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Tadpoles of two stream-breeding, forest-dwelling frogs (Mixophyes balbus andHeleioporus australiacus) were exposed to multiple short-term suspended sediment influxes, simulating storms. Three sediment concentrations were represented (control, low - 200 mg·L−1, and extremely high - 1655 mg·L−1) to approximate concentrations recorded in previous hydrological studies. Growth for both species and survivorship (individuals had lost a designated body mass) forM. balbus did not differ significantly between the three treatments over the 18-week experimental period. Survivorship ofH. australiacus tadpoles was higher in the high sediment regime. More tadpoles had sediment on gill surfaces in sediment treatments than controls in both species. The occurrence of sediment on the gills did not increase with increased exposure to sediment. Tadpoles ofH. australiacus appear to require a relatively low (≤ pH ~6.5) and constant water pH and the apparent advantage to tadpoles ofH. australiacus of a high sediment load, probably reflects their sensitivity to pH rather than an affect of sedimentper se. Tadpoles of both species are probably capable of surviving in streams that are subjected to brief periods of exposure to raised suspended sediments.

Anon., 1996 The Australian EM newsletter 52: 16-18.
Barker, J., Grigg, G. C. and Tyler, M. J. 1995 A Field Guide to Australian Frogs. Surrey Beatty and Sons: Chipping Norton, NSW.
Bayly, I. A. E. and Williams, W. D. 1974 Inland Waters and their Ecology. Longman, Australia.
Beattie, R. C. and Tyler-Jones, M. 1992. The effects of low pH and aluminium on breeding success in the frog Rana temporaria. Journal of Herpetology 26: 353-360.
Berkman, H. E. and Rabeni, C. F. 1987. Effect of siltation on stream fish communities. Environmental Biology for Fishes 18: 285-294.
Beschta, R. L. 1978. Long-term patterns of sediment production following road construction and logging in the Oregon coast range. Water Resources Research 14: 1011-1016.
Blaustein, A. R. and Wake, D. B. 1990. Declining amphibian populations: a global phenomenon? Trends in Ecology and Evolution 5: 203-204.
Boutilier, R. G., Stiffler, D. F. and Toews, D. P. 1992. Exchange of respiratory gases, ions and water in amphibious and aquatic amphibians. Pp 81-124 in Environmental Physiology of the Amphibians edited by M. E. Feder and W. W. Burrgren. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Burggren, W. W. 1984. Transition of respiratory processes during amphibian metamorphosis: From egg to adult. Pp 31-55 in Respiration and Metabolism of Embryonic Vertebrates, edited by R. S. Seymour. W. Junk Publishers, Dordrecht.
Burggren, W. W. and West, N. H. 1982. Changing respiratory importance of gills, lungs, and skin during metamorphosis in the bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana. Respiratory Physiology 47: 151-164.
Bruton, M. N. 1985. The effects of suspensoids on fish. Hydrobiologia 125: 221-241.
Campbell, I. C. and Doeg, T. J. 1989. Impact of timber harvesting and production on streams: a review. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 40: 519-539.
Chutter, F. M. 1969. The effects of silt and sand on the invertebrate fauna of streams and rivers. Hydrobiologia 34: 57-76.
Cope, W. G., Wiener, J. G. and Steingraeber, M. T. 1996. Test system for exposing fish to resuspended, contaminated sediment. Environmental Pollution 91: 177-182.
Corn, P. S. and Bury, R. B. 1989. Logging in Western Oregon: responses of headwater habitats and stream amphibians. Forest Ecology and Management 29: 39-57.
Cornish, P. M. 1978. Karuah Hydrology Research Project Annual Report 1978. Unpublished report the Forestry Commission of New South Wales, Sydney.
Cornish, P. M. 1980. Water quality studies in New South Wales State Forests 1. A north coast eucalypt forest near Lismore. Australian Forestry 43: 105-110.
Cornish, P. M. 1981. Water quality studies in New South Wales state forests 2. A south coast forest of mixed eucalypts near Bega. Australian Forestry 44: 109-117.
Cornish, P. M. 1983. Turbidity levels in streams draining undisturbed and disturbed forested catchments in New South Wales. Proceedings of the 10th AWWA Convention, Sydney.
Cornish, P. M. 2001. The effects of roading, harvesting and forest regeneration on streamwater turbidity levels in a moist eucalypt forest. Forest Ecology and Management 152: 293-312.
Cremer, K. W. 1990. Trees for Rural Australia. Inkarta Press, Sydney.
deMaynadier, P. G. and Hunter, M. L. Jr. 1995. The relationship between forest management and amphibian ecology: a review of the North American literature. Environmental Review 3: 230-261.
Dietrich, D. and Schlatter, C. 1989. Low levels of aluminium causing death of brown trout ( Salmo trutta fario, L.) in a Swiss alpine lake. Aquatic Science 51: 279-295.
Doeg, T. J. and Koehn, J. D. 1990. A Review of Australian Studies on the Effects of Forestry Practices on Aquatic Values. SSP Technical Report NO. 5. Fisheries Division, Department of Conservation and Environment, Sydney.
Duellman, W. E. and Trueb, L. 1986. Biology of Amphibians. McGraw-Hill, New York.
Erard Le Denn, E. and Ryckaert, M. 1990. Trout mortality associated to Distephanus speculum. Journal of Toxic Marine Phytoplankton 1990: 137.
Erskine, W. D. 1996. Downstream hydrogeomorphic impacts of the Eildon Reservoir on the mid-Goulburn River, Victoria. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria 108: 1-15.
Feder, M. E. 1981. Effect of body size, trophic state, time of day, and experimental stress on oxygen consumption of anuran larvae: an experimental assessment and evaluation of the literature. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 70: 497-508.
Garric, J., Migeon, B. and Vindimian, E. 1990. Lethal effects of draining on brown trout: a predictive model based on field and laboratory studies. Water Research 24: 59-66.
Gillespie, G. R. 2002. Impacts of sediment loads, tadpole density, and food type on the growth and development of tadpoles of the spotted tree frog Litoria spenceri: an in-stream experiment. Biological Conservation 106: 141-150.
Gillespie, G. R. and Hines, H. 1999. Status of temperate riverine frogs in south-eastern Australia. Pp 109-130 in Declines and Disappearances of Australian frogs edited by A. Campbell. Environment Australia, Canberra.
Gosner, K. L. 1960. A simplified table for staging Anuran embryos and larvae with notes on identification. Herpetologica 16: 183-190.
Gromko, M. H., Mason, F. S. and Smith-Gill, S. J. 1973. Analysis of the crowding effect in Rana pipiens tadpoles. Journal of Experimental Zoology 186: 63-72.
Hesse, L. W. and Newcomb, B. A. 1982. Effects of flushing spencer hydrology on water quality, fish, and insect fauna in the Niobrara River, Nebraska. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 2: 45-52.
Hines, H., Mahony, M. and McDonald, K. 1999. An Assessment of Frog Declines in Wet Subtropical Australia. Pp. 44-63 in Declines and Disappearances of Australian Frogs, edited by A. Campbell. Environment Australia, Canberra.
Lemckert, F. L. 1999. An assessment of the impacts of selective logging operations on Amphibian diversity in a forested area of northern New South Wales. Biological Conservation 89: 321-328.
Lemckert, F. L. and Brassil, T. 2003. Movements and habitat use by the Giant Burrowing Frog, Heleioporus australiacus. Amphibia-Reptilia 24: 207-211.
Lemckert, F. L. and Morse, R. 1999. Frogs in the timber production forests of the Dorrigo escarpment in northern New South Wales: An inventory of species present and the conservation of threatened species. Pp. 72-80 in Declines and disappearances of Australian frogs, edited by A. Campbell. Environment Australia, Canberra.
Lemly, A. D. 1982. Modification of benthic insect communities in polluted streams: Combined effects of sedimentation and nutrient enrichment. Hydrobiologia 87: 229-245.
Mahony, M. 1996. The decline of the green and golden bell frog Litoria aurea viewed in the context of declines and disappearances of other Australian frogs. Australian Zoologist 30: 237-247.
Martens, D. W. and Servizi, J. A. 1993. Suspended sediment particles inside gills and spleens of juvenile Pacific salmon ( Oncorhynchus spp.). Canadian Journal of Fish and Aquatic Science 50: 586-590.
McIndoe, R. and Smith, D. G. 1984. Functional anatomy of the internal gills of the tadpole of Litoria ewingii (Anura, Hylidae). Zoomorphology 104: 280-291.
Murphy, M. L., Hawkins, C. P. and Anderson, N. H. 1981. Effects of canopy modification and accumulated sediment on stream communities. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 110: 469-478.
Newcombe, C. P. and Jensen, J. O. T. 1996. Channel suspended sediment and fisheries: a synthesis for quantitative assessment of risk and impact. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 16: 693-727.
Olive, L. J. and Rieger, W. A. 1987. Eden catchment project: sediment transport and catchment disturbance 1977-1983. Monograph Series No. 1. Department of Geography and Oceanography, University College, Australian Defence Force Academy, Canberra, ACT.
O'shaugnessy, P. and Associates. 1995. Water quality protection measures for the conservation of the spotted tree frog. Unpublished report for the forest service, Victorian Department of Natural Resources, Melbourne.
Papadakis, J. 1969 Soils of the World. Elsevier: Amsterdam.
Pechmann, J. H. and Wilbur, H. M. 1994. Putting declining amphibian populations in perspective: natural fluctuations and human impacts. Herpetologica 50: 65-84.
Pechmann, J. H., Scott, D. E., Semlitsch, R. D., Caldwell, J. P. Vitt, L. J. and Whitfield Gibbons, J. 1991. Declining amphibian populations: the problem of separating human impacts from natural fluctuations. Science 253: 892-895.
Petranka, J. W. 1989. Chemical interference competition in tadpoles: does it occur outside laboratory aquaria? Copeia 4: 921-930.
Quinn, J. M., Davies-Colley, R. J., Hickey, C. W., Vickers, M. L. and Ryan, P.A. 1992. Effects of clay discharges on streams 2: Benthic invertebrates. Hydrobiologia 248: 235-247.
Robinson, M. 1993 A Field Guide to Frogs of Australia: from Port Augusta to Fraser Island including Tasmania. Reed Books: Sydney.
Rosewell, C. J. 1993 SOILOSS - A program to assist in the selection of management practices to reduce erosion, Technical Handbook No. 11 (2nd edition), Soil Conservation Service of NSW, Sydney.
Ryan, P. A. 1991. Environmental effects of sediment on New Zealand streams: a review. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 25: 207-221.
Semlitsch, R. D. and Caldwell, J. P. 1982. Effects of density on growth, metamorphosis, and survivorship in tadpoles of Scaphiopus holbrooki. Ecology 63: 905-911.
Tyler, M. J. 1976 Frogs. Collins: Sydney and London.
Walker, P. H. 1986. The temperate southeast. Pp 36-64 in Australian soils, the human impact, edited by J. S. Russell and R. F. Isbell. University of Queensland, Brisbane.
Walkley, A. 1946. A critical examination of a rapid method for determining organic carbon in soils - effect of variations in digestion conditions and of inorganic soil constituents. Soil Science 63: 251-263.
Ward, J. E. and MacDonald, B. A. 1996. Pre-ingestive feeding behaviours of two sub-tropical bivalves ( Pinctada imbricata and Arca zebra): responses to an acute increase in suspended sediment concentration. Bulletin of Marine Science 59: 417-432.
Wassersug, R. J. and Feder, M. E. 1983. The effects of aquatic oxygen concentration, body size and respiratory behaviour on the stamina of obligate aquatic ( Bufo americanus) and facultative air-breathing ( Xenopus laevis and Rana berlandieri) anuran larvae. Journal of Experimental Biology 105: 173-190.
White, A. W. 1995. Disappearing frogs. Australian Zoologist 30: 48-56. Table 1. The salt composition of water used to house the tadpoles in the first part of the study.
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References

Anon., 1996 The Australian EM newsletter 52: 16-18.
Barker, J., Grigg, G. C. and Tyler, M. J. 1995 A Field Guide to Australian Frogs. Surrey Beatty and Sons: Chipping Norton, NSW.
Bayly, I. A. E. and Williams, W. D. 1974 Inland Waters and their Ecology. Longman, Australia.
Beattie, R. C. and Tyler-Jones, M. 1992. The effects of low pH and aluminium on breeding success in the frog Rana temporaria. Journal of Herpetology 26: 353-360.
Berkman, H. E. and Rabeni, C. F. 1987. Effect of siltation on stream fish communities. Environmental Biology for Fishes 18: 285-294.
Beschta, R. L. 1978. Long-term patterns of sediment production following road construction and logging in the Oregon coast range. Water Resources Research 14: 1011-1016.
Blaustein, A. R. and Wake, D. B. 1990. Declining amphibian populations: a global phenomenon? Trends in Ecology and Evolution 5: 203-204.
Boutilier, R. G., Stiffler, D. F. and Toews, D. P. 1992. Exchange of respiratory gases, ions and water in amphibious and aquatic amphibians. Pp 81-124 in Environmental Physiology of the Amphibians edited by M. E. Feder and W. W. Burrgren. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Burggren, W. W. 1984. Transition of respiratory processes during amphibian metamorphosis: From egg to adult. Pp 31-55 in Respiration and Metabolism of Embryonic Vertebrates, edited by R. S. Seymour. W. Junk Publishers, Dordrecht.
Burggren, W. W. and West, N. H. 1982. Changing respiratory importance of gills, lungs, and skin during metamorphosis in the bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana. Respiratory Physiology 47: 151-164.
Bruton, M. N. 1985. The effects of suspensoids on fish. Hydrobiologia 125: 221-241.
Campbell, I. C. and Doeg, T. J. 1989. Impact of timber harvesting and production on streams: a review. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 40: 519-539.
Chutter, F. M. 1969. The effects of silt and sand on the invertebrate fauna of streams and rivers. Hydrobiologia 34: 57-76.
Cope, W. G., Wiener, J. G. and Steingraeber, M. T. 1996. Test system for exposing fish to resuspended, contaminated sediment. Environmental Pollution 91: 177-182.
Corn, P. S. and Bury, R. B. 1989. Logging in Western Oregon: responses of headwater habitats and stream amphibians. Forest Ecology and Management 29: 39-57.
Cornish, P. M. 1978. Karuah Hydrology Research Project Annual Report 1978. Unpublished report the Forestry Commission of New South Wales, Sydney.
Cornish, P. M. 1980. Water quality studies in New South Wales State Forests 1. A north coast eucalypt forest near Lismore. Australian Forestry 43: 105-110.
Cornish, P. M. 1981. Water quality studies in New South Wales state forests 2. A south coast forest of mixed eucalypts near Bega. Australian Forestry 44: 109-117.
Cornish, P. M. 1983. Turbidity levels in streams draining undisturbed and disturbed forested catchments in New South Wales. Proceedings of the 10th AWWA Convention, Sydney.
Cornish, P. M. 2001. The effects of roading, harvesting and forest regeneration on streamwater turbidity levels in a moist eucalypt forest. Forest Ecology and Management 152: 293-312.
Cremer, K. W. 1990. Trees for Rural Australia. Inkarta Press, Sydney.
deMaynadier, P. G. and Hunter, M. L. Jr. 1995. The relationship between forest management and amphibian ecology: a review of the North American literature. Environmental Review 3: 230-261.
Dietrich, D. and Schlatter, C. 1989. Low levels of aluminium causing death of brown trout ( Salmo trutta fario, L.) in a Swiss alpine lake. Aquatic Science 51: 279-295.
Doeg, T. J. and Koehn, J. D. 1990. A Review of Australian Studies on the Effects of Forestry Practices on Aquatic Values. SSP Technical Report NO. 5. Fisheries Division, Department of Conservation and Environment, Sydney.
Duellman, W. E. and Trueb, L. 1986. Biology of Amphibians. McGraw-Hill, New York.
Erard Le Denn, E. and Ryckaert, M. 1990. Trout mortality associated to Distephanus speculum. Journal of Toxic Marine Phytoplankton 1990: 137.
Erskine, W. D. 1996. Downstream hydrogeomorphic impacts of the Eildon Reservoir on the mid-Goulburn River, Victoria. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria 108: 1-15.
Feder, M. E. 1981. Effect of body size, trophic state, time of day, and experimental stress on oxygen consumption of anuran larvae: an experimental assessment and evaluation of the literature. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 70: 497-508.
Garric, J., Migeon, B. and Vindimian, E. 1990. Lethal effects of draining on brown trout: a predictive model based on field and laboratory studies. Water Research 24: 59-66.
Gillespie, G. R. 2002. Impacts of sediment loads, tadpole density, and food type on the growth and development of tadpoles of the spotted tree frog Litoria spenceri: an in-stream experiment. Biological Conservation 106: 141-150.
Gillespie, G. R. and Hines, H. 1999. Status of temperate riverine frogs in south-eastern Australia. Pp 109-130 in Declines and Disappearances of Australian frogs edited by A. Campbell. Environment Australia, Canberra.
Gosner, K. L. 1960. A simplified table for staging Anuran embryos and larvae with notes on identification. Herpetologica 16: 183-190.
Gromko, M. H., Mason, F. S. and Smith-Gill, S. J. 1973. Analysis of the crowding effect in Rana pipiens tadpoles. Journal of Experimental Zoology 186: 63-72.
Hesse, L. W. and Newcomb, B. A. 1982. Effects of flushing spencer hydrology on water quality, fish, and insect fauna in the Niobrara River, Nebraska. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 2: 45-52.
Hines, H., Mahony, M. and McDonald, K. 1999. An Assessment of Frog Declines in Wet Subtropical Australia. Pp. 44-63 in Declines and Disappearances of Australian Frogs, edited by A. Campbell. Environment Australia, Canberra.
Lemckert, F. L. 1999. An assessment of the impacts of selective logging operations on Amphibian diversity in a forested area of northern New South Wales. Biological Conservation 89: 321-328.
Lemckert, F. L. and Brassil, T. 2003. Movements and habitat use by the Giant Burrowing Frog, Heleioporus australiacus. Amphibia-Reptilia 24: 207-211.
Lemckert, F. L. and Morse, R. 1999. Frogs in the timber production forests of the Dorrigo escarpment in northern New South Wales: An inventory of species present and the conservation of threatened species. Pp. 72-80 in Declines and disappearances of Australian frogs, edited by A. Campbell. Environment Australia, Canberra.
Lemly, A. D. 1982. Modification of benthic insect communities in polluted streams: Combined effects of sedimentation and nutrient enrichment. Hydrobiologia 87: 229-245.
Mahony, M. 1996. The decline of the green and golden bell frog Litoria aurea viewed in the context of declines and disappearances of other Australian frogs. Australian Zoologist 30: 237-247.
Martens, D. W. and Servizi, J. A. 1993. Suspended sediment particles inside gills and spleens of juvenile Pacific salmon ( Oncorhynchus spp.). Canadian Journal of Fish and Aquatic Science 50: 586-590.
McIndoe, R. and Smith, D. G. 1984. Functional anatomy of the internal gills of the tadpole of Litoria ewingii (Anura, Hylidae). Zoomorphology 104: 280-291.
Murphy, M. L., Hawkins, C. P. and Anderson, N. H. 1981. Effects of canopy modification and accumulated sediment on stream communities. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 110: 469-478.
Newcombe, C. P. and Jensen, J. O. T. 1996. Channel suspended sediment and fisheries: a synthesis for quantitative assessment of risk and impact. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 16: 693-727.
Olive, L. J. and Rieger, W. A. 1987. Eden catchment project: sediment transport and catchment disturbance 1977-1983. Monograph Series No. 1. Department of Geography and Oceanography, University College, Australian Defence Force Academy, Canberra, ACT.
O'shaugnessy, P. and Associates. 1995. Water quality protection measures for the conservation of the spotted tree frog. Unpublished report for the forest service, Victorian Department of Natural Resources, Melbourne.
Papadakis, J. 1969 Soils of the World. Elsevier: Amsterdam.
Pechmann, J. H. and Wilbur, H. M. 1994. Putting declining amphibian populations in perspective: natural fluctuations and human impacts. Herpetologica 50: 65-84.
Pechmann, J. H., Scott, D. E., Semlitsch, R. D., Caldwell, J. P. Vitt, L. J. and Whitfield Gibbons, J. 1991. Declining amphibian populations: the problem of separating human impacts from natural fluctuations. Science 253: 892-895.
Petranka, J. W. 1989. Chemical interference competition in tadpoles: does it occur outside laboratory aquaria? Copeia 4: 921-930.
Quinn, J. M., Davies-Colley, R. J., Hickey, C. W., Vickers, M. L. and Ryan, P.A. 1992. Effects of clay discharges on streams 2: Benthic invertebrates. Hydrobiologia 248: 235-247.
Robinson, M. 1993 A Field Guide to Frogs of Australia: from Port Augusta to Fraser Island including Tasmania. Reed Books: Sydney.
Rosewell, C. J. 1993 SOILOSS - A program to assist in the selection of management practices to reduce erosion, Technical Handbook No. 11 (2nd edition), Soil Conservation Service of NSW, Sydney.
Ryan, P. A. 1991. Environmental effects of sediment on New Zealand streams: a review. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 25: 207-221.
Semlitsch, R. D. and Caldwell, J. P. 1982. Effects of density on growth, metamorphosis, and survivorship in tadpoles of Scaphiopus holbrooki. Ecology 63: 905-911.
Tyler, M. J. 1976 Frogs. Collins: Sydney and London.
Walker, P. H. 1986. The temperate southeast. Pp 36-64 in Australian soils, the human impact, edited by J. S. Russell and R. F. Isbell. University of Queensland, Brisbane.
Walkley, A. 1946. A critical examination of a rapid method for determining organic carbon in soils - effect of variations in digestion conditions and of inorganic soil constituents. Soil Science 63: 251-263.
Ward, J. E. and MacDonald, B. A. 1996. Pre-ingestive feeding behaviours of two sub-tropical bivalves ( Pinctada imbricata and Arca zebra): responses to an acute increase in suspended sediment concentration. Bulletin of Marine Science 59: 417-432.
Wassersug, R. J. and Feder, M. E. 1983. The effects of aquatic oxygen concentration, body size and respiratory behaviour on the stamina of obligate aquatic ( Bufo americanus) and facultative air-breathing ( Xenopus laevis and Rana berlandieri) anuran larvae. Journal of Experimental Biology 105: 173-190.
White, A. W. 1995. Disappearing frogs. Australian Zoologist 30: 48-56. Table 1. The salt composition of water used to house the tadpoles in the first part of the study.
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