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Occupation of the arid rangelands for pastoralism in Australia saw the establishment of numerous artificial waterpoints (AWP) to stabilise surface water availability. This was necessary in a landscape with predominantly ephemeral water supplies that are dependent on unpredictable and low rainfalls. The result has been a homogenisation of the landscape for grazing by livestock, and sacrifice of the vegetation and soils around AWP through the formation of grazing piospheres. The reservation of some former pastoral properties to create national parks has led to water management policies to remove redundant AWP, with the goal to reduce the extent of the piospheres and purported unnaturally high populations of kangaroos of various species that have grown around these perennial waters. Some recognition has been given to retention of AWP as a focus of wildlife observation to enhance the visitor experience. The latter motive is dominant in public lands in southern Africa and the arid parts of the USA where AWP have been added to support and sustain wildlife in arid or seasonally arid landscapes, rather than removed. We report a study of AWP in the stony downs and Strezlecki dunefield landsystems of Sturt National Park in the arid north-western corner of New South Wales. We found that the signature of the past 100 years of grazing by livestock remains regardless of whether AWP are retained or closed. We found no evidence of water-focussed grazing by Red Kangaroos but rather, like native mammalian herbivores elsewhere in arid rangelands, they are distributed according to shelter and forage availability. We found that the fauna most likely to be affected by AWP closure were birds, a focus of much high-value and high-yield wildlife tourism. Small mammal and lizard faunas were unaffected by AWP closure and the remnant fauna is likely to be that most resistant to the former impacts of livestock grazing. We offer recommendations about water management policies in respect to the pastoral inheritance of AWP and the conversion of pastoral properties to national parks.

Andrew, M. H. and Lange, R. T. 1986. Development of a new piosphere in arid chenopod grazed by sheep. 2. Changes to the vegetation. Australian Journal of Ecology 11: 411-424.
Blaney, C. E., Dawson, T. J., McCarron, H. C. K., Buffenstein, R. and Krockenberger, A. K. 2000. Water metabolism and renal function and structure in eastern grey kangaroos ( Macropus giganteus): responses to water deprivation. Australian Journal of Zoology 48: 355.345.
Croft, D. B. 2001 Rangeland Kangaroos: A world class wildlife experience. Wildlife Tourism Research Report Series: No 16. Cooperative Research Centre for Sustainable Tourism: Gold Coast.
Croft, D. B. 2005. The future of kangaroos - Going, going, gone? Pp. 223-244 in Kangaroos: Myths and Realities, edited by M. Wilson and D. B. Croft. Australian Wildlife Protection Council: Melbourne.
Curtin, C. G. 2002. Livestock grazing, rest, and restoration in arid landscapes. Conservation Biology 16: 840-842.
Dawson, T. J. 1995 Kangaroos - Biology of the Largest Marsupials. University of New South Wales Press: Sydney.
Dawson, T. J., Denny, M. J. S., Russell, E. M. and Ellis, B. A. 1975. Water usage and diet preferences of free ranging kangaroos, sheep and feral goats in the Australian arid zone during summer. Journal of Zoology, London 177: 1-23.
Dawson, T. J., Blaney, C. E., Munn, A. J., Krockenberger, A. and Maloney, S. K. 2000. Thermoregulation by kangaroos from mesic and arid habitats: influence of temperature on routes of heat loss in grey kangaroos ( Macropus giganteus) and red kangaroos ( Macropus rufus). Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 73: 374-381.
Denny, M. J. S. 1985. The red kangaroo and the arid environment. Pp. 55-74 in The Kangaroo Keepers, edited by H. J. Lavery. University of Queensland Press: St. Lucia.
Department of Environment and Conservation NSW. 2005 2006 Kangaroo Quota Submission New South Wales. Kangaroo Management Program, Department of Environment and Conservation: Dubbo.
Dickman, C. R. 1994. Native mammals of western New South Wales: past neglect, future rehabilitation? Pp. 81-92 in Future of the Fauna of Western New South Wales, edited by D. Lunney, S. Hand, P. Reed and D. Butcher. The Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales: Mosman.
Dowle, M. 2004. Effects of Artificial Watering Points on the Vegetation and Faunal Biodiversity in the Sand Dunes of Sturt National Park. B. Advanced Sci. (Hons) thesis, University of New South Wales: Sydney.
Fisher, D. O., Blomberg, S. P. and Owens, I. P. F. 2003. Extrinsic versus intrinsic factors in the decline and extinction of Australian marsupials. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London - Series B: Biological Sciences 270: 1801-1808.
Freudenberger, D. and Landsberg, J. 2000. Management of stock watering points and grazing to maintain landscape function and biological diversity in rangelands. Pp. 71-77 in Management for Sustainable Ecosystems, edited by P. Hale, A. Petrie, D. Moloney and P. Sattler. Centre for Conservation Biology: Brisbane.
Friedel, M. H., Sparrow, A. D. and Tongway, D. J. 2003. Degradation and recovery processes in arid grazing lands of central Australia. Part 2. Vegetation. Journal of Arid Environments 55: 327-328.
Gaylard, A., Owen-Smith, N. and, Redfern, J. V. 2003. Surface water availability: implications for heterogeneity and ecosystem processes. Pp. 177-188 in The Kruger Experience: Ecology and Management of Savanna Heterogeneity, edited by J. Du Toit, K. H. Rogers and H. C. Biggs. Island Press: London.
Graetz, R. D. 1978. The influence of grazing by sheep on the structure of a saltbush ( Atriplex vesicaria Hew. ex Benth.) population. Australian Rangeland Journal 1: 117-125.
Graetz, R. D. and Ludwig, J. A. 1978. A method for the analysis of piosphere data applicable to range assessment. Australian Rangeland Journal 1: 126-136.
Harrington, R., Owen-Smith, N., Viljoen, P. C., Biggs, H. C., Mason, D. R. and Funston, P. J. 1999. Establishing the causes of the roan antelope decline in the Kruger National Park, South Africa. Biological Conservation 90: 69-78.
James, C. D., Landsberg, J. and Morton, S. R. 1999. Provision of watering points in the Australian arid zone: a review of effects on biota. Journal of Arid Environments 41: 87-121.
Krausman, P. R., Rosenstock, S. S. and Cain III, J. W. 2006. Developed waters for wildlife: science, perception, values and controversy. Wildlife Society Bulletin 34: 563-569.
Landsberg, J., James, C. and Morton, S. 1997a. Assessing the effects of grazing on biodiversity in Australia's rangelands. Australian Biologist 10: 153-162.
Landsberg, J., James, C. D., Morton, S. R., Hobbs, T. J., Stol, J., Drew, A. and Tongway, H. 1997b The Effects of Artificial Sources of Water on Rangeland Biodiversity. Environment Australia and CSIRO: Canberra.
Lange, R. T. 1969. The piosphere: sheep track and dung patterns. Journal of Range Management 22: 396-400.
Marshal, J. P., Krausman, P. R., Bleich, V. C., Rosenstock, S. S. and Ballard, W. B. 2006. Gradients of forage biomass and ungulate use near wildlife water developments. Wildlife Society Bulletin 34: 620-626.
Montague-Drake, R. 2004. Strategic Management of Artificial Watering Points for Biodiversity Conservation. PhD thesis, University of New South Wales: Sydney.
Montague-Drake, R. and Croft, D. B. 2004. Do kangaroos exhibit water-focused grazing patterns in arid New South Wales? A case study in Sturt National Park. Australian Mammalogy 26: 87-100.
National Parks and Wildlife Service. 1996 Sturt National Park: Plan of Management. NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service: Hurstville.
National Parks and Wildlife Service. 2006 Mungo National Park Plan of Management. Department of Environment and Conservation (NSW): Hurstville.
Newsome, A. E. 1975. An ecological comparison of the two arid-zone kangaroos of Australia, and their anomalous prosperity since the introduction of ruminant stock to their environment. The Quarterly Review of Biology 50: 389-428.
Noble, J., MacLeod, N. D. and Griffin, G. F. 1997. The rehabilitation of landscape function in rangelands. Pp. 107-118 in Landscape Ecology, Function and Management: Principles from the Australian Rangelands, edited by D. Ludwig, D. Tongway, D. Freudenberger, J. Noble and K. Hodgkinson). CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.
O'Brien, C. S., Waddell, R. B., Rosenstock, S. S. and Rabe, M. J. 2006. Wildlife use of water catchments in southwestern Arizona. Wildlife Society Bulletin 34: 582-591.
Osborn, T. G. B., Wood, J. G. and Paltridge, T. B. 1932. On the growth and reaction to grazing of the perennial saltbush, Atriplex vesicarium. An ecological study of the biotic factor. Proceedings of the Linnaean Society of NSW 57: 377-402.
Owen-Smith, N. 1996. Ecological guidelines for waterpoints in extensive protected areas. South African Journal of Wildlife Research 26: 107-112.
Page, M. J. and Beeton, R. J. S. 2000. Is the removal of domestic livestock sufficient to restore semi-arid conservation areas? Pacific Conservation Biology 6: 245-253.
Rapport, D. J. and Whitford, W. G. 1999. How do ecosystems respond to stress? BioScience 49: 193-203.
Redfern, J. V., Grant, C. C., Gaylard, A. and Getz, W. M. 2005. Surface water availability and the management of herbivore distributions in an African savanna ecosystem. Journal of Arid Environments 63: 406-424.
Robertson, G. 1987. Plant dynamics. Pp. 50-68 in Kangaroos: Their Ecology and Management in the Sheep Rangelands of Australia, edited by G. Caughley, N. Shepherd and J. Short. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.
Sparrow, A. D., Friedel, M. H. and Tongway, D. J. 2003. Degradation and recovery processes in arid grazing lands of central Australia. Part 3: implications at landscape scale. Journal of Arid Environments 55: 349-360.
Strehlow, T. G. H. 1968 Aranda Traditions, 2nd Ed. Melbourne University Press: Melbourne.
Thrash, I. 1998a. Impact of large herbivores at artificial watering points compared to that at natural watering points in Kruger National Park. Journal of Arid Environments 38: 315-324.
Thrash, I. 1998b. Impact of water provision on herbaceous vegetation in Kruger National Park. Journal of Arid Environments 38: 437-450.
Thrash, I. 2000. Determinants of the extent of indigenous large herbivore impact on herbaceous vegetation at watering points in the north-eastern lowveld, South Africa. Journal of Arid Environments 44: 61-72.
Tongway, D. J., Sparrow, A. D. and Friedel, M. H. 2003. Degradation and recovery processes in arid grazing lands of central Australia. Part 1: soil and land resources. Journal of Arid Environments 55: 301-326.
Valentine, P. and Birtles, A. 2004. Wildlife watching. Pp. 15-34 in Wildlife Tourism: impacts, management and planning, edited by K. B. Higginbottom. Common Ground Publishing: Altona.
Valone, T. J., Meyer, M., Brown, J. H. and Chews, R. M. 2002. Timescale of perennial grass recovery in desertified grasslands following livestock removal. Conservation Biology 16: 995-1002.
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References

Andrew, M. H. and Lange, R. T. 1986. Development of a new piosphere in arid chenopod grazed by sheep. 2. Changes to the vegetation. Australian Journal of Ecology 11: 411-424.
Blaney, C. E., Dawson, T. J., McCarron, H. C. K., Buffenstein, R. and Krockenberger, A. K. 2000. Water metabolism and renal function and structure in eastern grey kangaroos ( Macropus giganteus): responses to water deprivation. Australian Journal of Zoology 48: 355.345.
Croft, D. B. 2001 Rangeland Kangaroos: A world class wildlife experience. Wildlife Tourism Research Report Series: No 16. Cooperative Research Centre for Sustainable Tourism: Gold Coast.
Croft, D. B. 2005. The future of kangaroos - Going, going, gone? Pp. 223-244 in Kangaroos: Myths and Realities, edited by M. Wilson and D. B. Croft. Australian Wildlife Protection Council: Melbourne.
Curtin, C. G. 2002. Livestock grazing, rest, and restoration in arid landscapes. Conservation Biology 16: 840-842.
Dawson, T. J. 1995 Kangaroos - Biology of the Largest Marsupials. University of New South Wales Press: Sydney.
Dawson, T. J., Denny, M. J. S., Russell, E. M. and Ellis, B. A. 1975. Water usage and diet preferences of free ranging kangaroos, sheep and feral goats in the Australian arid zone during summer. Journal of Zoology, London 177: 1-23.
Dawson, T. J., Blaney, C. E., Munn, A. J., Krockenberger, A. and Maloney, S. K. 2000. Thermoregulation by kangaroos from mesic and arid habitats: influence of temperature on routes of heat loss in grey kangaroos ( Macropus giganteus) and red kangaroos ( Macropus rufus). Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 73: 374-381.
Denny, M. J. S. 1985. The red kangaroo and the arid environment. Pp. 55-74 in The Kangaroo Keepers, edited by H. J. Lavery. University of Queensland Press: St. Lucia.
Department of Environment and Conservation NSW. 2005 2006 Kangaroo Quota Submission New South Wales. Kangaroo Management Program, Department of Environment and Conservation: Dubbo.
Dickman, C. R. 1994. Native mammals of western New South Wales: past neglect, future rehabilitation? Pp. 81-92 in Future of the Fauna of Western New South Wales, edited by D. Lunney, S. Hand, P. Reed and D. Butcher. The Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales: Mosman.
Dowle, M. 2004. Effects of Artificial Watering Points on the Vegetation and Faunal Biodiversity in the Sand Dunes of Sturt National Park. B. Advanced Sci. (Hons) thesis, University of New South Wales: Sydney.
Fisher, D. O., Blomberg, S. P. and Owens, I. P. F. 2003. Extrinsic versus intrinsic factors in the decline and extinction of Australian marsupials. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London - Series B: Biological Sciences 270: 1801-1808.
Freudenberger, D. and Landsberg, J. 2000. Management of stock watering points and grazing to maintain landscape function and biological diversity in rangelands. Pp. 71-77 in Management for Sustainable Ecosystems, edited by P. Hale, A. Petrie, D. Moloney and P. Sattler. Centre for Conservation Biology: Brisbane.
Friedel, M. H., Sparrow, A. D. and Tongway, D. J. 2003. Degradation and recovery processes in arid grazing lands of central Australia. Part 2. Vegetation. Journal of Arid Environments 55: 327-328.
Gaylard, A., Owen-Smith, N. and, Redfern, J. V. 2003. Surface water availability: implications for heterogeneity and ecosystem processes. Pp. 177-188 in The Kruger Experience: Ecology and Management of Savanna Heterogeneity, edited by J. Du Toit, K. H. Rogers and H. C. Biggs. Island Press: London.
Graetz, R. D. 1978. The influence of grazing by sheep on the structure of a saltbush ( Atriplex vesicaria Hew. ex Benth.) population. Australian Rangeland Journal 1: 117-125.
Graetz, R. D. and Ludwig, J. A. 1978. A method for the analysis of piosphere data applicable to range assessment. Australian Rangeland Journal 1: 126-136.
Harrington, R., Owen-Smith, N., Viljoen, P. C., Biggs, H. C., Mason, D. R. and Funston, P. J. 1999. Establishing the causes of the roan antelope decline in the Kruger National Park, South Africa. Biological Conservation 90: 69-78.
James, C. D., Landsberg, J. and Morton, S. R. 1999. Provision of watering points in the Australian arid zone: a review of effects on biota. Journal of Arid Environments 41: 87-121.
Krausman, P. R., Rosenstock, S. S. and Cain III, J. W. 2006. Developed waters for wildlife: science, perception, values and controversy. Wildlife Society Bulletin 34: 563-569.
Landsberg, J., James, C. and Morton, S. 1997a. Assessing the effects of grazing on biodiversity in Australia's rangelands. Australian Biologist 10: 153-162.
Landsberg, J., James, C. D., Morton, S. R., Hobbs, T. J., Stol, J., Drew, A. and Tongway, H. 1997b The Effects of Artificial Sources of Water on Rangeland Biodiversity. Environment Australia and CSIRO: Canberra.
Lange, R. T. 1969. The piosphere: sheep track and dung patterns. Journal of Range Management 22: 396-400.
Marshal, J. P., Krausman, P. R., Bleich, V. C., Rosenstock, S. S. and Ballard, W. B. 2006. Gradients of forage biomass and ungulate use near wildlife water developments. Wildlife Society Bulletin 34: 620-626.
Montague-Drake, R. 2004. Strategic Management of Artificial Watering Points for Biodiversity Conservation. PhD thesis, University of New South Wales: Sydney.
Montague-Drake, R. and Croft, D. B. 2004. Do kangaroos exhibit water-focused grazing patterns in arid New South Wales? A case study in Sturt National Park. Australian Mammalogy 26: 87-100.
National Parks and Wildlife Service. 1996 Sturt National Park: Plan of Management. NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service: Hurstville.
National Parks and Wildlife Service. 2006 Mungo National Park Plan of Management. Department of Environment and Conservation (NSW): Hurstville.
Newsome, A. E. 1975. An ecological comparison of the two arid-zone kangaroos of Australia, and their anomalous prosperity since the introduction of ruminant stock to their environment. The Quarterly Review of Biology 50: 389-428.
Noble, J., MacLeod, N. D. and Griffin, G. F. 1997. The rehabilitation of landscape function in rangelands. Pp. 107-118 in Landscape Ecology, Function and Management: Principles from the Australian Rangelands, edited by D. Ludwig, D. Tongway, D. Freudenberger, J. Noble and K. Hodgkinson). CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.
O'Brien, C. S., Waddell, R. B., Rosenstock, S. S. and Rabe, M. J. 2006. Wildlife use of water catchments in southwestern Arizona. Wildlife Society Bulletin 34: 582-591.
Osborn, T. G. B., Wood, J. G. and Paltridge, T. B. 1932. On the growth and reaction to grazing of the perennial saltbush, Atriplex vesicarium. An ecological study of the biotic factor. Proceedings of the Linnaean Society of NSW 57: 377-402.
Owen-Smith, N. 1996. Ecological guidelines for waterpoints in extensive protected areas. South African Journal of Wildlife Research 26: 107-112.
Page, M. J. and Beeton, R. J. S. 2000. Is the removal of domestic livestock sufficient to restore semi-arid conservation areas? Pacific Conservation Biology 6: 245-253.
Rapport, D. J. and Whitford, W. G. 1999. How do ecosystems respond to stress? BioScience 49: 193-203.
Redfern, J. V., Grant, C. C., Gaylard, A. and Getz, W. M. 2005. Surface water availability and the management of herbivore distributions in an African savanna ecosystem. Journal of Arid Environments 63: 406-424.
Robertson, G. 1987. Plant dynamics. Pp. 50-68 in Kangaroos: Their Ecology and Management in the Sheep Rangelands of Australia, edited by G. Caughley, N. Shepherd and J. Short. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.
Sparrow, A. D., Friedel, M. H. and Tongway, D. J. 2003. Degradation and recovery processes in arid grazing lands of central Australia. Part 3: implications at landscape scale. Journal of Arid Environments 55: 349-360.
Strehlow, T. G. H. 1968 Aranda Traditions, 2nd Ed. Melbourne University Press: Melbourne.
Thrash, I. 1998a. Impact of large herbivores at artificial watering points compared to that at natural watering points in Kruger National Park. Journal of Arid Environments 38: 315-324.
Thrash, I. 1998b. Impact of water provision on herbaceous vegetation in Kruger National Park. Journal of Arid Environments 38: 437-450.
Thrash, I. 2000. Determinants of the extent of indigenous large herbivore impact on herbaceous vegetation at watering points in the north-eastern lowveld, South Africa. Journal of Arid Environments 44: 61-72.
Tongway, D. J., Sparrow, A. D. and Friedel, M. H. 2003. Degradation and recovery processes in arid grazing lands of central Australia. Part 1: soil and land resources. Journal of Arid Environments 55: 301-326.
Valentine, P. and Birtles, A. 2004. Wildlife watching. Pp. 15-34 in Wildlife Tourism: impacts, management and planning, edited by K. B. Higginbottom. Common Ground Publishing: Altona.
Valone, T. J., Meyer, M., Brown, J. H. and Chews, R. M. 2002. Timescale of perennial grass recovery in desertified grasslands following livestock removal. Conservation Biology 16: 995-1002.
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