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As formal reservation targets are attained in Tasmania, a large component of habitats important for populations of threatened fauna will remain in the ‘off-reserve’ landscape. Over eighty percent of Swift ParrotLathamus discolor foraging habitat occurs on private land, potentially subject to production forestry or agriculture. As a first step in monitoring the effectiveness of management prescriptions for the conservation of swift parrot foraging habitat in ‘off-reserve’ areas, an assessment was made of their implementation in 57 forestry operations conducted between February 1995 and March 1998. Prescriptions advised by specialists were generally incorporated into timber harvesting plans. However, post-harvest assessment of 10 operation areas (nine on private and one on State forest) containing high or medium quality habitat suggested that implementation of prescriptions on the ground was not effective in capturing foraging habitat. Although the prescribed clumps of trees were retained in all operation areas, and all clumps included someEucalyptus globulus, only 16 percent of clumps surveyed contained the prescribed number of prime foraging trees (2-3 matureE. globulus). In part, this was thought to be due to the low level of detail in the plans describing how contractors, responsible for the timber harvesting, should implement the prescriptions. However, comparison with the composition of ‘control’ clumps retained in adjacent intact forest suggested that clump retention was an inappropriate prescription for most of the operation areas on private land, where forage trees were sparsely distributed. Where clumps of foraging habitat were retained, there was substantial post-harvest disturbance bringing into question the long-term effectiveness of such prescriptions even when correctly applied in forestry operations. As a result of this work, the swift parrot prescriptions were modified to better achieve retention of foraging habitat through the adoption of a patch retention strategy. In addition, steps were taken to improve standards of implementation by foresters and contractors. These included more intense training for foresters and the development of planning tools to clarify and simplify prescriptions. Importantly, recent legislative changes have provided an instrument to potentially achieve long-term conservation of retained habitat on private land.

Belbin, L. 1995. PATN: Pattern Analysis Package.
Brereton, R. 1997. Management prescriptions for the swift parrot in production forests. Report to the Tasmanian RFA Environment and Heritage Technical Committee.
Brereton, R. 1998. Swift Parrot Recovery Plan 1997-1999. Parks and Wildlife Service, Hobart.
Brereton, R., Kennedy, S. J. and Mallick, S. A. In Press. Foraging preferences of swift parrots on Tasmanian blue gum: Tree size, flowering frequency and flowering intensity. Emu.
Brown, P.B. 1989. The swift parrot, Lathamus discolor. A report on its ecology, distribution and status, including management considerations. Department of Lands Parks and Wildlife-Tasmania.
Commonwealth of Australia and State of Tasmania. 1997. Tasmanian Regional Forest Agreement. Commonwealth of Australia and State of Tasmania, Hobart.
DPIWE. 2001 Tasmania's Nature Conservation Strategy. Department of Primary Industries Water and Environment, Hobart.
Forest Practices Board. 1998 Threatened Fauna Manual for Production Forests in Tasmania (revised version). Forest Practices Board, Hobart.
Forest Practices Board. 2000a. Forest Practices Board Annual Report 1999-2000. Forest Practices Board, Hobart.
Forest Practices Board. 2000b. Forest Practices Code. Forest Practices Board, Hobart.
Forest Practices Board. 2001a Threatened Fauna Manual for Production Forests in Tasmania (revised version). Forest Practices Board, Hobart.
Forest Practices Board. 2001b Threatened Fauna Adviser (revised version) Expert System Program. Forest Practices Board, Hobart.
Forest Practices Board. 2002 Threatened Fauna Manual for Production Forests in Tasmania (Web based version). Forest Practices Board, Hobart.
Forestry Commission. 1993 Tasmanian Forest Practices Code. Forestry Commission, Hobart.
Gaffney, R.F. and Brown, P.B. 1992 The Swift Parrot Recovery Plan: Research Phase. Department of Parks and Wildlife and Heritage, Tasmania.
Hobbs, R. and Saunders, D. 2000. Nature conservation in agricultural landscapes: real progress or moving deckchairs? Pages 1-12. In Nature Conservation 5: Nature Conservation in Production Environments: Managing the Matrix ed by J.L. Craig, N. Mitchell and D.A. Saunders. Surrey Beatty and Sons.
Jackson, J. and Taylor, R. 1994 Threatened fauna manual for production forests in Tasmania. Forestry Commission: Hobart.
Lindenmayer D.B and Recher H.F. 1998. Aspects of ecologically sustainable forestry in temperate eucalypt forests-beyond an expanded reserve system. Pacific Conservation Biology 4: 4-10.
Macdonald M.A., Taylor, R.J., Candy, S.G. 2002. Bird assemblages in wildlife habitat strips in a Tasmanian plantation matrix. Pacific Conservation Biology 8: 82-98.
Mooney, N.J. 2000. Appearances Vs Performance; Managing Endangered Tasmanian Wedge-tailed Eagles in Forestry Operations. Pages 321-332. In Raptors at Risk, ed by Chancellor, R.D. and B.U. Meyburg. GBP/Hancock House.
Mooney, N.J. and Taylor, R. 1996. Value of nest site protection in ameliorating the effects of forestry operations on Wedge-tailed Eagles in Tasmania. Pages 275-282, in Raptors in Human Landscapes: adaptations to built and cultivated environments, edited by D. Bird, D. Varland and J. Negro. Academic Press, Toronto.
Munks, S. and Taylor, R. 2000. Conserving threatened fauna in production forests: the Tasmanian process. Pp 670-74 in Nature Conservation 5: Nature Conservation in Production Environments: Managing the Matrix, edited by J.L. Craig, N. Mitchell and D.A. Saunders. Surrey Beatty and Sons, Chipping Norton, NSW.
Peters, D. 1983. TASFORHAB. In Survey Methods for Nature Conservation. Vol 1, Edited by K. Myers, C.R. Margules and I. Musto. CSIRO, Melbourne.
Swift Parrot Recovery Team. 2001 Swift Parrot Recovery Plan. Department of Primary Industries, Water and Environment.
Taylor, R. 1991 Fauna Conservation in Production Forests in Tasmania. Forestry Commission Tasmania.
Wilkinson, G.R. 1994. Silvicultural Systems. Native Forest Silviculture Technical Bulletin No. 5, Forestry Commission, Hobart, 77pp.
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References

Belbin, L. 1995. PATN: Pattern Analysis Package.
Brereton, R. 1997. Management prescriptions for the swift parrot in production forests. Report to the Tasmanian RFA Environment and Heritage Technical Committee.
Brereton, R. 1998. Swift Parrot Recovery Plan 1997-1999. Parks and Wildlife Service, Hobart.
Brereton, R., Kennedy, S. J. and Mallick, S. A. In Press. Foraging preferences of swift parrots on Tasmanian blue gum: Tree size, flowering frequency and flowering intensity. Emu.
Brown, P.B. 1989. The swift parrot, Lathamus discolor. A report on its ecology, distribution and status, including management considerations. Department of Lands Parks and Wildlife-Tasmania.
Commonwealth of Australia and State of Tasmania. 1997. Tasmanian Regional Forest Agreement. Commonwealth of Australia and State of Tasmania, Hobart.
DPIWE. 2001 Tasmania's Nature Conservation Strategy. Department of Primary Industries Water and Environment, Hobart.
Forest Practices Board. 1998 Threatened Fauna Manual for Production Forests in Tasmania (revised version). Forest Practices Board, Hobart.
Forest Practices Board. 2000a. Forest Practices Board Annual Report 1999-2000. Forest Practices Board, Hobart.
Forest Practices Board. 2000b. Forest Practices Code. Forest Practices Board, Hobart.
Forest Practices Board. 2001a Threatened Fauna Manual for Production Forests in Tasmania (revised version). Forest Practices Board, Hobart.
Forest Practices Board. 2001b Threatened Fauna Adviser (revised version) Expert System Program. Forest Practices Board, Hobart.
Forest Practices Board. 2002 Threatened Fauna Manual for Production Forests in Tasmania (Web based version). Forest Practices Board, Hobart.
Forestry Commission. 1993 Tasmanian Forest Practices Code. Forestry Commission, Hobart.
Gaffney, R.F. and Brown, P.B. 1992 The Swift Parrot Recovery Plan: Research Phase. Department of Parks and Wildlife and Heritage, Tasmania.
Hobbs, R. and Saunders, D. 2000. Nature conservation in agricultural landscapes: real progress or moving deckchairs? Pages 1-12. In Nature Conservation 5: Nature Conservation in Production Environments: Managing the Matrix ed by J.L. Craig, N. Mitchell and D.A. Saunders. Surrey Beatty and Sons.
Jackson, J. and Taylor, R. 1994 Threatened fauna manual for production forests in Tasmania. Forestry Commission: Hobart.
Lindenmayer D.B and Recher H.F. 1998. Aspects of ecologically sustainable forestry in temperate eucalypt forests-beyond an expanded reserve system. Pacific Conservation Biology 4: 4-10.
Macdonald M.A., Taylor, R.J., Candy, S.G. 2002. Bird assemblages in wildlife habitat strips in a Tasmanian plantation matrix. Pacific Conservation Biology 8: 82-98.
Mooney, N.J. 2000. Appearances Vs Performance; Managing Endangered Tasmanian Wedge-tailed Eagles in Forestry Operations. Pages 321-332. In Raptors at Risk, ed by Chancellor, R.D. and B.U. Meyburg. GBP/Hancock House.
Mooney, N.J. and Taylor, R. 1996. Value of nest site protection in ameliorating the effects of forestry operations on Wedge-tailed Eagles in Tasmania. Pages 275-282, in Raptors in Human Landscapes: adaptations to built and cultivated environments, edited by D. Bird, D. Varland and J. Negro. Academic Press, Toronto.
Munks, S. and Taylor, R. 2000. Conserving threatened fauna in production forests: the Tasmanian process. Pp 670-74 in Nature Conservation 5: Nature Conservation in Production Environments: Managing the Matrix, edited by J.L. Craig, N. Mitchell and D.A. Saunders. Surrey Beatty and Sons, Chipping Norton, NSW.
Peters, D. 1983. TASFORHAB. In Survey Methods for Nature Conservation. Vol 1, Edited by K. Myers, C.R. Margules and I. Musto. CSIRO, Melbourne.
Swift Parrot Recovery Team. 2001 Swift Parrot Recovery Plan. Department of Primary Industries, Water and Environment.
Taylor, R. 1991 Fauna Conservation in Production Forests in Tasmania. Forestry Commission Tasmania.
Wilkinson, G.R. 1994. Silvicultural Systems. Native Forest Silviculture Technical Bulletin No. 5, Forestry Commission, Hobart, 77pp.
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