872.
Bos, D. and Lockwood, M. 1996. Flora, Fauna and Other Features of the South West Slopes Biogeographic Region, New South Wales. Charles Sturt University, Johnstone Centre of Parks, Recreation and Heritage, 1996.
Channing, S. A. 2000. The Value of Linear Bushland Fragments as Habitat for Arboreal Marsupials, Nocturnal Birds and Microbats. Honours Thesis, Department of Forestry, Australian National University, Canberra.
Claridge, D. L. and Tidemann, C. R. 2001. Biodiversity Survey of Jindalee State Forest, New South Wales. A consultancy report prepared for the NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service. School of Resources, Environment and Society, The Australian National University, Canberra.
Gaia Research Pty Ltd. 1999a. Fauna Assessment “Boona” and “Cains” Boorowa. A consultancy report prepared for the NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service. May 1999.
Gaia Research Pty Ltd. 1999b. Fauna Assessment for Voluntary Conservation Agreement Williams Property “Kurawatha” and Dananbilla Nature Reserve. A consultancy report prepared for the NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service. December 1999.
Gall, B. 1982. The Southwest Slopes Fauna Survey. NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service, Queanbeyan, New South Wales.
Gibbons, P. and Boak, M. 2002. The value of paddock trees for regional conservation in an agricultural landscape. Ecological Management and Restoration 3: 205-210.
Gibbons, P. and Lindenmayer, D. B. 2002 Tree Hollows and Wildlife Conservation in Australia. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.
Goudet, J., Perrin, N., and Waser, P. 2002. Test for sex-biased dispersal using bi-parentally inherited genetic markers. Molecular Ecology 11: 1103-1114.
Hanski, I. 1999 Metapopulation Ecology. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Holland, G. J. 1998. Time Budget and Related Aspects of the Foraging Behaviour and Habitat Use of the Squirrel Glider Petaurus norfolcensis. Honours thesis, School of Ecology and Environment Deakin University, Clayton.
Lunney, D., Curtin, A. L., Ayers, D., Cogger, H. G., Dickman, C. R., Maitz, W., Law, B. and Fisher, D. 2000. The threatened and non-threatened native vertebrate fauna of New South Wales: status and ecological attributes. Environmental and Heritage Monograph Series No. 4. National Parks and Wildlife Service, Hurstville.
Menkhorst, P. W., Weavers, B. W. and Alexander, J. S. A. 1988. Distribution, habitat and conservation status of the squirrel glider Petaurus norfolcensis (Petauridae: Marsupialia) in Victoria. Australian Wildlife Research 15: 59-71.
NRE. 2000 Threatened Vertebrate Fauna in Victoria. Department of Natural Resources and Environment: East Melbourne.
Opdam, P. 1991. Metapopulation theory and habitat fragmentation: a review of holarctic breeding bird studies. Landscape Ecology 5: 93-106.
Ozolins, A., Brack, C., and Freudenberger, D. 2001. Abundance and decline of isolated trees in the agricultural landscapes of central New South Wales, Australia. Pacific Conservation Biology 7: 195-203.
Priday, S. 2004 The Native Vegetation of the City of Wagga Wagga. Department of Environment and Conservation, Queanbeyan, New South Wales.
Quin, D. G. 1995. Population ecology of the squirrel glider ( Petaurus norfolcensis) and the sugar glider ( P. breviceps) (Marsupialia: Petauridae) at Limeburners Creek, on the central coast of New South Wales. Wildlife Research 22: 471-505.
Rowston, C., Catterall, C. P., and Hurst, C. 2002. Habitat preferences of squirrel gliders, Petaurus norfolcensis, in the fragmented landscape of southeast Queensland. Forest Ecology and Management 164: 197-209
Sharpe, D. J. and Goldingay, R. L. 1998. Feeding behaviour of the squirrel glider at Bungawalbin Nature Reserve, northeastern New South Wales. Wildlife Research 25: 243-254.
Smith, A. P., and Murray, M. 2003. Habitat requirements of the squirrel glider Petaurus norfolcensis and associated possums and gliders on the New South Wales central coast. Wildlife Research 30: 291-301.
Traill, B. J. 1991. Box-Ironbark forests: tree hollows, wildlife and management. Pp. 119-123 in Conservation of Australia's forest fauna, edited by D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
Traill, B. J. and Lill, A. 1997. Use of tree hollows by two sympatric gliding possums, the squirrel glider, Petaurus norfolcensis and the sugar glider, P. breviceps. Australian Mammalogy 20: 79-88.
Traill, B., Duncan, S. and Earl, G. 2000. Tarcutta Hills Reserve Management Plan-Contextual Report. Prepared for the Australian Bush Heritage Fund. May 2000.
van der Ree, R. 1999. Barbed wire fencing as a hazard for wildlife. The Victorian Naturalist 116: 210-217.
van der Ree, R. 2000 Ecology of Arboreal Marsupials in a Network of Remnant Linear Habitats. PhD thesis, School of Ecology and Environment Deakin University, Melbourne.
van der Ree, R. and Bennett, A. F. 2001. Woodland remnants along roadsides - a reflection of pre-European structure in temperate woodlands? Ecological Management and Restoration 2: 226-228.
van der Ree, R. 2002. The population ecology of the Squirrel Glider Petaurus norfolcensis, within a network of remnant linear habitats. Wildlife Research 29: 329-340.
van der Ree, R. and Bennett, A. F. 2003. Home range of the squirrel glider Petaurus norfolcensis in a network of linear habitats. Journal of Zoology (London) 259: 327-336.
van der Ree, R., Gilmore, D. G. and Bennett, A. F. 2003. Gap-crossing by arboreal marsupials: thresholds for use of isolated woodland patches in an agricultural landscape. Biological Conservation 115: 241-249.
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References

Benson, J.S. and Ashby, E.M. 2000. Vegetation of the Guyra 1:100000 map sheet New England Bioregion, New South Wales. Cunninghamia 6(3): 747-872.
Bos, D. and Lockwood, M. 1996. Flora, Fauna and Other Features of the South West Slopes Biogeographic Region, New South Wales. Charles Sturt University, Johnstone Centre of Parks, Recreation and Heritage, 1996.
Channing, S. A. 2000. The Value of Linear Bushland Fragments as Habitat for Arboreal Marsupials, Nocturnal Birds and Microbats. Honours Thesis, Department of Forestry, Australian National University, Canberra.
Claridge, D. L. and Tidemann, C. R. 2001. Biodiversity Survey of Jindalee State Forest, New South Wales. A consultancy report prepared for the NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service. School of Resources, Environment and Society, The Australian National University, Canberra.
Gaia Research Pty Ltd. 1999a. Fauna Assessment “Boona” and “Cains” Boorowa. A consultancy report prepared for the NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service. May 1999.
Gaia Research Pty Ltd. 1999b. Fauna Assessment for Voluntary Conservation Agreement Williams Property “Kurawatha” and Dananbilla Nature Reserve. A consultancy report prepared for the NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service. December 1999.
Gall, B. 1982. The Southwest Slopes Fauna Survey. NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service, Queanbeyan, New South Wales.
Gibbons, P. and Boak, M. 2002. The value of paddock trees for regional conservation in an agricultural landscape. Ecological Management and Restoration 3: 205-210.
Gibbons, P. and Lindenmayer, D. B. 2002 Tree Hollows and Wildlife Conservation in Australia. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.
Goudet, J., Perrin, N., and Waser, P. 2002. Test for sex-biased dispersal using bi-parentally inherited genetic markers. Molecular Ecology 11: 1103-1114.
Hanski, I. 1999 Metapopulation Ecology. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Holland, G. J. 1998. Time Budget and Related Aspects of the Foraging Behaviour and Habitat Use of the Squirrel Glider Petaurus norfolcensis. Honours thesis, School of Ecology and Environment Deakin University, Clayton.
Lunney, D., Curtin, A. L., Ayers, D., Cogger, H. G., Dickman, C. R., Maitz, W., Law, B. and Fisher, D. 2000. The threatened and non-threatened native vertebrate fauna of New South Wales: status and ecological attributes. Environmental and Heritage Monograph Series No. 4. National Parks and Wildlife Service, Hurstville.
Menkhorst, P. W., Weavers, B. W. and Alexander, J. S. A. 1988. Distribution, habitat and conservation status of the squirrel glider Petaurus norfolcensis (Petauridae: Marsupialia) in Victoria. Australian Wildlife Research 15: 59-71.
NRE. 2000 Threatened Vertebrate Fauna in Victoria. Department of Natural Resources and Environment: East Melbourne.
Opdam, P. 1991. Metapopulation theory and habitat fragmentation: a review of holarctic breeding bird studies. Landscape Ecology 5: 93-106.
Ozolins, A., Brack, C., and Freudenberger, D. 2001. Abundance and decline of isolated trees in the agricultural landscapes of central New South Wales, Australia. Pacific Conservation Biology 7: 195-203.
Priday, S. 2004 The Native Vegetation of the City of Wagga Wagga. Department of Environment and Conservation, Queanbeyan, New South Wales.
Quin, D. G. 1995. Population ecology of the squirrel glider ( Petaurus norfolcensis) and the sugar glider ( P. breviceps) (Marsupialia: Petauridae) at Limeburners Creek, on the central coast of New South Wales. Wildlife Research 22: 471-505.
Rowston, C., Catterall, C. P., and Hurst, C. 2002. Habitat preferences of squirrel gliders, Petaurus norfolcensis, in the fragmented landscape of southeast Queensland. Forest Ecology and Management 164: 197-209
Sharpe, D. J. and Goldingay, R. L. 1998. Feeding behaviour of the squirrel glider at Bungawalbin Nature Reserve, northeastern New South Wales. Wildlife Research 25: 243-254.
Smith, A. P., and Murray, M. 2003. Habitat requirements of the squirrel glider Petaurus norfolcensis and associated possums and gliders on the New South Wales central coast. Wildlife Research 30: 291-301.
Traill, B. J. 1991. Box-Ironbark forests: tree hollows, wildlife and management. Pp. 119-123 in Conservation of Australia's forest fauna, edited by D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
Traill, B. J. and Lill, A. 1997. Use of tree hollows by two sympatric gliding possums, the squirrel glider, Petaurus norfolcensis and the sugar glider, P. breviceps. Australian Mammalogy 20: 79-88.
Traill, B., Duncan, S. and Earl, G. 2000. Tarcutta Hills Reserve Management Plan-Contextual Report. Prepared for the Australian Bush Heritage Fund. May 2000.
van der Ree, R. 1999. Barbed wire fencing as a hazard for wildlife. The Victorian Naturalist 116: 210-217.
van der Ree, R. 2000 Ecology of Arboreal Marsupials in a Network of Remnant Linear Habitats. PhD thesis, School of Ecology and Environment Deakin University, Melbourne.
van der Ree, R. and Bennett, A. F. 2001. Woodland remnants along roadsides - a reflection of pre-European structure in temperate woodlands? Ecological Management and Restoration 2: 226-228.
van der Ree, R. 2002. The population ecology of the Squirrel Glider Petaurus norfolcensis, within a network of remnant linear habitats. Wildlife Research 29: 329-340.
van der Ree, R. and Bennett, A. F. 2003. Home range of the squirrel glider Petaurus norfolcensis in a network of linear habitats. Journal of Zoology (London) 259: 327-336.
van der Ree, R., Gilmore, D. G. and Bennett, A. F. 2003. Gap-crossing by arboreal marsupials: thresholds for use of isolated woodland patches in an agricultural landscape. Biological Conservation 115: 241-249.
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