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Fruit-eating birds disperse many rainforest seeds, thereby influencing rainforest regeneration. The abundance of these birds may change following forest clearing, causing differences in seed dispersal between extensively-forested and fragmented areas. We assessed the responses of 26 frugivorous bird species to forest fragmentation by comparing their abundance among extensive tracts, remnants and regrowth patches of rainforest (16 replicate sites in each) in subtropical south-east Queensland, Australia. There were five species that were recorded in much lower numbers in remnants and/or regrowth than in extensive forest (“decreasers”), seven that showed higher abundance in remnants and/or regrowth than in extensive forest (“increasers”) and 14 whose abundance did not change substantially between the three habitat types (“tolerant” species). The decreasers included three fruit-specialist rainforest pigeons (the wompoo, rose-crowned and superb fruit-dovesPtilinopus magnificus, P. regina andP. superbus). The increasers were largely bird species with mixed diets, many of which also use non-rainforest habitats. Two decreasers and two tolerant species were substantially more abundant during summer than winter whereas two increaser and two tolerant bird species were more abundant during winter. No effects of altitude on seasonal abundance were apparent. The results of this study show that fragmented remnant and regrowth patches of rainforest do not adequately conserve the full set of frugivorous avifauna. Furthermore, lower abundance of negativelyimpacted birds in fragmented remnant and regrowth sites may lead to reduced regeneration of certain rainforest plant species due to a lack of seed dispersal in these habitats.

Barker, R.D. and Vestjens, W.J.M. 1988 The Food of Australian Birds: Non-passerines. CSIRO, Melbourne.
Barker, R.D. and Vestjens, W.J.M. 1989 The Food of Australian Birds: Passerines. CSIRO, Melbourne.
Blakers, M., Davies, S.J.J.F. and Reilly, P.N. 1984 The Atlas of Australian Birds. RAOU & Melbourne University Press, Melbourne.
Catterall, C.P. 1985. Winter energy deficits and the importance of fruit versus insects in a tropical island bird population. Australian Journal of Ecology 10:265-279.
Catterall, C.P., Storey, R.J. and Kingston M.B. 1997. Reality versus rhetoric: A case study monitoring regional deforestation. Pages 367-377 in Conservation Outside Nature Reserves, edited by P. Hale and D. Lamb. Centre for Conservation Biology, University of Queensland, Brisbane.
Catterall C.P., Kingston, M.B., Park, K. and Sewell, S. 1998. Deforestation, urbanisation and seasonality: interacting effects on a regional bird assemblage. Biological Conservation 84:65-81.
Catterall, C.P., Kanowski, J., Wardell-Johnson, G., Proctor, H.C., Reis, T., Harrison, D.A., and Tucker, N.I.J. 2004 Quantifying the biodiversity values of reforestation: perspectives, design issues and outcomes in Australian rainforest landscapes. Pp. 359-93 in Conservation of Australia's Forest Fauna (2nd edition), edited by D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
Chapman, C.A. and Chapman, L.J. 1995. Survival without dispersers: seedling recruitment under parent plants. Conservation Biology 9:675-678.
Christiansen, M.B. and Pitter, E. 1997. Species loss in a forest bird community near Lagoa Santa in southern Brazil. Biological Conservation 80:23-32.
Christidis, L. and Boles, E. 1994 The Taxonomy and Species of Birds of Australia and its Territories. Royal Australasian Ornithologists Union, Monograph 2, Hawthorne East.
Cordeiro, N.J. and Howe, H.F. 2001. Low recruitment of trees dispersed by animals in African forest fragments. Conservation Biology 15:1733-1741.
Crome, F.H.J. 1975. The ecology of fruit pigeons in tropical northern Queensland. Australian Wildlife Research 2:155-185.
Crome, F.H.J. 1990. Vertebrates and successions. Pages 53-64 in Australian Tropical Rainforests: Science-Value-Meaning, edited by L.J. Webb and J. Kikkawa. CSIRO, Canberra.
Date, E.M., Ford, H.A. and Recher, H.F. 1991. Frugivorous pigeons, stepping stones and weeds in northern New South Wales. Pages 241-244 in Nature Conservation 2: The role of corridors, edited by D.A. Saunders and R.J. Hobbs. Surrey Beatty & Sons, Chipping Norton, New South Wales.
Date, E.M., Recher, H.F., Ford, H.A. and Stewart, D.A. 1996. The conservation and ecology of rainforest pigeons in northeastern New South Wales. Pacific Conservation Biology 2:299-308.
Duncan, R.S. and Chapman, C.A. 1999. Seed dispersal and potential forest succession in abandoned agriculture in tropical Africa. Ecological Applications 9: 998-1008.
Estrada, A., Coates-Estrada, R., Meritt, D. Jr., Monteil, S. and Curiel, D. 1993. Patterns of frugivore species richness and abundance in forest islands and in agricultural habitats at Los Tuxtlas, Mexico. Vegetatio 107/108:245-257.
Fahrig, L. and Merriam, G. 1994. Conservation of fragmented populations. Conservation Biology 8:50-59.
Fleming, T.H., Breitwisch, R. and Whitesides, G.H. 1987. Patterns of tropical vertebrate frugivore diversity. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 18:91-109.
Frawley, K. 1991. Past rainforest management in Queensland. Pages 85-106 in The Rainforest Legacy: Australian National Rainforest Study Volume 3. Rainforest history, dynamics and management, edited by G. Werren and P. Kershaw. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
Frith, H.J. 1952. Notes on the pigeons of the Richmond River, NSW. Emu 52:89-99.
Frith, H.J. 1982 Pigeons & Doves of Australia. Rigby, Adelaide.
Fuentes, M. 2000. Frugivory, seed dispersal and plant community ecology. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 15:487-488.
Gorchov, D.L., Cornejo, F., Ascorra, C. and Jaramillo, M. 1993. The role of seed dispersal in the natural regeneration of rainforest after strip cutting in the Peruvian Amazon. Vegetatio 107/108:339-347.
Gosper, D.G. and Holmes, G. 2002. Status of Birds in the Richmond River District, New South Wales 1973-2000. Corella 26:89-105.
Green, R.J. 1993. Avian seed dispersal in and near subtropical rainforests. Wildlife Research 20:535-557.
Guevara, S. and Laborde, J. 1993. Monitoring seed dispersal at isolated standing trees in tropical pastures: consequences for local species availability. Vegetatio 107/108:319-338.
Guevara, S., Purata, S.E. and van der Maarel, E. 1986. The role of remnant rainforest trees in tropical secondary succession. Vegetatio 66:77-84.
Harrington, G.N., Irvine, A.K., Crome, F.H.J. and Moore, L.A. 1997. Regeneration of large-seeded trees in Australian rainforest fragments: a study of higher-order interactions. Pages 292-303 in Tropical Forest Remnants: Ecology, Management and Conservation of Fragmented Communities, edited by W.F. Laurence and R.O. Bierregaard. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Higgins, P.J. 1999 Handbook of Australian, New Zealand and Antarctic Birds: V4 Parrots to Dollarbirds. Oxford University Press, Melbourne.
Higgins, P.J. and Davies, S.J.J.F. 1996 Handbook of Australian, New Zealand and Antarctic Birds: V3 Snipe to Pigeons. Oxford University Press, Melbourne.
Higgins, P.J., Peter, J.M. and Steele, W.K. 2001 Handbook of Australian, New Zealand and Antarctic Birds: V5 Tyrant-flycatchers to Chats. Oxford University Press, Melbourne.
Howe, H.F. and Miriti, M.N. 2000. No question: seed dispersal matters. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 15:434-436.
Howe, H.F. and Smallwood, J. 1982. Ecology of seed dispersal. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 13:21-28.
Howe, R.W., Howe, T.D. and Ford, H.A. 1981. Bird distributions on small rainforest remnants in New South Wales. Australian Wildlife Research 8:637-651.
Innis, G.J. 1989. Feeding ecology of fruit pigeons in subtropical rainforests of south-eastern Queensland. Australian Wildlife Research 16:365-394.
Innis, G.J. and McEvoy, J. 1992. Feeding ecology of green catbirds ( Ailuroiedus crassirostris) in subtropical rainforests of south-eastern Queensland. Wildlife Research 19:317-329.
Janzen, D.H. and Vásquez-Yanez, C. 1991. Aspects of tropical seed ecology of relevance to management of tropical forest wildlands. Pages 137-158 in Rainforest Regeneration and Management, edited by A. Gomez-Pompa, T.C. Whitmore and M. Hadley. Volume 6, Man and the Biosphere Series. UNESCO and The Parthenon Publishing Group, Paris.
Johns, A.D. 1991. Responses of Amazonian rainforest birds to habitat modification. Journal of Tropical Ecology 7:417-437.
Jones, R.E. and Crome, F.H.J. 1990. The biological web-plant/animal interactions in the rainforest. Pages 74-87 in Tropical Rainforests: Science-Value-Meaning, edited by L.J. Webb and J. Kikkawa. CSIRO, Canberra.
Kattan, G.H., Alvarez-López, H. and Giraldo, M. 1994. Forest fragmentation and bird extinctions: San Antonio eighty years later. Conservation Biology 8:138-146.
Lindsey, T.R. 1995 Encyclopaedia of Australian Birds. Angus & Robertson, Pymble.
Marchant, S. and Higgins, P.J. 1993 Handbook of Australian, New Zealand and Antarctic Birds: V2 Raptors to Lapwings. Oxford University Press, Melbourne.
McKey, D. 1975. The ecology of coevolved seed dispersal systems. Pages 159-191 in Coevolution of Animals and Plants, edited by E. Gilbert and P.H. Raven. University of Texas, Austin.
Meier, L. and Figgis, P. 1985 Rainforests of Australia. Ure Smith Press, Sydney.
Nepstad, D.C., Uhl, C., Pereira, C.A. and Silva, J.M.C. 1996. A comparative study of tree establishment in abandoned pasture and mature forest of eastern Amazonia. Oikos 76:25-39.
Poschlod, P., Bakker, J., Bonn, S. and Fischer, S. 1996. Dispersal of plants in fragmented landscapes. Pages 123-127 in Species Survival in Fragmented Landscapes, edited by J. Settele, C.R. Margules, P. Poschlod and K. Henle. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Netherlands.
Price, O.F., Woinarski, J.C.Z. and Robinson, D. 1999. Very large area requirements for frugivorous birds in monsoon rainforests of the Northern Territory, Australia. Biological Conservation 91:169-180.
Queensland Department of Natural Resources. 1997. GeoScape: Scanned Aerial Photography. Regional South East Queensland. QDNR, Coopooroo, Brisbane.
Recher, H.F., Date, E.M. and Ford, H.A. 1995 The Biology and Management of Rainforest Pigeons in New South Wales. Species Management Report No.16, NSW National Parks & Wildlife, Hurstville.
Renjifo, L.M. 1999. Composition changes in a Subandean avifauna after long-term forest fragmentation. Conservation Biology 13:1124-1139.
Restreppo, C., Renjifo, L.M. and Marples, M. 1997. Frugivorous birds in fragmented neotropical forests: landscape pattern and body mass distribution. Pages 171-189 in Tropical Forest Remnants: Ecology, Management and Conservation of Fragmented Communities, edited by W.F. Laurence and R.O. Bierregaard. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Richardson, D.M., Allsopp, N., D'Antonio, C.M., Milton, S.J. and Rejmanek, M. 2000. Plant invasions-The role of mutualisms. Biological Review 75:65-93.
SAS Institute 1999 SAS Procedures Guide. Release 6.11. SAS Inc., Cary.
Saunders, D.A., Hobbs, R.J. and Margules, C.R. 1991. Biological consequences of ecosystem fragmentation. Conservation Biology 5:18-32.
Silva, J.M.C, Uhl, C. and Murray, G. 1996. Plant succession, landscape management and the ecology of frugivorous birds in abandoned Amazonian pastures. Conservation Biology 10: 491-503.
Silva, J.M.C and Tabarelli, M. 2000. Tree species impoverishment and the future flora of the Atlantic forest of northeast Brazil. Nature 404:72-73.
Thébaud, C. and Strasberg, D. 1997. Plant dispersal in fragmented landscapes: A field study of woody colonisation in rainforest remnants of the Mascarene Archipelago. Pages 321-332 in Tropical Forest Remnants: Ecology, Management and Conservation of Fragmented Communities, edited by W.F. Laurence and R.O. Bierregaard. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Turner, I.M. 1996. Species loss in fragments of tropical rain forest: a review of the evidence. Journal of applied Ecology 33:200-209.
Uhl, C., Clark, H., Clark, K. and Maquirino, P. 1982. Successional patterns associated with slash-and-burn agriculture in the upper Rio Negro region of the Amazon Basin. Biotropica 14:249-254.
van der Pijl, L. 1982 Principles of Seed Dispersal in Higher Plants. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
Warburton N.H. 1997. Structure and conservation of forest avifauna in isolated rainforest remnants in tropical Australia. Pages 190-206 in Tropical Forest Remnants: Ecology, Management and Conservation of Fragmented Communities, edited by W.F. Laurence and R.O. Bierregaard. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Willson, M.F., Irvine, A.K. and Walsh, N.G. 1989. Vertebrate dispersal syndromes in some Australian and New Zealand plant communities, with geographic comparisons. Biotropica 21:133-147.
Wright, S.J., Zeballos, H., Dominguez, I., Gallardo, M.M., Moreno, M.C. and Ibanez, R. 2002. Poachers alter mammal abundance, seed dispersal, and seed predation in a neotropical forest. Conservation Biology 14:227-239.
Young, P.A.R. and McDonald, W.J.F. 1987. The distribution, composition and status of rainforests of southern Queensland. Pages 119-141 in The Rainforest Legacy: Australian National Rainforest Study Volume 1 - The Distribution and Status of Rainforest Types, edited by G.L. Werren and A.P. Kershaw. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
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References

Barker, R.D. and Vestjens, W.J.M. 1988 The Food of Australian Birds: Non-passerines. CSIRO, Melbourne.
Barker, R.D. and Vestjens, W.J.M. 1989 The Food of Australian Birds: Passerines. CSIRO, Melbourne.
Blakers, M., Davies, S.J.J.F. and Reilly, P.N. 1984 The Atlas of Australian Birds. RAOU & Melbourne University Press, Melbourne.
Catterall, C.P. 1985. Winter energy deficits and the importance of fruit versus insects in a tropical island bird population. Australian Journal of Ecology 10:265-279.
Catterall, C.P., Storey, R.J. and Kingston M.B. 1997. Reality versus rhetoric: A case study monitoring regional deforestation. Pages 367-377 in Conservation Outside Nature Reserves, edited by P. Hale and D. Lamb. Centre for Conservation Biology, University of Queensland, Brisbane.
Catterall C.P., Kingston, M.B., Park, K. and Sewell, S. 1998. Deforestation, urbanisation and seasonality: interacting effects on a regional bird assemblage. Biological Conservation 84:65-81.
Catterall, C.P., Kanowski, J., Wardell-Johnson, G., Proctor, H.C., Reis, T., Harrison, D.A., and Tucker, N.I.J. 2004 Quantifying the biodiversity values of reforestation: perspectives, design issues and outcomes in Australian rainforest landscapes. Pp. 359-93 in Conservation of Australia's Forest Fauna (2nd edition), edited by D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
Chapman, C.A. and Chapman, L.J. 1995. Survival without dispersers: seedling recruitment under parent plants. Conservation Biology 9:675-678.
Christiansen, M.B. and Pitter, E. 1997. Species loss in a forest bird community near Lagoa Santa in southern Brazil. Biological Conservation 80:23-32.
Christidis, L. and Boles, E. 1994 The Taxonomy and Species of Birds of Australia and its Territories. Royal Australasian Ornithologists Union, Monograph 2, Hawthorne East.
Cordeiro, N.J. and Howe, H.F. 2001. Low recruitment of trees dispersed by animals in African forest fragments. Conservation Biology 15:1733-1741.
Crome, F.H.J. 1975. The ecology of fruit pigeons in tropical northern Queensland. Australian Wildlife Research 2:155-185.
Crome, F.H.J. 1990. Vertebrates and successions. Pages 53-64 in Australian Tropical Rainforests: Science-Value-Meaning, edited by L.J. Webb and J. Kikkawa. CSIRO, Canberra.
Date, E.M., Ford, H.A. and Recher, H.F. 1991. Frugivorous pigeons, stepping stones and weeds in northern New South Wales. Pages 241-244 in Nature Conservation 2: The role of corridors, edited by D.A. Saunders and R.J. Hobbs. Surrey Beatty & Sons, Chipping Norton, New South Wales.
Date, E.M., Recher, H.F., Ford, H.A. and Stewart, D.A. 1996. The conservation and ecology of rainforest pigeons in northeastern New South Wales. Pacific Conservation Biology 2:299-308.
Duncan, R.S. and Chapman, C.A. 1999. Seed dispersal and potential forest succession in abandoned agriculture in tropical Africa. Ecological Applications 9: 998-1008.
Estrada, A., Coates-Estrada, R., Meritt, D. Jr., Monteil, S. and Curiel, D. 1993. Patterns of frugivore species richness and abundance in forest islands and in agricultural habitats at Los Tuxtlas, Mexico. Vegetatio 107/108:245-257.
Fahrig, L. and Merriam, G. 1994. Conservation of fragmented populations. Conservation Biology 8:50-59.
Fleming, T.H., Breitwisch, R. and Whitesides, G.H. 1987. Patterns of tropical vertebrate frugivore diversity. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 18:91-109.
Frawley, K. 1991. Past rainforest management in Queensland. Pages 85-106 in The Rainforest Legacy: Australian National Rainforest Study Volume 3. Rainforest history, dynamics and management, edited by G. Werren and P. Kershaw. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
Frith, H.J. 1952. Notes on the pigeons of the Richmond River, NSW. Emu 52:89-99.
Frith, H.J. 1982 Pigeons & Doves of Australia. Rigby, Adelaide.
Fuentes, M. 2000. Frugivory, seed dispersal and plant community ecology. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 15:487-488.
Gorchov, D.L., Cornejo, F., Ascorra, C. and Jaramillo, M. 1993. The role of seed dispersal in the natural regeneration of rainforest after strip cutting in the Peruvian Amazon. Vegetatio 107/108:339-347.
Gosper, D.G. and Holmes, G. 2002. Status of Birds in the Richmond River District, New South Wales 1973-2000. Corella 26:89-105.
Green, R.J. 1993. Avian seed dispersal in and near subtropical rainforests. Wildlife Research 20:535-557.
Guevara, S. and Laborde, J. 1993. Monitoring seed dispersal at isolated standing trees in tropical pastures: consequences for local species availability. Vegetatio 107/108:319-338.
Guevara, S., Purata, S.E. and van der Maarel, E. 1986. The role of remnant rainforest trees in tropical secondary succession. Vegetatio 66:77-84.
Harrington, G.N., Irvine, A.K., Crome, F.H.J. and Moore, L.A. 1997. Regeneration of large-seeded trees in Australian rainforest fragments: a study of higher-order interactions. Pages 292-303 in Tropical Forest Remnants: Ecology, Management and Conservation of Fragmented Communities, edited by W.F. Laurence and R.O. Bierregaard. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Higgins, P.J. 1999 Handbook of Australian, New Zealand and Antarctic Birds: V4 Parrots to Dollarbirds. Oxford University Press, Melbourne.
Higgins, P.J. and Davies, S.J.J.F. 1996 Handbook of Australian, New Zealand and Antarctic Birds: V3 Snipe to Pigeons. Oxford University Press, Melbourne.
Higgins, P.J., Peter, J.M. and Steele, W.K. 2001 Handbook of Australian, New Zealand and Antarctic Birds: V5 Tyrant-flycatchers to Chats. Oxford University Press, Melbourne.
Howe, H.F. and Miriti, M.N. 2000. No question: seed dispersal matters. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 15:434-436.
Howe, H.F. and Smallwood, J. 1982. Ecology of seed dispersal. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 13:21-28.
Howe, R.W., Howe, T.D. and Ford, H.A. 1981. Bird distributions on small rainforest remnants in New South Wales. Australian Wildlife Research 8:637-651.
Innis, G.J. 1989. Feeding ecology of fruit pigeons in subtropical rainforests of south-eastern Queensland. Australian Wildlife Research 16:365-394.
Innis, G.J. and McEvoy, J. 1992. Feeding ecology of green catbirds ( Ailuroiedus crassirostris) in subtropical rainforests of south-eastern Queensland. Wildlife Research 19:317-329.
Janzen, D.H. and Vásquez-Yanez, C. 1991. Aspects of tropical seed ecology of relevance to management of tropical forest wildlands. Pages 137-158 in Rainforest Regeneration and Management, edited by A. Gomez-Pompa, T.C. Whitmore and M. Hadley. Volume 6, Man and the Biosphere Series. UNESCO and The Parthenon Publishing Group, Paris.
Johns, A.D. 1991. Responses of Amazonian rainforest birds to habitat modification. Journal of Tropical Ecology 7:417-437.
Jones, R.E. and Crome, F.H.J. 1990. The biological web-plant/animal interactions in the rainforest. Pages 74-87 in Tropical Rainforests: Science-Value-Meaning, edited by L.J. Webb and J. Kikkawa. CSIRO, Canberra.
Kattan, G.H., Alvarez-López, H. and Giraldo, M. 1994. Forest fragmentation and bird extinctions: San Antonio eighty years later. Conservation Biology 8:138-146.
Lindsey, T.R. 1995 Encyclopaedia of Australian Birds. Angus & Robertson, Pymble.
Marchant, S. and Higgins, P.J. 1993 Handbook of Australian, New Zealand and Antarctic Birds: V2 Raptors to Lapwings. Oxford University Press, Melbourne.
McKey, D. 1975. The ecology of coevolved seed dispersal systems. Pages 159-191 in Coevolution of Animals and Plants, edited by E. Gilbert and P.H. Raven. University of Texas, Austin.
Meier, L. and Figgis, P. 1985 Rainforests of Australia. Ure Smith Press, Sydney.
Nepstad, D.C., Uhl, C., Pereira, C.A. and Silva, J.M.C. 1996. A comparative study of tree establishment in abandoned pasture and mature forest of eastern Amazonia. Oikos 76:25-39.
Poschlod, P., Bakker, J., Bonn, S. and Fischer, S. 1996. Dispersal of plants in fragmented landscapes. Pages 123-127 in Species Survival in Fragmented Landscapes, edited by J. Settele, C.R. Margules, P. Poschlod and K. Henle. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Netherlands.
Price, O.F., Woinarski, J.C.Z. and Robinson, D. 1999. Very large area requirements for frugivorous birds in monsoon rainforests of the Northern Territory, Australia. Biological Conservation 91:169-180.
Queensland Department of Natural Resources. 1997. GeoScape: Scanned Aerial Photography. Regional South East Queensland. QDNR, Coopooroo, Brisbane.
Recher, H.F., Date, E.M. and Ford, H.A. 1995 The Biology and Management of Rainforest Pigeons in New South Wales. Species Management Report No.16, NSW National Parks & Wildlife, Hurstville.
Renjifo, L.M. 1999. Composition changes in a Subandean avifauna after long-term forest fragmentation. Conservation Biology 13:1124-1139.
Restreppo, C., Renjifo, L.M. and Marples, M. 1997. Frugivorous birds in fragmented neotropical forests: landscape pattern and body mass distribution. Pages 171-189 in Tropical Forest Remnants: Ecology, Management and Conservation of Fragmented Communities, edited by W.F. Laurence and R.O. Bierregaard. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Richardson, D.M., Allsopp, N., D'Antonio, C.M., Milton, S.J. and Rejmanek, M. 2000. Plant invasions-The role of mutualisms. Biological Review 75:65-93.
SAS Institute 1999 SAS Procedures Guide. Release 6.11. SAS Inc., Cary.
Saunders, D.A., Hobbs, R.J. and Margules, C.R. 1991. Biological consequences of ecosystem fragmentation. Conservation Biology 5:18-32.
Silva, J.M.C, Uhl, C. and Murray, G. 1996. Plant succession, landscape management and the ecology of frugivorous birds in abandoned Amazonian pastures. Conservation Biology 10: 491-503.
Silva, J.M.C and Tabarelli, M. 2000. Tree species impoverishment and the future flora of the Atlantic forest of northeast Brazil. Nature 404:72-73.
Thébaud, C. and Strasberg, D. 1997. Plant dispersal in fragmented landscapes: A field study of woody colonisation in rainforest remnants of the Mascarene Archipelago. Pages 321-332 in Tropical Forest Remnants: Ecology, Management and Conservation of Fragmented Communities, edited by W.F. Laurence and R.O. Bierregaard. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Turner, I.M. 1996. Species loss in fragments of tropical rain forest: a review of the evidence. Journal of applied Ecology 33:200-209.
Uhl, C., Clark, H., Clark, K. and Maquirino, P. 1982. Successional patterns associated with slash-and-burn agriculture in the upper Rio Negro region of the Amazon Basin. Biotropica 14:249-254.
van der Pijl, L. 1982 Principles of Seed Dispersal in Higher Plants. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
Warburton N.H. 1997. Structure and conservation of forest avifauna in isolated rainforest remnants in tropical Australia. Pages 190-206 in Tropical Forest Remnants: Ecology, Management and Conservation of Fragmented Communities, edited by W.F. Laurence and R.O. Bierregaard. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Willson, M.F., Irvine, A.K. and Walsh, N.G. 1989. Vertebrate dispersal syndromes in some Australian and New Zealand plant communities, with geographic comparisons. Biotropica 21:133-147.
Wright, S.J., Zeballos, H., Dominguez, I., Gallardo, M.M., Moreno, M.C. and Ibanez, R. 2002. Poachers alter mammal abundance, seed dispersal, and seed predation in a neotropical forest. Conservation Biology 14:227-239.
Young, P.A.R. and McDonald, W.J.F. 1987. The distribution, composition and status of rainforests of southern Queensland. Pages 119-141 in The Rainforest Legacy: Australian National Rainforest Study Volume 1 - The Distribution and Status of Rainforest Types, edited by G.L. Werren and A.P. Kershaw. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
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