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Arid zone landscapes are characterised by a high spatial and temporal variability, particularly seasonal variability, observable on a range of scales. This variability is an important factor influencing the distribution and dynamics of wildlife populations in the arid zone. However, progress in dealing with the challenges of space, time and scale in the study of arid zone wildlife has been relatively slow, largely because the seasonally dynamic, often continuous, structure of arid zone landscapes does not match well with the commonly-used discrete patch-matrix-mosaic model of landscape structure. In this chapter, we focus on three key challenges in developing a dynamic landscape approach to the study of arid-zone wildlife: (i) conceptualising landscape structure and dynamics; (ii) dealing with the problem of ecological scale and spatial autocorrelation; and (iii) the challenge of seasonal variability. We present possible approaches to dealing with these by outlining practical concepts and techniques for capturing and analysing the dynamic heterogeneity of arid zone landscapes from a species' perspective. By adopting a spatially and seasonally explicit approach, ecologists will be able to formulate and test new predictions about the influence of the landscape heterogeneity and seasonal variability on species' distribution and abundance, and thereby help advance the conservation of wildlife in the arid zone.

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References

Bayliss, P. 1987. Kangaroo dynamics. Pages 119-134 in G. Caughley, N. Shepherd, and J. Short, editors. Kangaroos: their Ecology and Management in the Sheep Rangelands of Australia. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Bennett, A. F. 1990. Habitat corridors and the conservation of small mammals in a fragmented forest environment. Landscape Ecology 4: 109-122.
Benson, B. J. and MacKenzie, M. D. 1993. Effects of sensor spatial resolution on landscape structure parameters. Landscape Ecology 10: 113-120.
Cairns, S. C., Pople, A. R., and Grigg, G. C. 1991. Density distributions and habitat associations red kangaroos (Macropus rufus) and western grey kangaroos (Macropus fuliginosus) in the pastoral zone of South Australia. Wildlife Research 18: 377-402.
Cairns, S. C., and Grigg, G. C. 1993. Population dynamics of red kangaroos (Macropus rufus) in relation to rainfall in the South Australian pastoral zone. Journal of Applied Ecology: 30: 444-458.
Cairns, S. C., Grigg, G. C., Beard, L. A., Pople, A. R., and Alexander, P. 2000. Western grey kangaroos (Macropus fuliginosus) in the South Australian pastoral zone: the dynamics of populations at the edge of their range. Wildlife Research 27: 309-318.
Caughley, G. 1987. Ecological relationships. Pages 159-187 in G. Caughley, N. Shepherd, and J. Short, editors. Kangaroos: their Ecology and Management in the Sheep Rangelands of Australia. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Caughley, G. and Grigg, G. 1981. Surveys of the Distribution and Density of Kangaroos in the Pastoral Zone of South Australia, and their Bearing on the Feasibility of Aerial Survey in Large and Remote Areas. Australian Wildlife Research 8: 1-11.
Ceplecha, V. J. 1971. The distribution of the main components of the water balance in Australia. The Australian Geographer 11: 455-462.
Cooney, S. J. N., D. M. Watson, and J. Young. 2006. Mistletoe nesting in Australian birds: a review. Emu 106:1-12.
Corry, R. C. 2005. Characterizing fine-scale patterns of alternative agricultural landscapes with landscape pattern indices. Landscape Ecology 20:591-608.
Crawley, M. J. 2002. Statistical computing: an introduction to data analysis using S-Plus. Wiley, Chichester, West Sussex.
Cressie, N. A. C. 1991. Statistics for spatial data. John Wiley, New York.
Cridland, S., Burnside, D., and Smith, R. 1995. The NDVI - use in rangeland management. In ‘Fifth International Rangelands Congress’. Salt Lake City, Utah p. 105.
Croft, D. B. 1991. Home range of the red kangaroo, Macropus rufus. Journal of Arid Environments 20: 83-98.
Dickman, C. R., A. S. Haythornthwaite, G. H. McNaught, P. S. Mahon, B. Tamayo, and M. Letnic. 2001. Population dynamics of three species of dasyurid marsupials in arid central Australia: a 10-year study. Wildlife Research 28:493-506.
Dickman, C. R., M. Letnic, and P. S. Mahon. 1999a. Population dynamics of two species of dragon lizards in arid Australia: the effects of rainfall. Oecologia 119:357-366.
Dickman, C. R., P. S. Mahon, P. Masters, and D. F. Gibson. 1999b. Long-term dynamics of rodent populations in arid Australia: the influence of rainfall. Wildlife Research 26:389-403.
Dickman, C. R., M. Predavec, and F. J. Downey. 1995. Long-range movements of small mammals in arid Australia: Implications for land management. Journal of Arid Environments 31:441-452.
Dickman, C. R., Pressey, R. L., Lim, L. and Parnaby, H. E. 1993. Mammals of particular conservation concern in the Western Division of New South Wales. Biological Conservation 65: 219-248.
Fahrig, L. 1997. Relative effects of habitat loss and fragmentation on population extinction. Journal of Wildlife Management 61: 603-610.
Fahrig, L. 2001. How much habitat is enough? Biological Conservation 100: 65-74.
Fahrig, L. 2003. Effects of habitat fragmentation on biodiversity. Annual Review Ecology, Evolution and Systematics 34: 487-515.
Forman, R. T. T. 1995. Land mosaics: the ecology of landscapes and regions. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Forman, R. T. T. and Godron, M. 1986. Landscape ecology. John Wiley and Sons, New York, NY, USA.
Friedel, M. H. 1991. Range condition assessment and the concept of thresholds: A viewpoint. Journal of Range Management 44: 422-426.
Friedel, M. H. 1993. Spatial and Temporal Hetergeneity - A Question of Scale. Plant dynamics and interpretation in rangeland ecosystems. CSIRO Division of Wildlife & Ecology, Perth.
Fryxell, J. M. 1995. Aggregation and migration by grazing ungulates in relation to resources and predators. Pages 257-273 in A. R. E. Sinclair and P. Arcese, editors. Serengeti II: dynamics, management and conservation of an ecosystem. The University of Chicago Press. Chicago.
Geary, R. C. 1954. The contiguity ratio and statistical mapping. Incorporated Statistician 5: 115-145.
Haines-Young, R. H. and Chopping, M. 1996. Quantifying landscape structure: a review of landscape indices and their application to forested environments. Progress in Physical Geography 20: 418-445.
Hall, W. B., Bruget, D., Carter, J., McKeon, G., Peacock, A. and Brook, K. 2001. Australian grassland and rangeland assessment by spatial simulation (Aussie Grass). Final Report for the Climate Variability in Agriculture Program, April 2001. Department of Natural Resources and Mines, Brisbane. URL http://www.longpaddock.qld.gov.au/AboutUs/Publications/ByType/Reports/AussieGRASS-FinalReport/
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