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Bats have recently become an essential component of forest management in State Forests of NSW. A key driver has been research demonstrating that many species of bats prefer to roost in the hollows of large mature eucalypts and the 1990s listing of many bat species as threatened. Current bat management in State Forests of NSW is multi-pronged. Two “tiers” of management prescriptions are specified in the Threatened Species Licence issued under theNSW Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995. The 1st tier comprises forest wide prescriptions (e.g. high conservation value old growth, rainforest, riparian buffer and habitat tree protection) that are designed to protect key fauna habitat across the landscape. These are augmented by the 2nd tier, which are specific prescriptions triggered by records of certain species from pre-logging surveys. Bat management at State Forests is also informed by strategic research that has improved our understanding of habitat requirements and tested aspects of logging impacts and the effectiveness of management prescriptions. This paper argues that the current emphasis on pre-logging surveys has improved our knowledge of the distribution of bats, but that this emphasis and the rigidity with which the conditions are specified limits real conservation outcomes for bats. This is due to a number of factors such as dispersing modest survey effort over large areas, basing decisions about where to survey on untested habitat models and targeting surveys on a small proportion of the total bat fauna. Most importantly, pre-logging surveys yield little data on the effectiveness of prescriptions designed to minimise potential impacts of logging, yet their implementation represents an opportunity cost for considering other options. I suggest an alternative approach that shifts survey effort away from pre-logging surveys to monitoring across tenure. Data are presented to indicate how much sampling effort would be required to adequately describe bat assemblages at a landscape scale. In conjunction with scientific research, monitoring would provide much needed data on the changing status of bats and a strong basis for assessing the effectiveness of management prescriptions. The Threatened Species Licence conditions for logging can be reviewed in 2005 and this provides an opportune time to advance the management of bats, and other fauna, in a scientific and cost-effective way.

Abbott, I. and Burrows, N.D. 2004. Monitoring biodiversity in jarrah forest in south-west Western Australia: the FORESTCHECK initiative. Pp. 947-58 in Conservation of Australia's Forest Fauna (second edition), edited by D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Anderson, J., Law, B.S. and Tidemann, C.R. submitted. Stream use by the Large-footed Myotis Myotis macropus in relation to environmental variables in Northern NSW, Australia. Australian Mammalogy
Burrows, N.D. and Christensen, P.E.S. 2002. Long-term trends in native mammal capture rates in a jarrah forest in southwestern Australia. Australian Forestry 65: 211-19.
Caughley, G.C. 1994. Directions in conservation biology. Journal of Animal Ecology 63: 215-44.
Clarke, R.H., Oliver, D.L., Boulton, R.L., Cassey, P. and Clarke, M.F. 2003. Assessing programs for monitoring threatened species-a tale of three honeyeaters (Meliphagidae). Wildlife Research 30: 427-35.
Cody, M. and Smallwood, J. (eds). 1996 Long-Term Studies of Vertebrate Communities. Academic Press, Inc. New York.
Colwell, R.K. 1997. EstimateS: Statistical estimation of species richness and shared species from samples. Version 5 User's Guide and Application. http://vice-roy.eeb.uconn.edu/estimates
Crome, F.H.J. and Richards, G.C. 1988. Bats and gaps: Microchiropteran community structure in a Queensland rainforest. Ecology 69: 1960-9.
de Oliveira, M.C. 1998 Anabat System Practical Guide. Queensland Department of Natural Resources, Brisbane.
Dickman, C. 1996. Incorporating science into recovery planning for threatened species. Pp. 63-73 in Back from the brink: refining the threatened species recovery process, edited by S. Stephens and S. Maxwell. Surrey Beatty and Sons, Chipping Norton, NSW.
Duffy, A.M., Lumsden, L.F., Caddle, C.R., Chick, R.R. and Newell. G.R. 2000. The efficacy of Anabat ultrasonic detectors and harp traps for surveying microchiropterans in south-eastern Australia. Acta Chiropterologica 2: 127-144.
Duncan, A., Baker, G.B., Montgomery, N. eds. 1999. The Action Plan for Australian Bats. Environment Australia, Canberra.
Dwyer, P.D. 1966. The population pattern of Miniopterus schreibersii (Chiroptera) in north-eastern New South Wales. Australian Journal of Zoology 14: 1073-1137.
Dwyer, P.D. 1970. Foraging behaviour of the Australian Largefooted Myotis (Chiroptera). Mammalia 34: 76-80.
Farber, O. and Kadmon, R. 2003. Assessment of alternative approaches for bioclimatic modeling with special emphasis on the Mahalanobis distance. Ecological Modeling 160: 115-30.
Fenton M.B. 1997. Science and the conservation of bats. Journal of Mammalogy 78: 1-14.
Foster, J.R. 2001. Statistical power in forest monitoring. Forest Ecology and Management 151: 211-22.
Helman, P. and Churchill, S. 1986. Bat capture techniques and their use in surveys. Macroderma 2: 32-53.
Holling, C.S. and Meffe, G.K. 1996. Command and control and the pathology of natural resource management. Conservation Biology 10: 328-37.
Hoye, G. 1995. A Bat Survey of the Morisset Forestry Management Area, Morisset EIS. Report to State Forests of NSW, Pennant Hills.
Johnson, J.B., Menzel, M.A., Edwards, J.W., and Ford, W.M. 2002. A comparison of two acoustical bat survey techniques. Wildlife Society Bulletin 30: 931-6.
Kavanagh, R.P. 2002. Conservation and management of large forest owls in southeastern Australia. Pp 201-19 in Ecology and Conservation of Owls, edited by I. Newton, R. Kavanagh, J. Olsen and I. Taylor. CSIRO, Victoria.
Law, B.S. 1996. The ecology of bats in south-east Australian forests and potential impacts of forestry practices: a review. Pacific Conservation Biology 2: 363-74.
Law, B.S. and Anderson, J.A. 2000. Roost preferences and foraging ranges of the eastern forest bat Vespadelus pumilus under two disturbance histories in northern New South Wales, Australia. Austral Ecology 25: 352-67.
Law, B.S., Anderson, J. and Chidel, M. 1998. A survey of bats on the south-west slopes region of NSW with suggestions of improvements for bat surveys. Australian Zoologist 30: 467-79.
Law, B.S., Anderson, J. and Chidel, M. 1999. Bat communities in a fragmented forest landscape on the south-west slopes of New South Wales, Australia. Biological Conservation 88: 333-45.
Law, B., Britton, A., Chidel, M, and Fawcett, A. 2002. Monitoring Eastern Horseshoe Bats at Ourimbah Cave. Unpubl. Report to Hunter region, State Forests of NSW.
Law, B.S. and Chidel, M. 2001. Bat activity 22 years after first-round intensive logging of alternate coupes near Eden, New South Wales. Australian Forestry 64: 242-7.
Law, B.S. and Chidel, M. 2002. Tracks and riparian zones facilitate the use of Australian regrowth forest by insectivorous bats. Journal of Applied Ecology 39: 605-17.
Law, B.S. and Chidel, M. 2004. Roosting and foraging ecology of the Golden-tipped Bat Kerivoula papuensis on the south coast of New South Wales. Wildlife Research 31: 73-82.
Law, B.S. and Urquhart, C. 2000. Diet of the Large-footed Myotis Myotis macropus at a forest stream roost in northern New South Wales. Australian Mammalogy 22: 121-24.
Lindenmayer, D.B. and Recher, H.F. 1998. Aspects of ecologically sustainable forestry in temperate eucalypt forests-beyond an expanded reserve system. Pacific Conservation Biology 4: 4-10.
Lindenmayer, D.B. and Franklin, J.F. 2002 Conserving Forest Biodiversity: a Comprehensive, Multiscaled Approach. Island Press, Washington DC.
Lloyd, A. 2004. Bat distribution and riparian zone management in production forests of north-eastern New South Wales. Honours Thesis, Southern Cross University, Lismore, NSW.
Lunney, D., Barker, J. and Priddel, D. 1985. Movement and day roosts of the chocolate wattled bat Chalinolobus morio (Gray) (Microchiroptera: Vespertilionidae) in a Logged Forest. Australian Mammalogy 8:313-7.
Lunney, D., Barker, J., Priddel, D. and O'Connell, M. 1988. Roost selection by Gould's long-eared bat, Nyctophilus gouldi Thomas (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae), in logged forest on the south coast of New South Wales. Australian Wildlife Research 15: 375-84.
Lunney, D., Matthews, A., Stein, J. and Lunney, H. 2003. Australian bat research: the limitations of The Action Plan for Australian Bats in determining the direction of research. Pacific Conservation Biology 8: 255-60.
Margules, C.R. and Austin, M.P. 1991 Nature Conservation: Cost-effective Biological Surveys and Data Analysis. CSIRO, Australia.
Mac Nally, R. 1997. Monitoring forest bird communities for impact assessment: the influence of sampling intensity and spatial scale. Biological Conservation 82: 355-67.
Meek, P. 2004. Compromising science for regulatory compliance: a case study of confounding conservation policy. Pp. 256-69 in Conservation of Australia's Forest Fauna (second edition), edited by D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Mills, D.J., Norton, T.W., Parnaby, H.E., Cunningham, R.B. and Nix, H.A. 1996. Designing surveys for microchiropteran bats in complex forest landscapes-a pilot study from south-east Australia. Forest Ecology and Management 85: 149-61.
Moreno, C.E. and Halffter, G. 2000. Assessing the completeness of bat biodiversity inventories using species accumulation curves. Journal of Applied Ecology 37: 149-58.
Nicholson, E. 1999. Winds of change for silvicultural practice in NSW native forests. Australian Forestry 62: 223-35.
NSW Department of Urban Affairs and Planning. 1999 Report for the Comprehensive Regional Assessment Project NA57/ESFM: Application of protective measures/forest practices into a quantitative database. Resources Assessment and Conservation Division, NSW Dept of Urban Affairs and Planning, Sydney.
NSW NPWS. 1999. Modelling areas of habitat significance for vertebrate fauna and vascular flora in north east NSW. Unpubl. Report to Resource and Conservation Division, Dept of Urban affairs and Planning, Sydney.
O'Donnell, C.F. 2002. Variability in numbers of long-tailed ( Chalinolobus tuberculatus) roosting in Grand Canyon Cave, New Zealand: implications for monitoring population trends. New Zealand Journal of Zoology 29: 273-84.
O'Donnell, C.F. and Langton, S. 2003. Power to detect trends in abundance of long-tailed bats ( Chalinolobus tuberculatus) using counts on line transects. Science for Conservation 224. Published by Dept of Conservation, Wellington, New Zealand.
O'Farrell, M.J., Miller, B.W., and Gannon, W.L. 1999. Qualitative identification of free-flying bats using the anabat detector. Journal of Mammalogy 80: 11-23.
O'shea, T.J. and Bogan, M.A. (eds) 2000. Interim Report of the workshop on monitoring trends in the U.S. bat populations: problems and prospects. US Geological Survey, Colarado, http://www.mesc.usgs.gov/BPD/ireport.htm
Pearce, J. and Ferrier, S. 2000. Evaluating the predictive performance of habitat models developed using logistic regression. Ecological Modelling 133: 225-45.
Pearce, J., Ferrier S. and Scotts, D. 2001. An evaluation of the predictive performance of distributional models for flora and fauna in north-east New South Wales. Journal of Environmental Management 62: 171-84.
Recher, H.F., Shields, J., Kavanagh, R. and Webb, G. 1987. Retaining remnant mature forest for nature conservation at Eden, New South Wales: a review of theory and practice. Pp 177-94 in Nature Conservation: The Role of Remnants of Native Vegetation (ed.), edited by D.A. Saunders, G.W. Arnold, A.A. Burbidge and A.J.M. Hopkins. Surrey Beatty and Sons, Sydney.
Reinhold, L., Law, B., Ford, G. and Pennay, M. 2001 Key to bat calls of south-east Queensland and north-east New South Wales. Forest Ecosystem Research and Assessment Technical Paper 2001-07, Department of Natural Resources and Mines, Queensland.
Richards, G.C. 1992. Wingham Management Area Fauna Survey. Part 4: Bats. Report to the Forestry Commission of New South Wales. Division of Wildlife and Ecology, CSIRO, Canberra.
Schulz, M. 2000. Roosts used by the golden-tipped bat Kerivoula papuensis (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae). Journal of Zoology 250: 467-78.
Schulz, M. and Eyre, T.J. 2000. Habitat selection by the rare golden-tipped bat Kerivoula papuensis.Australian Mammalogy 22: 23-33.
Simberloff, D. 1999. The role of science in the preservation of forest biodiversity. Forest Ecology and Management 115: 101-11.
Smith, A.P., Andrews, S.P. and Moore, D.M. 1994. Terrestrial Fauna of the Grafton and Casino State Forest Management Areas: Description and assessment of impacts, Grafton EIS. Report to State Forests of NSW, Pennant Hills.
Smyth, A.K., Lamb, D., Hall, L., McCallum, H., Moloney, D. and Smith, G. 2000. Towards scientifically valid management tools for sustainable forest management: species guilds versus model species. Pp. 118-24 in Management for Sustainable Ecosystems, edited by P. Hale, A. Petrie, D. Moloney and P. Sattler. Centre for Conservation Biology, the University of Queensland, Brisbane.
State Forests of NSW. 2002. Seeing: Social, Environmental and Economic Report 2001/02. SFNSW, Pennant Hills. http://www.forest.nsw.gov.au
Taylor, B.L. and Gerrodette, T. 1993. The uses of statistical power in conservation biology: the vaquita and the northern spotted owl. Conservation Biology 7: 489-500.
Taylor, R.J. and Savva, N.M. 1988. Use of roost sites by four species of bats in state forest in south-eastern Tasmania. Australian Wildlife Research, 15: 637-45.
Tidemann, C.R. and Woodside, D.P. 1978. A collapsible bat trap and a comparison of results obtained with the trap and with mist nets. Australian Wildlife Research 5: 355-62.
Underwood, A.J. and Chapman, M.G. 2002. Conservation of coastal organisms depends on scientific realism, not community “monitoring”. Pp 20-37 in A Clash of Paradigms: Community and Research-based Conservation, edited by D. Lunney, C. Dickman and S. Burgin. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
Watson, I. and Novelly, P. 2004. Making the biodiversity monitoring system sustainable: design issues for large-scale monitoring systems. Austral Ecology 29: 16-31.
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References

Abbott, I. and Burrows, N.D. 2004. Monitoring biodiversity in jarrah forest in south-west Western Australia: the FORESTCHECK initiative. Pp. 947-58 in Conservation of Australia's Forest Fauna (second edition), edited by D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Anderson, J., Law, B.S. and Tidemann, C.R. submitted. Stream use by the Large-footed Myotis Myotis macropus in relation to environmental variables in Northern NSW, Australia. Australian Mammalogy
Burrows, N.D. and Christensen, P.E.S. 2002. Long-term trends in native mammal capture rates in a jarrah forest in southwestern Australia. Australian Forestry 65: 211-19.
Caughley, G.C. 1994. Directions in conservation biology. Journal of Animal Ecology 63: 215-44.
Clarke, R.H., Oliver, D.L., Boulton, R.L., Cassey, P. and Clarke, M.F. 2003. Assessing programs for monitoring threatened species-a tale of three honeyeaters (Meliphagidae). Wildlife Research 30: 427-35.
Cody, M. and Smallwood, J. (eds). 1996 Long-Term Studies of Vertebrate Communities. Academic Press, Inc. New York.
Colwell, R.K. 1997. EstimateS: Statistical estimation of species richness and shared species from samples. Version 5 User's Guide and Application. http://vice-roy.eeb.uconn.edu/estimates
Crome, F.H.J. and Richards, G.C. 1988. Bats and gaps: Microchiropteran community structure in a Queensland rainforest. Ecology 69: 1960-9.
de Oliveira, M.C. 1998 Anabat System Practical Guide. Queensland Department of Natural Resources, Brisbane.
Dickman, C. 1996. Incorporating science into recovery planning for threatened species. Pp. 63-73 in Back from the brink: refining the threatened species recovery process, edited by S. Stephens and S. Maxwell. Surrey Beatty and Sons, Chipping Norton, NSW.
Duffy, A.M., Lumsden, L.F., Caddle, C.R., Chick, R.R. and Newell. G.R. 2000. The efficacy of Anabat ultrasonic detectors and harp traps for surveying microchiropterans in south-eastern Australia. Acta Chiropterologica 2: 127-144.
Duncan, A., Baker, G.B., Montgomery, N. eds. 1999. The Action Plan for Australian Bats. Environment Australia, Canberra.
Dwyer, P.D. 1966. The population pattern of Miniopterus schreibersii (Chiroptera) in north-eastern New South Wales. Australian Journal of Zoology 14: 1073-1137.
Dwyer, P.D. 1970. Foraging behaviour of the Australian Largefooted Myotis (Chiroptera). Mammalia 34: 76-80.
Farber, O. and Kadmon, R. 2003. Assessment of alternative approaches for bioclimatic modeling with special emphasis on the Mahalanobis distance. Ecological Modeling 160: 115-30.
Fenton M.B. 1997. Science and the conservation of bats. Journal of Mammalogy 78: 1-14.
Foster, J.R. 2001. Statistical power in forest monitoring. Forest Ecology and Management 151: 211-22.
Helman, P. and Churchill, S. 1986. Bat capture techniques and their use in surveys. Macroderma 2: 32-53.
Holling, C.S. and Meffe, G.K. 1996. Command and control and the pathology of natural resource management. Conservation Biology 10: 328-37.
Hoye, G. 1995. A Bat Survey of the Morisset Forestry Management Area, Morisset EIS. Report to State Forests of NSW, Pennant Hills.
Johnson, J.B., Menzel, M.A., Edwards, J.W., and Ford, W.M. 2002. A comparison of two acoustical bat survey techniques. Wildlife Society Bulletin 30: 931-6.
Kavanagh, R.P. 2002. Conservation and management of large forest owls in southeastern Australia. Pp 201-19 in Ecology and Conservation of Owls, edited by I. Newton, R. Kavanagh, J. Olsen and I. Taylor. CSIRO, Victoria.
Law, B.S. 1996. The ecology of bats in south-east Australian forests and potential impacts of forestry practices: a review. Pacific Conservation Biology 2: 363-74.
Law, B.S. and Anderson, J.A. 2000. Roost preferences and foraging ranges of the eastern forest bat Vespadelus pumilus under two disturbance histories in northern New South Wales, Australia. Austral Ecology 25: 352-67.
Law, B.S., Anderson, J. and Chidel, M. 1998. A survey of bats on the south-west slopes region of NSW with suggestions of improvements for bat surveys. Australian Zoologist 30: 467-79.
Law, B.S., Anderson, J. and Chidel, M. 1999. Bat communities in a fragmented forest landscape on the south-west slopes of New South Wales, Australia. Biological Conservation 88: 333-45.
Law, B., Britton, A., Chidel, M, and Fawcett, A. 2002. Monitoring Eastern Horseshoe Bats at Ourimbah Cave. Unpubl. Report to Hunter region, State Forests of NSW.
Law, B.S. and Chidel, M. 2001. Bat activity 22 years after first-round intensive logging of alternate coupes near Eden, New South Wales. Australian Forestry 64: 242-7.
Law, B.S. and Chidel, M. 2002. Tracks and riparian zones facilitate the use of Australian regrowth forest by insectivorous bats. Journal of Applied Ecology 39: 605-17.
Law, B.S. and Chidel, M. 2004. Roosting and foraging ecology of the Golden-tipped Bat Kerivoula papuensis on the south coast of New South Wales. Wildlife Research 31: 73-82.
Law, B.S. and Urquhart, C. 2000. Diet of the Large-footed Myotis Myotis macropus at a forest stream roost in northern New South Wales. Australian Mammalogy 22: 121-24.
Lindenmayer, D.B. and Recher, H.F. 1998. Aspects of ecologically sustainable forestry in temperate eucalypt forests-beyond an expanded reserve system. Pacific Conservation Biology 4: 4-10.
Lindenmayer, D.B. and Franklin, J.F. 2002 Conserving Forest Biodiversity: a Comprehensive, Multiscaled Approach. Island Press, Washington DC.
Lloyd, A. 2004. Bat distribution and riparian zone management in production forests of north-eastern New South Wales. Honours Thesis, Southern Cross University, Lismore, NSW.
Lunney, D., Barker, J. and Priddel, D. 1985. Movement and day roosts of the chocolate wattled bat Chalinolobus morio (Gray) (Microchiroptera: Vespertilionidae) in a Logged Forest. Australian Mammalogy 8:313-7.
Lunney, D., Barker, J., Priddel, D. and O'Connell, M. 1988. Roost selection by Gould's long-eared bat, Nyctophilus gouldi Thomas (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae), in logged forest on the south coast of New South Wales. Australian Wildlife Research 15: 375-84.
Lunney, D., Matthews, A., Stein, J. and Lunney, H. 2003. Australian bat research: the limitations of The Action Plan for Australian Bats in determining the direction of research. Pacific Conservation Biology 8: 255-60.
Margules, C.R. and Austin, M.P. 1991 Nature Conservation: Cost-effective Biological Surveys and Data Analysis. CSIRO, Australia.
Mac Nally, R. 1997. Monitoring forest bird communities for impact assessment: the influence of sampling intensity and spatial scale. Biological Conservation 82: 355-67.
Meek, P. 2004. Compromising science for regulatory compliance: a case study of confounding conservation policy. Pp. 256-69 in Conservation of Australia's Forest Fauna (second edition), edited by D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Mills, D.J., Norton, T.W., Parnaby, H.E., Cunningham, R.B. and Nix, H.A. 1996. Designing surveys for microchiropteran bats in complex forest landscapes-a pilot study from south-east Australia. Forest Ecology and Management 85: 149-61.
Moreno, C.E. and Halffter, G. 2000. Assessing the completeness of bat biodiversity inventories using species accumulation curves. Journal of Applied Ecology 37: 149-58.
Nicholson, E. 1999. Winds of change for silvicultural practice in NSW native forests. Australian Forestry 62: 223-35.
NSW Department of Urban Affairs and Planning. 1999 Report for the Comprehensive Regional Assessment Project NA57/ESFM: Application of protective measures/forest practices into a quantitative database. Resources Assessment and Conservation Division, NSW Dept of Urban Affairs and Planning, Sydney.
NSW NPWS. 1999. Modelling areas of habitat significance for vertebrate fauna and vascular flora in north east NSW. Unpubl. Report to Resource and Conservation Division, Dept of Urban affairs and Planning, Sydney.
O'Donnell, C.F. 2002. Variability in numbers of long-tailed ( Chalinolobus tuberculatus) roosting in Grand Canyon Cave, New Zealand: implications for monitoring population trends. New Zealand Journal of Zoology 29: 273-84.
O'Donnell, C.F. and Langton, S. 2003. Power to detect trends in abundance of long-tailed bats ( Chalinolobus tuberculatus) using counts on line transects. Science for Conservation 224. Published by Dept of Conservation, Wellington, New Zealand.
O'Farrell, M.J., Miller, B.W., and Gannon, W.L. 1999. Qualitative identification of free-flying bats using the anabat detector. Journal of Mammalogy 80: 11-23.
O'shea, T.J. and Bogan, M.A. (eds) 2000. Interim Report of the workshop on monitoring trends in the U.S. bat populations: problems and prospects. US Geological Survey, Colarado, http://www.mesc.usgs.gov/BPD/ireport.htm
Pearce, J. and Ferrier, S. 2000. Evaluating the predictive performance of habitat models developed using logistic regression. Ecological Modelling 133: 225-45.
Pearce, J., Ferrier S. and Scotts, D. 2001. An evaluation of the predictive performance of distributional models for flora and fauna in north-east New South Wales. Journal of Environmental Management 62: 171-84.
Recher, H.F., Shields, J., Kavanagh, R. and Webb, G. 1987. Retaining remnant mature forest for nature conservation at Eden, New South Wales: a review of theory and practice. Pp 177-94 in Nature Conservation: The Role of Remnants of Native Vegetation (ed.), edited by D.A. Saunders, G.W. Arnold, A.A. Burbidge and A.J.M. Hopkins. Surrey Beatty and Sons, Sydney.
Reinhold, L., Law, B., Ford, G. and Pennay, M. 2001 Key to bat calls of south-east Queensland and north-east New South Wales. Forest Ecosystem Research and Assessment Technical Paper 2001-07, Department of Natural Resources and Mines, Queensland.
Richards, G.C. 1992. Wingham Management Area Fauna Survey. Part 4: Bats. Report to the Forestry Commission of New South Wales. Division of Wildlife and Ecology, CSIRO, Canberra.
Schulz, M. 2000. Roosts used by the golden-tipped bat Kerivoula papuensis (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae). Journal of Zoology 250: 467-78.
Schulz, M. and Eyre, T.J. 2000. Habitat selection by the rare golden-tipped bat Kerivoula papuensis.Australian Mammalogy 22: 23-33.
Simberloff, D. 1999. The role of science in the preservation of forest biodiversity. Forest Ecology and Management 115: 101-11.
Smith, A.P., Andrews, S.P. and Moore, D.M. 1994. Terrestrial Fauna of the Grafton and Casino State Forest Management Areas: Description and assessment of impacts, Grafton EIS. Report to State Forests of NSW, Pennant Hills.
Smyth, A.K., Lamb, D., Hall, L., McCallum, H., Moloney, D. and Smith, G. 2000. Towards scientifically valid management tools for sustainable forest management: species guilds versus model species. Pp. 118-24 in Management for Sustainable Ecosystems, edited by P. Hale, A. Petrie, D. Moloney and P. Sattler. Centre for Conservation Biology, the University of Queensland, Brisbane.
State Forests of NSW. 2002. Seeing: Social, Environmental and Economic Report 2001/02. SFNSW, Pennant Hills. http://www.forest.nsw.gov.au
Taylor, B.L. and Gerrodette, T. 1993. The uses of statistical power in conservation biology: the vaquita and the northern spotted owl. Conservation Biology 7: 489-500.
Taylor, R.J. and Savva, N.M. 1988. Use of roost sites by four species of bats in state forest in south-eastern Tasmania. Australian Wildlife Research, 15: 637-45.
Tidemann, C.R. and Woodside, D.P. 1978. A collapsible bat trap and a comparison of results obtained with the trap and with mist nets. Australian Wildlife Research 5: 355-62.
Underwood, A.J. and Chapman, M.G. 2002. Conservation of coastal organisms depends on scientific realism, not community “monitoring”. Pp 20-37 in A Clash of Paradigms: Community and Research-based Conservation, edited by D. Lunney, C. Dickman and S. Burgin. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
Watson, I. and Novelly, P. 2004. Making the biodiversity monitoring system sustainable: design issues for large-scale monitoring systems. Austral Ecology 29: 16-31.
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