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The response of ground-dwelling jarrah forest invertebrates to logging (but not a post-harvest burning) was examined in the Kingston, Warrup and Winnejup forest blocks, approximately 25 km north-east of Manjimup in the south-west of Western Australia. Twenty sites, comprising eight Internal Controls, four External Controls and eight Impact sites, were sampled simultaneously before and after logging. These sites were sampled 18 times (8 pre- and 10 post-logging) over a period of 22 months (May 1994-March 1996). Logging occurred between March and April 1995.

Approximately 500 000 invertebrates were collected from 35 Classes, sub Classes or Orders. The most dominant taxa were Collembola and Formicidae which accounted for 77.6% of the total abundance. Marked seasonal trends were present, with overall invertebrate activity (excluding Collembola) being highest during spring and lowest during winter. The main factors correlated with invertebrate activity were temperature and rainfall. Numerical dominance of taxa changed between seasons and between years. Significant spatial variability was also evident and appeared to be associated with changes in microclimatic conditions and small scale spatial variations in habitat.

Timber harvesting had no significant impacts on total invertebrate abundance and richness. Only 5 of the 35 taxa studied, Blattodea, Coleoptera, Diptera, Hemiptera and Orthoptera, were significantly affected, with Blattodea being the most severely affected. At the level of order, the impacts were only of short duration, with post logging communities resembling those of undisturbed sites after 10 months. Similarly, the impacts of logging on Araneae, Blattodea and Orthoptera assemblages were also only of a short duration. Logged sites followed the same seasonal patterns as control sites in the ordination plots, indicating that seasonal and inter-annual climatic changes appear to be more important determinants of community structure and function of the ground-dwelling invertebrate fauna than a logging event.

Abbott, I. 1984. Changes in the abudance and activity of certain soil and litter fauna in the Jarrah Forest of Western Australia after a moderate intensity fire. Australian Journal of Soil Research 22: 463-469.
Abbott, I. 1995. Prodomus of the occurrence and distribution on insect species in the forested part of south-west Western Australia. CALM Science 1: 365-464.
Abbott, I., Burbidge, T., Strehlow, K.H., Mellican, A., Wills, A. 2003 Logging and burning impacts on cockroaches, crickets and grasshoppers, and spiders in Jarrah forest, Western Australia. Forest Ecology and Management. 174: 383-399.
Abbott, I. and Christensen, P. 1994. Application of ecological and evolutionary principles to forest management in Western Australia. Australian Forestry 57: 109-122.
Abensperg-Traun, M., Smith, G. T., Arnold, G. W., Steven, D. E. 1996. The effects of habitat fragmentation and livestock grazing on animal communities in remnants of gimlet Eucalyptus salubris woodland in the Western Australian wheatbelt. I. Arthropods. Journal of Applied Ecology 33: 1281-1301.
Adis, J. 1979. Problems of interpreting arthropod sampling with pitfall traps. Zoologischer Anzeiger Jena 202: 177-184.
Andersen, A. N., Ludwig, J.A., Lowe, L.M., Rentz, D.C.F. 2001. Grasshopper biodiversity and bioindicators in Australian tropical savannas: responses to disturbance in Kakadu National Park. Austral Ecology 26: 213-222.
Baldi, A. and Kisbenedek T. 1997. Orthopteran assemblages as indicators of grassland naturalness in Hungary. Agriculture, Ecosystem and Environment 66: 121-129.
Bell, D. T. and Heddle E. M. 1989. Floristic, morphologic and vegetational diversity. Pp. 53-66 in: The Jarrah Forest, edited by B. Dell, J. J. Havel and N. Malajczuk, Dordrecht, Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Bengtsson, J., T. Persson, T. Lundkvist, H. 1997. Long-term effects of logging residue addition and removal on macroarthropods and enchytraeids. Journal of Applied Ecology 34: 1014-1022.
Bird, S., Coulson, R. N. Crossley Jr., D.A., 2000. Impacts of silvicultural practices on soil and litter arthropod diversity in a Texas pine plantation. Forest Ecology and Management 131: 65-80.
Bradshaw, F. J., Adams, R., Sneeuwjagt, R., Low, R., Havel, J.J., Bartle, J.R., Stoneman, G. 1991. The Jarrah Forest: A Case Study in Multiple Use. Pp. 1-21 in: Forest Management in Australia, edited by F. H. McKinnel, E. R. Hopkins, and J. E. D. Fox. Surrey Beatty and Sons Pty Ltd, Chipping Norton New South Wales.
Brennan, K.E.C. and Majer, J.D. 2003. Conservation and biodiversity of spiders in Western Australian jarrah forest: untangling multiple disturbances effects from burning and mining. Pp. 914-35 in Conservation of Australia's Forest Fauna, second edition, edited by Daniel Lunney. Royal ZoologicalSociety of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Bromham, L., Cardillo, M., Bennet, A.F., Elgar, M.A. 1999. Effects of stock grazing on the ground invertebrate fauna of woodland remnants. Australian Journal of Ecology 24: 199-207.
Burrows, N., Friend, G., Morris, K., Stoneman, G., Wardell-Johnson, G., Williams, M. 1993. A proposed Integrated Study of the Effects of Timber Harvesting on the Jarrah Forest Ecosystem. Department of Conservation and Land Management. Como. p.76.
CALM 1987a Northern Forest Region. Regional Management Plan 1987-1997. Management Plan No. 9. Department of Conservation and Land Management. Perth: p103.
CALM 1987b Central Forest Region. Regional Management Plan 1987-1997. Management Plan No. 10. Department of Conservation and Land Management. Perth: p101.
CALM 1987c Southern Forest Region. Regional Management Plan 1987-1997. Management Plan No. 11. Department of Conservation and Land Management. Perth: p98.
CALM 1994 Forest Management Plan 1994-2003. Department of Conservation and Land Management. Como. p54
CALM 1995 Silvicultural Guidelines 1/95. Silvicultural practices in the jarrah forest. Department of Conservation and Land Management. Como.
CALM 1997 The Kingston Project. Department of Conservation and Land Management. Manjimup
CALM 2001 Annual Report 2000-2001. Department of Conservation and Land Management. Perth. p113
Campbell, A. J. and Tanton M. T. 1981. Effects of fire on the invertebrate fauna of soil and litter of a eucalypt forest. Pp. 215-41 in: Fire and the Australian Biota, edited by A. M. Gill, R. H. Groves and I. R. Noble. Australian Academy of Science. Canberra.
Clarke, K. R. 1993. Non-parametric multivariate analyses of change in community structure. Australian Journal of Ecology 18: 117-143.
Clarke, K. R. and Warwick. R.M. 1994 Changes in Macroinvertebrate Communities: An Approach to Statistical Analysis and Interpretation. Natural Environment Research Council. UK.
CSIRO 1991 The Insects of Australia. Melbourne University Press. Melbourne.
Curry, S. J., Humphreys, W.F., Koch, L.E., Main, B.Y. 1985. Changes in arachnid communities resulting from forestry practices in Karri forest, south-west Western Australia. Australian Forest Research 15: 469-80.
Davies, V. T. 1986 Australian Spiders (Araneae) - Collection, Preservation and Identification. Queensland Museum. Brisbane.p60
Evans, E. W. 1984. Fire as a natural disturbance to grasshopper assemblages of tallgrass prairie. Oikos 43: 9-16.
Evans, E. W. 1988a. Community dynamics of prairie grasshoppers subjected to periodic fire: predictable trajectories or random walks in time? Oikos 52: 283-292.
Evans, E. W. 1988b. Grasshopper (Insecta: Orthoptera: Acrididae) assemblages of tallgrass prairie: influences of frequency, topography and vegetation. Canadian Journal of Zoology 66: 1495-1501.
Fielding, D. J., Brusven, M. A. 1993. Spatial analysis of grasshopper density and ecological disturbance on southern Idaho rangeland. Agriculture, Ecosystem and Environment 43: 31-47.
Friend, G. R. 1995. Fire and invertebrates- a review of research methodology and the predictability of post-fire response patterns. CALM Science Supplement 4: 165-174.
Friend, G. R., Williams, M. R. 1996. Impact of fire on invertebrate communities in mallee-heath shrublands of southwesterm Australia. Pacific Conservation Biology 2: 244-67.
Greenslade, P. J. M. 1964. Pitfall trapping as a method for studying populations of Carabidae (Coleoptera). Journal of Animal Ecology 33: 301-310.
Havel, J. J., Mattiske E. M. 2000 Vegetation mapping of south-west Forest Regions of Western Australia. Mattiske Consulting. Perth
Hulbert, S. J. 1984. Pseudoreplication and the design of ecological field experiments. Ecological Monographs 54: 187-211.
Ives, A. R., Klug, J. L. Gross, K. 2000. Stability and species richness in complex communities. Ecology Letters 3: 399-411.
Kemp, W. P. 1992. Rangeland grasshopper (Orthoptera: Acrididae) community structure: a working hypothesis. Environmental Entomology 21: 461-70.
Kruskal, J. B., Wish, M. 1978 Multidimensional scaling. Sage Publications. Beverley Hills, California.p93.
Lewis, O. T. 2001. Effect of experimental selective logging on tropical butterflies. Conservation Biology 15: 389-400.
Little, S. J., Friend, G. R. 1993. Structure of invertebrate communities in relation to fire history of Kwongan vegetation at Tutanning Nature Reserve. CALM Science 1: 3-18.
Main, B. Y. 1981. Australian spiders: diversity, distribution and ecology. Pp. 809-852 in: Ecological Biogeography of Australia, edited by A. Keast. Dr. W. Junk publishers. London.
Main, B. Y. 1987. Persistence of invertebrates in small areas: case studies of trapdoor spiders in Western Australia. Pp. 29-39 in: Nature conservation: The role of remnants of native vegetation, edited by D. A. Saunders, G. W. Arnold, A. A. Burbidge and A. J. M. Hopkins. Surrey Beatty and Sons Pty, Ltd. Chipping Norton, NSW
Main, B. Y. 1996. Terrestrial invertebrates in south-west Australian forests: the role of relic species and habitats in reserve design. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 79: 277-280.
Main, B. Y. 2001. Historical ecology, responses to current ecological changes and conservation of Australian spiders. Journal of Insect Conservation 5: 9-25.
Majer, J. D. 1980 Report on a study of invertebrates in relation to the Kojonup Fire Management Plan. Western Australian Institute of Technology, Department of Biology. Perth, Western Australia. p22
Majer, J. D., Abbott, I. 1989. Invertebrates of the jarrah forest. pp 111-122 in: The Jarrah Forest, edited by B. Dell, J. J. Havel and N. Malajczuk. Dordrecht, Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Majer, J. D., Heterick, B. E. 1997 The impact of disturbance on terrestrial invertebrates in the Western Australian RFA area. An unpublished report to the Commonwealth and Western Australian governments for the Western Australian Regional Forest Agreement. p97
Majer, J. D., Koch, L. E. 1982. Seasonal activity of hexapods in woodland and leaf litter in the south-west of Western Australia. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 65(2): 37-45.
Michaels, K. F., McQuillan, P. B. 1995. Impact of commercial forest management on geophilous carabid beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) in tall wet Eucalyptus obliqua forest in Southern Tasmania. Australian Journal of Ecology 20: 316-323.
Middleton, J. 1987. Effect of forest clearance, season and soil moisture on the activity of the larger soil-dwelling invertebrates in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. African Journal of Ecology 25: 247-254.
Molina, S. I., Valladares, G.R., Gardner, S., Cabido, M.R. 1999. The effects of logging and grazing on the insect community associated with a semi-arid chaco forest in central Argentina. Journal of Arid Environments 42: 29-42.
Morris, K., Williams, M. 1998. Forum essay-Response. Pacific Conservation Biology 4: 279-80.
Neumann, F. G. 1991. Responses of litter arthropods to major natural or artificial ecological disturbances in mountain ash forest. Australian Journal of Ecology 16: 19-32.
Neumann, F. G. 1992. Responses of foraging ant populations to high-intensity wildfire, salvage logging and natural regeneration processes in Eucalyptus regnans regrowth forest of the Victorian Central Highlands. Australian Forestry 55: 29-38.
Nichols, O. G., Muir, B. 1989. Vertebrates of the jarrah forest. Pp. 133-153 in: The Jarrah Forest, edited by B. Dell, J. J. Havel and N. Malajczuk, Dordrecht, Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Noss, R. F. 2001. Beyond Kyoto: Forest management in a time of rapid climate change. Biological Conservation 15: 578-590.
Postle, A. C., Majer, J. D., Bell, D. T. 1986. Soil and litter invertebrates and litter decomposition in Jarrah ( Eucalyptus marginata) forest affected by Jarrah dieback fungus ( Phytophthora cinnamomi). Pedobiologia 29: 47-69.
Sankaran, M., McNaughton, S. J. 1999. Determinants of biodiversity regulate compositional stability of communities. Nature 401: 691-693.
SAS 1986 SAS/Stat User's Guide. SAS Institute Inc. Cary, NC, USA. p890.
Stewart-Oaten, A., Murdoch, W. W., Parker, K. R. 1986. Environmental impact assessment: ‘pseudoreplication’ in time? Ecology 67: 929-40.
Stewart-Oaten, A., Bence, J. R., Osenberg, C. W. 1992. Assessing effects of unreplicated perturbations: No simple solutions. Ecology 73: 1396-1404.
Strehlow, K. H. 1993. Impact of fires on spider communities inhabiting semi-arid shrublands in Western Australia's wheatbelt. School of Biological and Environmental Sciences. Unpublished Honours Thesis. Murdoch University: Perth. p153.
Strehlow, K.H., Bradley, J.S., Davis, J.A., Friend, G. 2002 Short term impacts of logging on invertebrate communities in jarrah forests in south-west Western Australia. Forest Ecology and Management 162:165-184.
Topping, C. J., Sunderland, K. D. 1992. Limitations to the use of pitfall traps in ecological studies exemplified by a study of spiders in a field of winter wheat. Journal of Applied Ecology 29: 485-491.
Uetz, G. W., Utzicker J. D. 1976. Pitfall trapping in ecological studies of wandering spiders. Journal of Arachnology 3: 101-111.
Underwood, A. J. 1991. Beyond BACI: Experimental designs for detecting human environmental impacts on temporal variations in natural populations. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 42: 569-587.
Underwood, A. J. 1992. Beyond BACI: the detection of environmental impact on populations in the real, but variable world. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 161: 145-78.
Underwood, A. J. 1993. The mechanics of spatially replicated sampling programmes to detect environmental impacts in a variable world. Australian Journal of Ecology 18: 99-116.
Van Heurck, P., Burbidge, T., Wheeler, I. 2000 Invertebrate biodiversity in the Tingle and other forests of the Walpole-Nornalup Park in south-western Australia. Department of Conservation and Land Management. Perth. p80.
Van Heurck, P., Friend, G. 1996 Conservation of Jarrah forests in Western Australia- the impact of prescribed burning-World Wide Fund for Nature Australia. Progress Report No.7. Department of Conservation and land Management. Perth. p34.
Van Heurck, P., Friend, G., Williams, M. 1998 Fire and invertebrate conservation in the central Jarrah forest of south-western Australia. Final Report. World Wide Fund for Nature Australia. Department of Conservation and Land Management. Eco-Insect Consultants. Perth. p42.
Vanderwoude, C., Lobry de Bruyn, L. A., House, A. P. N. 2000. Long-term ant community responses to selective harvesting of timber from Spotted Gum ( Corymbia variegata) - dominated forests in south-east Queensland. Ecological Management and Restoration 1: 204-214.
Vasconcelos, H. L., Vilhen, J. M. S., Caliri, G. J. A. 2000. Responses of ants to selective logging of a central Amazonian forest. Journal of Applied Ecology 37: 508-514.
Walker, B. H. 1995. Conserving biological diversity through ecosystem resilience. Conservation Biology 9: 747-752.
Watt, A. D., Stork, N. E., McBeath, C. 1997. Impacts of forest management on insect abundance and damage in a lowland tropical forest in southern Cameroon. Journal of Applied Ecology 34: 985-98.
York, A. 1996. Long-term effects of repeated prescribed burning on forest invertebrates: management implications for the conservation of biodiversity. Pp. 182-266 in: Australia's biodiversity: responses to fire, plants, birds and invertebrates, edited by A. M. Gill, J. C. Z. Woinarski and York, A. Department of the Environment and Heritage. Canberra.
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References

Abbott, I. 1984. Changes in the abudance and activity of certain soil and litter fauna in the Jarrah Forest of Western Australia after a moderate intensity fire. Australian Journal of Soil Research 22: 463-469.
Abbott, I. 1995. Prodomus of the occurrence and distribution on insect species in the forested part of south-west Western Australia. CALM Science 1: 365-464.
Abbott, I., Burbidge, T., Strehlow, K.H., Mellican, A., Wills, A. 2003 Logging and burning impacts on cockroaches, crickets and grasshoppers, and spiders in Jarrah forest, Western Australia. Forest Ecology and Management. 174: 383-399.
Abbott, I. and Christensen, P. 1994. Application of ecological and evolutionary principles to forest management in Western Australia. Australian Forestry 57: 109-122.
Abensperg-Traun, M., Smith, G. T., Arnold, G. W., Steven, D. E. 1996. The effects of habitat fragmentation and livestock grazing on animal communities in remnants of gimlet Eucalyptus salubris woodland in the Western Australian wheatbelt. I. Arthropods. Journal of Applied Ecology 33: 1281-1301.
Adis, J. 1979. Problems of interpreting arthropod sampling with pitfall traps. Zoologischer Anzeiger Jena 202: 177-184.
Andersen, A. N., Ludwig, J.A., Lowe, L.M., Rentz, D.C.F. 2001. Grasshopper biodiversity and bioindicators in Australian tropical savannas: responses to disturbance in Kakadu National Park. Austral Ecology 26: 213-222.
Baldi, A. and Kisbenedek T. 1997. Orthopteran assemblages as indicators of grassland naturalness in Hungary. Agriculture, Ecosystem and Environment 66: 121-129.
Bell, D. T. and Heddle E. M. 1989. Floristic, morphologic and vegetational diversity. Pp. 53-66 in: The Jarrah Forest, edited by B. Dell, J. J. Havel and N. Malajczuk, Dordrecht, Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Bengtsson, J., T. Persson, T. Lundkvist, H. 1997. Long-term effects of logging residue addition and removal on macroarthropods and enchytraeids. Journal of Applied Ecology 34: 1014-1022.
Bird, S., Coulson, R. N. Crossley Jr., D.A., 2000. Impacts of silvicultural practices on soil and litter arthropod diversity in a Texas pine plantation. Forest Ecology and Management 131: 65-80.
Bradshaw, F. J., Adams, R., Sneeuwjagt, R., Low, R., Havel, J.J., Bartle, J.R., Stoneman, G. 1991. The Jarrah Forest: A Case Study in Multiple Use. Pp. 1-21 in: Forest Management in Australia, edited by F. H. McKinnel, E. R. Hopkins, and J. E. D. Fox. Surrey Beatty and Sons Pty Ltd, Chipping Norton New South Wales.
Brennan, K.E.C. and Majer, J.D. 2003. Conservation and biodiversity of spiders in Western Australian jarrah forest: untangling multiple disturbances effects from burning and mining. Pp. 914-35 in Conservation of Australia's Forest Fauna, second edition, edited by Daniel Lunney. Royal ZoologicalSociety of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Bromham, L., Cardillo, M., Bennet, A.F., Elgar, M.A. 1999. Effects of stock grazing on the ground invertebrate fauna of woodland remnants. Australian Journal of Ecology 24: 199-207.
Burrows, N., Friend, G., Morris, K., Stoneman, G., Wardell-Johnson, G., Williams, M. 1993. A proposed Integrated Study of the Effects of Timber Harvesting on the Jarrah Forest Ecosystem. Department of Conservation and Land Management. Como. p.76.
CALM 1987a Northern Forest Region. Regional Management Plan 1987-1997. Management Plan No. 9. Department of Conservation and Land Management. Perth: p103.
CALM 1987b Central Forest Region. Regional Management Plan 1987-1997. Management Plan No. 10. Department of Conservation and Land Management. Perth: p101.
CALM 1987c Southern Forest Region. Regional Management Plan 1987-1997. Management Plan No. 11. Department of Conservation and Land Management. Perth: p98.
CALM 1994 Forest Management Plan 1994-2003. Department of Conservation and Land Management. Como. p54
CALM 1995 Silvicultural Guidelines 1/95. Silvicultural practices in the jarrah forest. Department of Conservation and Land Management. Como.
CALM 1997 The Kingston Project. Department of Conservation and Land Management. Manjimup
CALM 2001 Annual Report 2000-2001. Department of Conservation and Land Management. Perth. p113
Campbell, A. J. and Tanton M. T. 1981. Effects of fire on the invertebrate fauna of soil and litter of a eucalypt forest. Pp. 215-41 in: Fire and the Australian Biota, edited by A. M. Gill, R. H. Groves and I. R. Noble. Australian Academy of Science. Canberra.
Clarke, K. R. 1993. Non-parametric multivariate analyses of change in community structure. Australian Journal of Ecology 18: 117-143.
Clarke, K. R. and Warwick. R.M. 1994 Changes in Macroinvertebrate Communities: An Approach to Statistical Analysis and Interpretation. Natural Environment Research Council. UK.
CSIRO 1991 The Insects of Australia. Melbourne University Press. Melbourne.
Curry, S. J., Humphreys, W.F., Koch, L.E., Main, B.Y. 1985. Changes in arachnid communities resulting from forestry practices in Karri forest, south-west Western Australia. Australian Forest Research 15: 469-80.
Davies, V. T. 1986 Australian Spiders (Araneae) - Collection, Preservation and Identification. Queensland Museum. Brisbane.p60
Evans, E. W. 1984. Fire as a natural disturbance to grasshopper assemblages of tallgrass prairie. Oikos 43: 9-16.
Evans, E. W. 1988a. Community dynamics of prairie grasshoppers subjected to periodic fire: predictable trajectories or random walks in time? Oikos 52: 283-292.
Evans, E. W. 1988b. Grasshopper (Insecta: Orthoptera: Acrididae) assemblages of tallgrass prairie: influences of frequency, topography and vegetation. Canadian Journal of Zoology 66: 1495-1501.
Fielding, D. J., Brusven, M. A. 1993. Spatial analysis of grasshopper density and ecological disturbance on southern Idaho rangeland. Agriculture, Ecosystem and Environment 43: 31-47.
Friend, G. R. 1995. Fire and invertebrates- a review of research methodology and the predictability of post-fire response patterns. CALM Science Supplement 4: 165-174.
Friend, G. R., Williams, M. R. 1996. Impact of fire on invertebrate communities in mallee-heath shrublands of southwesterm Australia. Pacific Conservation Biology 2: 244-67.
Greenslade, P. J. M. 1964. Pitfall trapping as a method for studying populations of Carabidae (Coleoptera). Journal of Animal Ecology 33: 301-310.
Havel, J. J., Mattiske E. M. 2000 Vegetation mapping of south-west Forest Regions of Western Australia. Mattiske Consulting. Perth
Hulbert, S. J. 1984. Pseudoreplication and the design of ecological field experiments. Ecological Monographs 54: 187-211.
Ives, A. R., Klug, J. L. Gross, K. 2000. Stability and species richness in complex communities. Ecology Letters 3: 399-411.
Kemp, W. P. 1992. Rangeland grasshopper (Orthoptera: Acrididae) community structure: a working hypothesis. Environmental Entomology 21: 461-70.
Kruskal, J. B., Wish, M. 1978 Multidimensional scaling. Sage Publications. Beverley Hills, California.p93.
Lewis, O. T. 2001. Effect of experimental selective logging on tropical butterflies. Conservation Biology 15: 389-400.
Little, S. J., Friend, G. R. 1993. Structure of invertebrate communities in relation to fire history of Kwongan vegetation at Tutanning Nature Reserve. CALM Science 1: 3-18.
Main, B. Y. 1981. Australian spiders: diversity, distribution and ecology. Pp. 809-852 in: Ecological Biogeography of Australia, edited by A. Keast. Dr. W. Junk publishers. London.
Main, B. Y. 1987. Persistence of invertebrates in small areas: case studies of trapdoor spiders in Western Australia. Pp. 29-39 in: Nature conservation: The role of remnants of native vegetation, edited by D. A. Saunders, G. W. Arnold, A. A. Burbidge and A. J. M. Hopkins. Surrey Beatty and Sons Pty, Ltd. Chipping Norton, NSW
Main, B. Y. 1996. Terrestrial invertebrates in south-west Australian forests: the role of relic species and habitats in reserve design. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 79: 277-280.
Main, B. Y. 2001. Historical ecology, responses to current ecological changes and conservation of Australian spiders. Journal of Insect Conservation 5: 9-25.
Majer, J. D. 1980 Report on a study of invertebrates in relation to the Kojonup Fire Management Plan. Western Australian Institute of Technology, Department of Biology. Perth, Western Australia. p22
Majer, J. D., Abbott, I. 1989. Invertebrates of the jarrah forest. pp 111-122 in: The Jarrah Forest, edited by B. Dell, J. J. Havel and N. Malajczuk. Dordrecht, Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Majer, J. D., Heterick, B. E. 1997 The impact of disturbance on terrestrial invertebrates in the Western Australian RFA area. An unpublished report to the Commonwealth and Western Australian governments for the Western Australian Regional Forest Agreement. p97
Majer, J. D., Koch, L. E. 1982. Seasonal activity of hexapods in woodland and leaf litter in the south-west of Western Australia. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 65(2): 37-45.
Michaels, K. F., McQuillan, P. B. 1995. Impact of commercial forest management on geophilous carabid beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) in tall wet Eucalyptus obliqua forest in Southern Tasmania. Australian Journal of Ecology 20: 316-323.
Middleton, J. 1987. Effect of forest clearance, season and soil moisture on the activity of the larger soil-dwelling invertebrates in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. African Journal of Ecology 25: 247-254.
Molina, S. I., Valladares, G.R., Gardner, S., Cabido, M.R. 1999. The effects of logging and grazing on the insect community associated with a semi-arid chaco forest in central Argentina. Journal of Arid Environments 42: 29-42.
Morris, K., Williams, M. 1998. Forum essay-Response. Pacific Conservation Biology 4: 279-80.
Neumann, F. G. 1991. Responses of litter arthropods to major natural or artificial ecological disturbances in mountain ash forest. Australian Journal of Ecology 16: 19-32.
Neumann, F. G. 1992. Responses of foraging ant populations to high-intensity wildfire, salvage logging and natural regeneration processes in Eucalyptus regnans regrowth forest of the Victorian Central Highlands. Australian Forestry 55: 29-38.
Nichols, O. G., Muir, B. 1989. Vertebrates of the jarrah forest. Pp. 133-153 in: The Jarrah Forest, edited by B. Dell, J. J. Havel and N. Malajczuk, Dordrecht, Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Noss, R. F. 2001. Beyond Kyoto: Forest management in a time of rapid climate change. Biological Conservation 15: 578-590.
Postle, A. C., Majer, J. D., Bell, D. T. 1986. Soil and litter invertebrates and litter decomposition in Jarrah ( Eucalyptus marginata) forest affected by Jarrah dieback fungus ( Phytophthora cinnamomi). Pedobiologia 29: 47-69.
Sankaran, M., McNaughton, S. J. 1999. Determinants of biodiversity regulate compositional stability of communities. Nature 401: 691-693.
SAS 1986 SAS/Stat User's Guide. SAS Institute Inc. Cary, NC, USA. p890.
Stewart-Oaten, A., Murdoch, W. W., Parker, K. R. 1986. Environmental impact assessment: ‘pseudoreplication’ in time? Ecology 67: 929-40.
Stewart-Oaten, A., Bence, J. R., Osenberg, C. W. 1992. Assessing effects of unreplicated perturbations: No simple solutions. Ecology 73: 1396-1404.
Strehlow, K. H. 1993. Impact of fires on spider communities inhabiting semi-arid shrublands in Western Australia's wheatbelt. School of Biological and Environmental Sciences. Unpublished Honours Thesis. Murdoch University: Perth. p153.
Strehlow, K.H., Bradley, J.S., Davis, J.A., Friend, G. 2002 Short term impacts of logging on invertebrate communities in jarrah forests in south-west Western Australia. Forest Ecology and Management 162:165-184.
Topping, C. J., Sunderland, K. D. 1992. Limitations to the use of pitfall traps in ecological studies exemplified by a study of spiders in a field of winter wheat. Journal of Applied Ecology 29: 485-491.
Uetz, G. W., Utzicker J. D. 1976. Pitfall trapping in ecological studies of wandering spiders. Journal of Arachnology 3: 101-111.
Underwood, A. J. 1991. Beyond BACI: Experimental designs for detecting human environmental impacts on temporal variations in natural populations. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 42: 569-587.
Underwood, A. J. 1992. Beyond BACI: the detection of environmental impact on populations in the real, but variable world. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 161: 145-78.
Underwood, A. J. 1993. The mechanics of spatially replicated sampling programmes to detect environmental impacts in a variable world. Australian Journal of Ecology 18: 99-116.
Van Heurck, P., Burbidge, T., Wheeler, I. 2000 Invertebrate biodiversity in the Tingle and other forests of the Walpole-Nornalup Park in south-western Australia. Department of Conservation and Land Management. Perth. p80.
Van Heurck, P., Friend, G. 1996 Conservation of Jarrah forests in Western Australia- the impact of prescribed burning-World Wide Fund for Nature Australia. Progress Report No.7. Department of Conservation and land Management. Perth. p34.
Van Heurck, P., Friend, G., Williams, M. 1998 Fire and invertebrate conservation in the central Jarrah forest of south-western Australia. Final Report. World Wide Fund for Nature Australia. Department of Conservation and Land Management. Eco-Insect Consultants. Perth. p42.
Vanderwoude, C., Lobry de Bruyn, L. A., House, A. P. N. 2000. Long-term ant community responses to selective harvesting of timber from Spotted Gum ( Corymbia variegata) - dominated forests in south-east Queensland. Ecological Management and Restoration 1: 204-214.
Vasconcelos, H. L., Vilhen, J. M. S., Caliri, G. J. A. 2000. Responses of ants to selective logging of a central Amazonian forest. Journal of Applied Ecology 37: 508-514.
Walker, B. H. 1995. Conserving biological diversity through ecosystem resilience. Conservation Biology 9: 747-752.
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