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Since European settlement there have been profound changes to the fauna of semi-arid and arid Australia. Some species have gone extinct, others have become rare or restricted in range and some have increased their range and abundance. Many, but not all, of these changes in species range and abundance have been linked to the direct and indirect impacts of pastoralism. Grazing by livestock is the main “direct” impact of pastoral activity and has resulted in widespread changes in habitat structure and a decrease in primary productivity. The loss in primary productivity may have reduced the capacity of the landscape to support some fauna species. Pastoral activities have also had indirect impacts on fauna through the establishment of pastoral infrastructure such as artificial waters and barrier fences, and pest control activities. These indirect activities have caused some species to increase in abundance and others to decrease. The widespread extinction of dingoes is likely to have exacerbated the impacts of foxes and overgrazing. Successful restoration of the arid zone fauna will require the restoration of ecological functions and species interactions, particularly nutrient cycling and predation.

Anon. 1948. Annual report on the operations of “The Stock Routes and Rural Lands Protection Acts, 1944-1951” for the Year 1947-48. Queensland Parliamentary Papers 1947-48.
Anon. 1952. Annual report on the operations of “The Stock Routes and Rural Lands Protection Acts, 1944-1951” for the Year 1951-52. Queensland Parliamentary Papers 1951-52.
Archer, M. and Beale, B. 2004 Going Native: Living in the Australian Environment. Hachette Livre, Sydney.
Beadle, N. C. W. 1948 The Vegetation and Pastures Of Western New South Wales. Department of Conservation of New South Wales, Sydney.
Benshemesh, J. 1990. Management of malleefowl with regard to fire. Pp. 206-211. in The Mallee Lands: A Conservation Perspective, edited by J. C. Noble, P. J. Joss and G. K. Jones. CSIRO, Melbourne.
Berger, J. Stacey, P.B, Bellis, L. and Johnson, M. P. 2001. A mammalian predator-prey imbalance: grizzly bear and wolf extinction affect avian neotropical migrants. Ecological Applications 11: 947-960.
Burbidge, A. A. and McKenzie, N. L. 1989. Patterns in the modern decline of Western Australia's vertebrate fauna: causes and conservation implications. Biological Conservation 50: 143-198.
Burrows, N. D. and Christensen, P. E. S. 1990. A survey of Aboriginal fire patterns in the western desert of Australia. Pp. 297-310 in. Fire and the Environment: Ecological and Cultural Perspectives. Proceedings of an International Symposium, Knoxville, Tennessee, 20-24th March 1990, edited by S. C. Nodvin and T. A. Waldrop. USDA Forest Service General Technical Report SE-69, U. S. A.
Calaby J.H, and Grigg. G. C. 1989. Changes in macropodoid communities and populations in the past 200 years, and the future. Pp. 813-820 in. Kangaroos, Wallabies and Rat Kangaroos, edited by G. Grigg, P. Jarman and I. Hume. Surrey Beatty and Sons, Sydney.
Caughley, G., Grigg, G. C., Caughley, J. and Hill, G. J. E. 1980. Does dingo predation control the densities of kangaroos and emus? Australian Wildlife Research 7 1-12.
Chiew, F. H. S., Piechota, T. C., Dracup, J. A. and McMahon, T. A. 1998. El Niño/Southern Oscillation and Australian rainfall, streamflow and drought: Links and potential forecasting. Journal of Hydrology 204: 138-149.
Coman, B. 1999 Tooth and nail: The story of the rabbit in Australia. Text Publishing, Melbourne.
Copley, P. 1999. Natural histories of Australia's stick-nest rats genus Leporillus (Rodentia: Muridae). Wildlife Research 26 513-539.
Dawson, T. J. and Ellis, B. A. 1979. Comparison of the diets of yellow-footed rock wallabies and sympatric herbivores in western N. S. W. Wildlife Research 6: 245-254.
Diaz, H. F. and Markgraf, V. 1992 El Niño: Historical and Paleoclimatic Aspects of the Southern Oscillation. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, United Kingdom.
Dickman, C. R., Pressey, R. L., Lim, L. and Parnaby, H. E. 1993. Mammals of particular conservation concern in the Western Division of New South Wales. Biological Conservation 65: 219-248.
Dickman, C. R. 1996a. The impact of exotic generalist predators on the native fauna of Australia. Wildlife Biology 2: 185-195.
Dickman, C. R. 1996b. Incorporating science into recovery planning for threatened species. Pp. 63-73. in. Back From the Brink: Refining the Threatened Species Recovery Process, edited by S. Stephens and S. Maxwell. Surrey Beatty and Sons: Sydney, Australia.
Dickman, C. R., Pressey, R. L., Lim, L. and Parnaby, H. E. 1993. Mammals of particular conservation concern in the Western Division of New South Wales. Biological Conservation 65: 219-248.
Edwards, G. P., Croft, D. B. and Dawson, T. J. 1996. Competition between red kangaroos ( Macropus rufus) and sheep ( Ovis aries) in the arid rangelands of Australia. Australian Journal of Ecology 21: 165-172.
Eldridge, D. J. and Green, R. S. B. 1994. Microbiotic soil crusts: a review of their roles in soil and ecological processes in the rangelands of Australia. Australian Journal of Soil Research 32: 389-415.
Finlayson, H. H. 1961. On central Australian mammals. Part IV-the distribution and status of central Australian species. Records of the South Australian Museum 14: 141-191.
Freudenberger, D. and Hacker, R. B. (1997). The effect of temporary closure of watering points on grazing intensity of red and grey kangaroos with related observations of feral goats. Rangeland Journal 19, 157-165.
Frith, H. J. 1962. Conservation of the malleefowl, Leipoa ocellata Gould (Megapodiidae). CSIRO Wildlife Research 7: 33-49.
Friedel, M. H., Foran, B. D. and Stafford-Smith, D. M. 1990. Where the creeks run dry or ten feet high: pastoral land management in arid Australia. Proceedings of the Ecological Society of Australia 16: 185-194.
Glen, A. S. and Short, J. 2000. The control of dingoes in New South Wales in the period 1883-1930 and its likely impact on their distribution and abundance. Australian Zoologist 31: 432-442.
Glen, A. S. and Dickman, C. R. 2005. Complex interactions among mammalian carnivores in Australia, and their implications for wildlife management. Biological Reviews 80: 387-401.
Gooding, C. D. 1955. The vermin bonus system in Western Australia: Part 1-The distribution of payments. Journal of Agriculture of Western Australia (Series 4) 4, 433-439.
Grice, D., Caughley, G. and Short, J. 1986. Density and distribution of the Australian Bustard Ardeotis australis.Biological Conservation 35: 259-267.
Grigg, G. C. 2002 Conservation Benefit from Harvesting Kangaroos: Status Report at the Start of a New Millennium - A Paper to Stimulate Discussion and Research. Pp 53-76 in A Zoological Revolution. Using Native Fauna to Assist in its Own Survival, edited by D. Lunney and C. R. Dickman. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales and Australian Museum.
Harrington, G. N., Oxley, R. E. and Tongway, D. J. 1979. The effects of European settlement and domestic livestock on the biological system in poplar box ( Eucalyptus populnea) lands. Australian Rangeland Journal 4: 271-279.
Harrington, G. N., Wilson, A. D., and Young, M. D. 1984 Management of Australia's Rangelands. CSIRO: Melbourne, Australia.
Heske, E. J. and Campbell, M. 1991. Effects of an 11 year livestock exclosure on rodent and ant numbers in the Chihuahuan Desert, southeastern Arizona. The Southwestern Naturalist 36: 89-93.
Hrdina, F. C. 1997. Marsupial destruction in Queensland. Australian Zoologist 30: 272-286.
James, C. D. 2003. Response of vertebrates to fenceline contrasts in grazing intensity in semi-arid woodlands of eastern Australia. Austral Ecology 28:137-151.
James, C. D., Landsberg, J. and Morton, S. R. 1995. Ecological functioning in arid Australia and research to assist conservation of biodiversity. Pacific Conservation Biology 2: 126-142.
Jones, A. and Longland, W. S. 1999. Effects of cattle grazing on salt desert rodents. American Midland Naturalist 14: 1-11.
Kerle, J. A., Foulkes, J. N., Kimber, R. G. and Papenfus, D. 1992. The decline of the brushtail possum, Trichosurus vulpecula (Kerr 1798), in arid Australia. Rangeland Journal 14: 107-27.
Kerley, G. I. H. and Whitford, W. G. 2000. Impact of grazing and desertification in the Chihuahuan Desert: Plant communities, granivores and granivory. The American Midland Naturalist 144: 78-91.
Kingsford, R. T., Wong, P. S., Braithwaite, L. W. and Maher, M. T. 1999. Waterbird abundance in eastern Australia, 1983-92. Wildlife Research 26: 351-366.
Kinloch, J. E. and Friedel, M. H. 2005. Soil seed reserves in arid grazing lands of central Australia. Part 1: seed bank and vegetation dynamics. Journal of Arid Environments 60: 133-161.
Kinnear, J. E., Sumner, N. R. and Onus, M. L. 2002. The red fox in Australia- an exotic predator turned biocontrol agent. Biological Conservation 108: 335-359.
Krefft, G. 1866. On the vertebrated animals of the lower Murray Darling, their habits, economy, and geographical distribution. Transactions of the Philosophical Society of New South Wales 1862-1865: 1-33.
Landsberg, J., James, C. D., Morton, S. R., Hobbs, T. J., Stol, J., Drew, A. and Tongway, H. 1997 The Effects of Artificial Sources of Water on Rangeland Biodiversity. Environment Australia and CSIRO: Canberra, Australia.
Lange, R. T. 1969. The piosphere: sheep track and dung patterns. Journal of Rangeland Management 22: 396-400.
Letnic, M. 2004. Cattle grazing in a hummock grassland regenerating after fire: the short-term effects of cattle exclusion on vegetation in south-western Queensland. Rangeland Journal 26: 34-48.
Letnic, M. and Dickman, C. R. 2006. Boom means bust: interactions between the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO), rainfall and the processes threatening mammal species in arid Australia. Biodiversity and Conservation 15: 3847-3880.
Letnic, M., Tamayo, B and Dickman, C. R. 2005. The responses of mammals to La Niña associated rainfall, predation and wildfire in arid Australia. Journal of Mammalogy 86: 689-703.
Letts, G., Bassingthwaite, A. and De Vos, W. E. L. 1979 Feral animals in the Northern Territory. Report of the Board of Enquiry. N. T. Government Printer, Darwin.
Low, W. A., Hodder, R. M. and Abel, D. E. 1978. Watering behaviour of British breed cattle in central Australia. Pp. 165-177 in Studies of the Australian Arid Zone. III. Water in Rangelands, edited by K. M. W. Howes. CSIRO: Perth, Australia.
Ludwig, J., Tongway, D., Freudenberger, D., Noble, J. and Hodgkinson, K. 1997 Landscape Ecology Function and Management: Principles from Australia's Rangelands. CSIRO: Canberra, Australia.
Lunney, D. 2001. Causes of the extinction of native mammals of the western division of New South Wales: An ecological interpretation of the nineteenth century historical record. Rangeland Journal 23: 44-70.
Lunney, D. and Grigg, G. (eds). 1988. Kangaroo harvesting and the conservation of arid and semi-arid lands. Australian Zoologist 24: 121-193.
McHolm, A. R. and Allan, R. J. 2004. Loss of patch scale heterogeneity on secondary productivity in the arid shrubland of Western Australia. Journal of Arid Environments 61: 631-649.
Madigan, C. T. 1946 Crossing the Dead Heart. Georgian House, Melbourne.
Marshall, A. J. 1966 The Great Extermination. Panther, London.
Maxwell, S., Burbidge, A. A. and Morris, K. 1996 The 1996 Action Plan for Australian Marsupials and Monotremes. Wildlife Australia: Canberra, Australia.
Morton, S. 1990. The impact of European settlement on the vertebrate animals of arid Australia: a conceptual model. Proceedings of the Ecological Society of Australia 16: 201-213.
Newsome, A. E. 1975. An ecological comparison of the two arid-zone kangaroos of Australia, and their anomalous prosperity since the introduction of ruminant stock to their environment. Quarterly Review of Biology 50: 389-424.
Newsome, A. E., Parer, I. and Catling, P. C. 1989. Prolonged prey suppression by carnivores-predator-removal experiments. Oecologia 78: 458-467.
Newsome, A. E., Catling, P. C., Cooke, B. D. and Smyth, R. 2001. Two ecological universes separated by the dingo barrier fence in semi-arid Australia: Interactions between landscapes, herbivory and carnivory, with and without dingoes. Rangeland Journal 23: 71-98.
Nicholls, N. 1991. The El Niño/Southern Oscillation and Australian vegetation. Vegetatio 91: 23-36.
Pace, M. L., Cole, J. J., Carpenter, S. R. and Kitchell, J. F. 1999. Trophic cascades revealed in diverse ecosystems. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 14: 483-488.
Paltridge, R. 2002. The diets of cats, foxes and dingoes in relation to prey availability in the Tanami Desert, Northern Territory. Wildlife Research 29: 389-394.
Pople, A. R., Grigg, G. C., Cairns, S. C., Alexander, P, Beard, L. A. and Henzell, R. P. 1996. Trends in the numbers and changes in the distribution of feral goats ( Capra hircus) in the South Australian pastoral zone. Wildlife Research 23: 687-696.
Pople, A. R., Grigg, G. C., Cairns, S. C., Beard, L. A. and Alexander, P. 2000. Trends in numbers of kangaroos and emus on either side of the South Australian dingo fence: evidence for predator regulation. Wildlife Research 27: 269-276.
Priddel, D. and Wheeler, R. 2001. Malleefowl conservation in New South Wales: a review. Zoologische Verhandelingen 327:125-141.
Priddel, D. and Wheeler, R. 2003. Nesting activity and demography of an isolated population of malleefowl Leipoa ocellata.Wildlife Research 5: 451-464.
Read, J. L. 2002. Experimental trial of Australian arid zone reptiles as early warning indicators of overgrazing by cattle. Austral Ecology 27: 55-66.
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Reid, J. and Fleming, M. 1992. The conservation status of birds in arid Australia. Rangeland Journal 14: 65-91.
Risbey, D. A., Calver, M. C., Short, J., Bradley, J. S. and Wright, I. W. 2000. The impact of cats and foxes on the small vertebrate fauna of Heirisson Prong, Western Australia. II. A field experiment. Wildlife Research 27: 223-235.
Rogers, C. M. and Caro, M. J. 1998. Song sparrows, top carnivores and nest predation: a test of the mesopredator release hypothesis. Oecologia 116: 227-233.
Rolls, E. C. 1969 They All Ranwild. Angus and Robertson, Sydney.
Roshier D. A., P. H. Whetton, R. J. Allan, and I. Robertson. 2001. Distribution and persistence of temporary wetland habitats in arid Australia in relation to climate. Austral Ecology 26:371-284.
Short, J. 1998. The extinction of rat-kangaroos (Marsupialia: Potoroidae) in New South Wales, Australia. Biological Conservation 86: 365-377.
Smith, A. P. and Quin, D. G. 1996. Patterns and causes of extinction and decline in Australian conilurine rodents. Biological Conservation 77: 243-267.
Smith, P. J., Smith, J. E. Pressey, R. L. and Whish, G. L. 1995 Birds of particular conservation concern in the western division of New South Wales: Distributions, habitats and threats. Occasional Paper 20, N. S. W. National Parks and Wildlife Service: Hurstville, Australia.
Soule, M. E., Estes, J. A., Berger, J. and Martinez Del Rio, C. 2003. Ecological effectiveness: Conservation goals for interactive species. Conservation Biology 17: 1238-1250.
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Stafford Smith, D. M. and Pickup, G. 1990. Pattern and production in arid lands. Proceedings of the Ecological Society of Australia 16: 195-200.
Sturt, C. 1833 Two expeditions into the interior of Southern Australia, during the years 1828, 1829 and 1831. (J. Waterhouse ed. 1984). Caliban Books: London, United Kingdom.
Wasson, R. J. and Galloway, R. W. 1986. Sediment yield in the Barrier Range before and after European settlement. Rangeland Journal 8: 79-90.
Woodall, P. F. 1983. Distribution and population dynamics of dingoes ( Canis familiaris) and feral pigs ( Sus scrofa) in Queensland, 1945-1976. Journal of Applied Ecology 20: 85-95.
Young, M. D. 1979. Influencing land use in pastoral Australia. Journal of Arid Environments 2: 279-288.
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References

Anon. 1948. Annual report on the operations of “The Stock Routes and Rural Lands Protection Acts, 1944-1951” for the Year 1947-48. Queensland Parliamentary Papers 1947-48.
Anon. 1952. Annual report on the operations of “The Stock Routes and Rural Lands Protection Acts, 1944-1951” for the Year 1951-52. Queensland Parliamentary Papers 1951-52.
Archer, M. and Beale, B. 2004 Going Native: Living in the Australian Environment. Hachette Livre, Sydney.
Beadle, N. C. W. 1948 The Vegetation and Pastures Of Western New South Wales. Department of Conservation of New South Wales, Sydney.
Benshemesh, J. 1990. Management of malleefowl with regard to fire. Pp. 206-211. in The Mallee Lands: A Conservation Perspective, edited by J. C. Noble, P. J. Joss and G. K. Jones. CSIRO, Melbourne.
Berger, J. Stacey, P.B, Bellis, L. and Johnson, M. P. 2001. A mammalian predator-prey imbalance: grizzly bear and wolf extinction affect avian neotropical migrants. Ecological Applications 11: 947-960.
Burbidge, A. A. and McKenzie, N. L. 1989. Patterns in the modern decline of Western Australia's vertebrate fauna: causes and conservation implications. Biological Conservation 50: 143-198.
Burrows, N. D. and Christensen, P. E. S. 1990. A survey of Aboriginal fire patterns in the western desert of Australia. Pp. 297-310 in. Fire and the Environment: Ecological and Cultural Perspectives. Proceedings of an International Symposium, Knoxville, Tennessee, 20-24th March 1990, edited by S. C. Nodvin and T. A. Waldrop. USDA Forest Service General Technical Report SE-69, U. S. A.
Calaby J.H, and Grigg. G. C. 1989. Changes in macropodoid communities and populations in the past 200 years, and the future. Pp. 813-820 in. Kangaroos, Wallabies and Rat Kangaroos, edited by G. Grigg, P. Jarman and I. Hume. Surrey Beatty and Sons, Sydney.
Caughley, G., Grigg, G. C., Caughley, J. and Hill, G. J. E. 1980. Does dingo predation control the densities of kangaroos and emus? Australian Wildlife Research 7 1-12.
Chiew, F. H. S., Piechota, T. C., Dracup, J. A. and McMahon, T. A. 1998. El Niño/Southern Oscillation and Australian rainfall, streamflow and drought: Links and potential forecasting. Journal of Hydrology 204: 138-149.
Coman, B. 1999 Tooth and nail: The story of the rabbit in Australia. Text Publishing, Melbourne.
Copley, P. 1999. Natural histories of Australia's stick-nest rats genus Leporillus (Rodentia: Muridae). Wildlife Research 26 513-539.
Dawson, T. J. and Ellis, B. A. 1979. Comparison of the diets of yellow-footed rock wallabies and sympatric herbivores in western N. S. W. Wildlife Research 6: 245-254.
Diaz, H. F. and Markgraf, V. 1992 El Niño: Historical and Paleoclimatic Aspects of the Southern Oscillation. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, United Kingdom.
Dickman, C. R., Pressey, R. L., Lim, L. and Parnaby, H. E. 1993. Mammals of particular conservation concern in the Western Division of New South Wales. Biological Conservation 65: 219-248.
Dickman, C. R. 1996a. The impact of exotic generalist predators on the native fauna of Australia. Wildlife Biology 2: 185-195.
Dickman, C. R. 1996b. Incorporating science into recovery planning for threatened species. Pp. 63-73. in. Back From the Brink: Refining the Threatened Species Recovery Process, edited by S. Stephens and S. Maxwell. Surrey Beatty and Sons: Sydney, Australia.
Dickman, C. R., Pressey, R. L., Lim, L. and Parnaby, H. E. 1993. Mammals of particular conservation concern in the Western Division of New South Wales. Biological Conservation 65: 219-248.
Edwards, G. P., Croft, D. B. and Dawson, T. J. 1996. Competition between red kangaroos ( Macropus rufus) and sheep ( Ovis aries) in the arid rangelands of Australia. Australian Journal of Ecology 21: 165-172.
Eldridge, D. J. and Green, R. S. B. 1994. Microbiotic soil crusts: a review of their roles in soil and ecological processes in the rangelands of Australia. Australian Journal of Soil Research 32: 389-415.
Finlayson, H. H. 1961. On central Australian mammals. Part IV-the distribution and status of central Australian species. Records of the South Australian Museum 14: 141-191.
Freudenberger, D. and Hacker, R. B. (1997). The effect of temporary closure of watering points on grazing intensity of red and grey kangaroos with related observations of feral goats. Rangeland Journal 19, 157-165.
Frith, H. J. 1962. Conservation of the malleefowl, Leipoa ocellata Gould (Megapodiidae). CSIRO Wildlife Research 7: 33-49.
Friedel, M. H., Foran, B. D. and Stafford-Smith, D. M. 1990. Where the creeks run dry or ten feet high: pastoral land management in arid Australia. Proceedings of the Ecological Society of Australia 16: 185-194.
Glen, A. S. and Short, J. 2000. The control of dingoes in New South Wales in the period 1883-1930 and its likely impact on their distribution and abundance. Australian Zoologist 31: 432-442.
Glen, A. S. and Dickman, C. R. 2005. Complex interactions among mammalian carnivores in Australia, and their implications for wildlife management. Biological Reviews 80: 387-401.
Gooding, C. D. 1955. The vermin bonus system in Western Australia: Part 1-The distribution of payments. Journal of Agriculture of Western Australia (Series 4) 4, 433-439.
Grice, D., Caughley, G. and Short, J. 1986. Density and distribution of the Australian Bustard Ardeotis australis.Biological Conservation 35: 259-267.
Grigg, G. C. 2002 Conservation Benefit from Harvesting Kangaroos: Status Report at the Start of a New Millennium - A Paper to Stimulate Discussion and Research. Pp 53-76 in A Zoological Revolution. Using Native Fauna to Assist in its Own Survival, edited by D. Lunney and C. R. Dickman. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales and Australian Museum.
Harrington, G. N., Oxley, R. E. and Tongway, D. J. 1979. The effects of European settlement and domestic livestock on the biological system in poplar box ( Eucalyptus populnea) lands. Australian Rangeland Journal 4: 271-279.
Harrington, G. N., Wilson, A. D., and Young, M. D. 1984 Management of Australia's Rangelands. CSIRO: Melbourne, Australia.
Heske, E. J. and Campbell, M. 1991. Effects of an 11 year livestock exclosure on rodent and ant numbers in the Chihuahuan Desert, southeastern Arizona. The Southwestern Naturalist 36: 89-93.
Hrdina, F. C. 1997. Marsupial destruction in Queensland. Australian Zoologist 30: 272-286.
James, C. D. 2003. Response of vertebrates to fenceline contrasts in grazing intensity in semi-arid woodlands of eastern Australia. Austral Ecology 28:137-151.
James, C. D., Landsberg, J. and Morton, S. R. 1995. Ecological functioning in arid Australia and research to assist conservation of biodiversity. Pacific Conservation Biology 2: 126-142.
Jones, A. and Longland, W. S. 1999. Effects of cattle grazing on salt desert rodents. American Midland Naturalist 14: 1-11.
Kerle, J. A., Foulkes, J. N., Kimber, R. G. and Papenfus, D. 1992. The decline of the brushtail possum, Trichosurus vulpecula (Kerr 1798), in arid Australia. Rangeland Journal 14: 107-27.
Kerley, G. I. H. and Whitford, W. G. 2000. Impact of grazing and desertification in the Chihuahuan Desert: Plant communities, granivores and granivory. The American Midland Naturalist 144: 78-91.
Kingsford, R. T., Wong, P. S., Braithwaite, L. W. and Maher, M. T. 1999. Waterbird abundance in eastern Australia, 1983-92. Wildlife Research 26: 351-366.
Kinloch, J. E. and Friedel, M. H. 2005. Soil seed reserves in arid grazing lands of central Australia. Part 1: seed bank and vegetation dynamics. Journal of Arid Environments 60: 133-161.
Kinnear, J. E., Sumner, N. R. and Onus, M. L. 2002. The red fox in Australia- an exotic predator turned biocontrol agent. Biological Conservation 108: 335-359.
Krefft, G. 1866. On the vertebrated animals of the lower Murray Darling, their habits, economy, and geographical distribution. Transactions of the Philosophical Society of New South Wales 1862-1865: 1-33.
Landsberg, J., James, C. D., Morton, S. R., Hobbs, T. J., Stol, J., Drew, A. and Tongway, H. 1997 The Effects of Artificial Sources of Water on Rangeland Biodiversity. Environment Australia and CSIRO: Canberra, Australia.
Lange, R. T. 1969. The piosphere: sheep track and dung patterns. Journal of Rangeland Management 22: 396-400.
Letnic, M. 2004. Cattle grazing in a hummock grassland regenerating after fire: the short-term effects of cattle exclusion on vegetation in south-western Queensland. Rangeland Journal 26: 34-48.
Letnic, M. and Dickman, C. R. 2006. Boom means bust: interactions between the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO), rainfall and the processes threatening mammal species in arid Australia. Biodiversity and Conservation 15: 3847-3880.
Letnic, M., Tamayo, B and Dickman, C. R. 2005. The responses of mammals to La Niña associated rainfall, predation and wildfire in arid Australia. Journal of Mammalogy 86: 689-703.
Letts, G., Bassingthwaite, A. and De Vos, W. E. L. 1979 Feral animals in the Northern Territory. Report of the Board of Enquiry. N. T. Government Printer, Darwin.
Low, W. A., Hodder, R. M. and Abel, D. E. 1978. Watering behaviour of British breed cattle in central Australia. Pp. 165-177 in Studies of the Australian Arid Zone. III. Water in Rangelands, edited by K. M. W. Howes. CSIRO: Perth, Australia.
Ludwig, J., Tongway, D., Freudenberger, D., Noble, J. and Hodgkinson, K. 1997 Landscape Ecology Function and Management: Principles from Australia's Rangelands. CSIRO: Canberra, Australia.
Lunney, D. 2001. Causes of the extinction of native mammals of the western division of New South Wales: An ecological interpretation of the nineteenth century historical record. Rangeland Journal 23: 44-70.
Lunney, D. and Grigg, G. (eds). 1988. Kangaroo harvesting and the conservation of arid and semi-arid lands. Australian Zoologist 24: 121-193.
McHolm, A. R. and Allan, R. J. 2004. Loss of patch scale heterogeneity on secondary productivity in the arid shrubland of Western Australia. Journal of Arid Environments 61: 631-649.
Madigan, C. T. 1946 Crossing the Dead Heart. Georgian House, Melbourne.
Marshall, A. J. 1966 The Great Extermination. Panther, London.
Maxwell, S., Burbidge, A. A. and Morris, K. 1996 The 1996 Action Plan for Australian Marsupials and Monotremes. Wildlife Australia: Canberra, Australia.
Morton, S. 1990. The impact of European settlement on the vertebrate animals of arid Australia: a conceptual model. Proceedings of the Ecological Society of Australia 16: 201-213.
Newsome, A. E. 1975. An ecological comparison of the two arid-zone kangaroos of Australia, and their anomalous prosperity since the introduction of ruminant stock to their environment. Quarterly Review of Biology 50: 389-424.
Newsome, A. E., Parer, I. and Catling, P. C. 1989. Prolonged prey suppression by carnivores-predator-removal experiments. Oecologia 78: 458-467.
Newsome, A. E., Catling, P. C., Cooke, B. D. and Smyth, R. 2001. Two ecological universes separated by the dingo barrier fence in semi-arid Australia: Interactions between landscapes, herbivory and carnivory, with and without dingoes. Rangeland Journal 23: 71-98.
Nicholls, N. 1991. The El Niño/Southern Oscillation and Australian vegetation. Vegetatio 91: 23-36.
Pace, M. L., Cole, J. J., Carpenter, S. R. and Kitchell, J. F. 1999. Trophic cascades revealed in diverse ecosystems. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 14: 483-488.
Paltridge, R. 2002. The diets of cats, foxes and dingoes in relation to prey availability in the Tanami Desert, Northern Territory. Wildlife Research 29: 389-394.
Pople, A. R., Grigg, G. C., Cairns, S. C., Alexander, P, Beard, L. A. and Henzell, R. P. 1996. Trends in the numbers and changes in the distribution of feral goats ( Capra hircus) in the South Australian pastoral zone. Wildlife Research 23: 687-696.
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