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The Aboriginal songline or Dreaming track system may be examined from the point of view of an adaptive strategy for high mobility which makes it possible to map consumers on resources in a dominantly dry continent with highly variable weather patterns. The Dreaming track adaptation operates on four main principles: acquisition of Dreaming track songs; complex social organisation; reciprocity; and information flow. Such an adaptation may have been prompted by the intense aridity of the last glacial maximum of 18,000 years ago, or perhaps by about 6,000 years ago when the current climatic regime became established. The archaeological evidence for its presence at these times is inconclusive. However a strong case for the Dreaming track system being in place can be made by about 1500 years ago in western New South Wales and about 1200 years ago in the Northern Territory. At a global scale, the Dreaming track system can be seen as a social and economic institution which provided an adequate supply of resources for Aboriginal people and was an alternative for the adoption of horticulture in Australia.

Allen, H 1972 Where the crow flies backwards. PhD Thesis, Australian National University, Canberra.
Beeh, P. 1994. Outback “time capsules”. Australian Geo 15(4): 35-48.
Berndt, R. 1972. Walmadjeri and Gugadja. In M. Bicchieri (ed) Hunters and Gatherers Today. Holt, Rhinehart and Winston, New York 177-216.
Chaloupka, G. 1993 Journey in Time. Reed, Chatswood NSW.
Chatwin, B. 1987 The Songlines Pan Books Ltd, London
Clegg, J. 1987. Style and tradition at Sturts Meadows. World Archaeology 19(2) 236-255).
Coutts, P., R. Frank and P. Hughes 1978. Aboriginal engineers of the Western district, Victoria. Records of the Victorian Archaeological Survey 7.
Dargin, P. 1976 Aboriginal fisheries of the Darling-Barwon Rivers. Development and advisory publications of NSW, Dubbo.
David, B. 2002 Landscapes, Rock Art and the Dreaming. Leicester University Press, London.
David, B., I. McNiven, R. Mitchell, M. Orr, S. Haberle, L. Brady and J. Crough 2004. Badu 15 and the Papuan-Austronesial settlement of Torres Strait. Archaeology in Oceania 39(2) 65-78.
Dunnell, R 1980. Evolutionary theory and archaeology. In M. Schiffer (Ed.) Advances in Archaeological Method and Theory 35-99. Academic Press, New York.
Dunnell, R 1996. Foreward In M, O'Brian (ed.) Evolutionary Archaeology: Theory and Applciation vii-xii. University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City.
Field, J., R. Fullagar, J. Dortch, A Dukiewicz, and P. Gordon 2003. Sandstone quarries and grinding stone manufacture: Survey and excavation at Yambacoona Hill in southeastern Australia. Australian Archaeology 56:46-47.
Gentilli, J. 1977. Ch. 1 Climate. In D. Jeans (ed.) The Natural Environment. Sydney University Press, Sydney.
Hardy, B. 1969 West of the Darling. The Jackaranda Press, Milton, QLD.
Holdaway, S., D. Witter, P. Fanning, R. Musgrave, G. Cochrane, T. Doleman, S. Greenwood, D. Pigdon and J. Reeves 1998. New approaches to open site spatial archaeology in Sturt National Park, New South Wales, Australia. Archaeology in Oceania 33:1-19.
Jennings, J. 1971. Sea level changes and land links. In D. Mulvaney and J Golson (eds.) Aboriginal Man and Environment in Australia Australian National University Press, Canberra.
Latz, P. 1995 Bushfires and Bushtucker. IAD Press, Alice Springs.
Lee, R. 1979 The Kung San. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Lourandos, H, 1997 Continent of Hunter-Gatherers: New Perspectives in Australian Prehistory. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Marshall, L. 1976 The !Kung of Nyae Nyae. Harvard University Press, Cambridge Mass.
Matthews, P. 2003. Taro plant hoppers ( Tarophagus spp.) in Australia and the origins of taro ( Colocasia esculenta) in Oceania. Archaeology in Oceania 38(3): 192-201.
Moorewood, M. 2002 Visions from the past: the archoeology of Australian Aboriginal art. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D. C.
Mulvaney, J and J Kamminga 1999 Prehistory of Australia. Allen & Unwin, St Leonards, NSW.
Rosenfeld, A., D. Horton and J. Winter 1981. Early man in north Queensland. Terra Australis 6, Australian National University, Canberra.
Silberbauer, G. 1981 Hunter and Habitat in the Central Kalahari Desert. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Schmidt, N. 1997. The world economy and the arid pastoral industry of far western New Southwales: a study of capital investment in water management on the Mundi Mundi pastoral run. BA(Hons) Thesis, Department of Archaeology and Paleoanthropology, University of New England.
Steward, J. 1938. Basin-Plateau Aboriginal Sociopolitical Groups. Smithsonian Institution Bureau of American Ethnology Bul. 120, US Government Printing Office, Washington.
Tibbett, K. 2004. Risk and economic reciprocity: an analysis of three regional Aboriginal food-sharing systems in late Holocene Australia. Australian Archaeology 58:7-10.
Tindale, N. 1974 Aboriginal Tribes of Australia. University of California Press.
Tonkinson, R. 1978 The Mardudjara Aborigines. Holt Rhinehart and Winston, New York.
Torrence, R. 1989. Tools as optimal solutions. In R. Torrence (Ed.) Time Energy and Stone Tools. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
White, P. and J. O'Connell 1982 A Prehistory of Australia, New Guinea and Sahul. Academic Press, Sydney.
Witter, D. 2000. Mount Drysdale Aboriginal Place archaeological study: final draft. Report for National Parks and Wildlife Service, Hurstville, NSW.
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References

Allen, H 1972 Where the crow flies backwards. PhD Thesis, Australian National University, Canberra.
Beeh, P. 1994. Outback “time capsules”. Australian Geo 15(4): 35-48.
Berndt, R. 1972. Walmadjeri and Gugadja. In M. Bicchieri (ed) Hunters and Gatherers Today. Holt, Rhinehart and Winston, New York 177-216.
Chaloupka, G. 1993 Journey in Time. Reed, Chatswood NSW.
Chatwin, B. 1987 The Songlines Pan Books Ltd, London
Clegg, J. 1987. Style and tradition at Sturts Meadows. World Archaeology 19(2) 236-255).
Coutts, P., R. Frank and P. Hughes 1978. Aboriginal engineers of the Western district, Victoria. Records of the Victorian Archaeological Survey 7.
Dargin, P. 1976 Aboriginal fisheries of the Darling-Barwon Rivers. Development and advisory publications of NSW, Dubbo.
David, B. 2002 Landscapes, Rock Art and the Dreaming. Leicester University Press, London.
David, B., I. McNiven, R. Mitchell, M. Orr, S. Haberle, L. Brady and J. Crough 2004. Badu 15 and the Papuan-Austronesial settlement of Torres Strait. Archaeology in Oceania 39(2) 65-78.
Dunnell, R 1980. Evolutionary theory and archaeology. In M. Schiffer (Ed.) Advances in Archaeological Method and Theory 35-99. Academic Press, New York.
Dunnell, R 1996. Foreward In M, O'Brian (ed.) Evolutionary Archaeology: Theory and Applciation vii-xii. University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City.
Field, J., R. Fullagar, J. Dortch, A Dukiewicz, and P. Gordon 2003. Sandstone quarries and grinding stone manufacture: Survey and excavation at Yambacoona Hill in southeastern Australia. Australian Archaeology 56:46-47.
Gentilli, J. 1977. Ch. 1 Climate. In D. Jeans (ed.) The Natural Environment. Sydney University Press, Sydney.
Hardy, B. 1969 West of the Darling. The Jackaranda Press, Milton, QLD.
Holdaway, S., D. Witter, P. Fanning, R. Musgrave, G. Cochrane, T. Doleman, S. Greenwood, D. Pigdon and J. Reeves 1998. New approaches to open site spatial archaeology in Sturt National Park, New South Wales, Australia. Archaeology in Oceania 33:1-19.
Jennings, J. 1971. Sea level changes and land links. In D. Mulvaney and J Golson (eds.) Aboriginal Man and Environment in Australia Australian National University Press, Canberra.
Latz, P. 1995 Bushfires and Bushtucker. IAD Press, Alice Springs.
Lee, R. 1979 The Kung San. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Lourandos, H, 1997 Continent of Hunter-Gatherers: New Perspectives in Australian Prehistory. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Marshall, L. 1976 The !Kung of Nyae Nyae. Harvard University Press, Cambridge Mass.
Matthews, P. 2003. Taro plant hoppers ( Tarophagus spp.) in Australia and the origins of taro ( Colocasia esculenta) in Oceania. Archaeology in Oceania 38(3): 192-201.
Moorewood, M. 2002 Visions from the past: the archoeology of Australian Aboriginal art. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D. C.
Mulvaney, J and J Kamminga 1999 Prehistory of Australia. Allen & Unwin, St Leonards, NSW.
Rosenfeld, A., D. Horton and J. Winter 1981. Early man in north Queensland. Terra Australis 6, Australian National University, Canberra.
Silberbauer, G. 1981 Hunter and Habitat in the Central Kalahari Desert. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Schmidt, N. 1997. The world economy and the arid pastoral industry of far western New Southwales: a study of capital investment in water management on the Mundi Mundi pastoral run. BA(Hons) Thesis, Department of Archaeology and Paleoanthropology, University of New England.
Steward, J. 1938. Basin-Plateau Aboriginal Sociopolitical Groups. Smithsonian Institution Bureau of American Ethnology Bul. 120, US Government Printing Office, Washington.
Tibbett, K. 2004. Risk and economic reciprocity: an analysis of three regional Aboriginal food-sharing systems in late Holocene Australia. Australian Archaeology 58:7-10.
Tindale, N. 1974 Aboriginal Tribes of Australia. University of California Press.
Tonkinson, R. 1978 The Mardudjara Aborigines. Holt Rhinehart and Winston, New York.
Torrence, R. 1989. Tools as optimal solutions. In R. Torrence (Ed.) Time Energy and Stone Tools. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
White, P. and J. O'Connell 1982 A Prehistory of Australia, New Guinea and Sahul. Academic Press, Sydney.
Witter, D. 2000. Mount Drysdale Aboriginal Place archaeological study: final draft. Report for National Parks and Wildlife Service, Hurstville, NSW.
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