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Using the history of dingo-proof fences in Australia, I show that several key lessons were learnt by pastoralists, but later forgotten and had to be re-learnt. Each has application to current and future proposals to build predator-proof fences for conservation.1.Feral predators kill and eat native fauna.2.Predators go under or through fences, or climb fences.3. Predator-proof fences must be maintained.4. Maintenance is expensive and must be continued indefinitely. 5. Scalp bonuses do not control predators and are waste of money. Despite some assertions from conservationists, there is no evidence that the motive for building a fence (conservation versus growing sheep) is any guarantee of better performance. Proponents of predator-proof fences (and funding agencies) need to ask two key questions. 1. What is the real objective of the fence, and how do we measure its success? 2. What happens if / when the fences are successful? Unless predators are controlled outside the fence, then the enclosure remains a captive breeding zoo which achieves little for conservation at a landscape-scale.

( The Pastoral Review which is a major source of information for this paper changed its name several times during its almost 100 y life. See Walsh (1993, pp. 249-264) for details.)
ABS (Australian Bureau of Statistics). 2005 Consumer Price Index, Australia AusStats 6401.0 Table 1A: All Groups, Index Numbers (Financial Year)(a) http://www.abs.gov.au.simsrad.net.ocs.mq.edu.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/c08c69053a26f3e2ca2568b5007b861a/e236cc10ba2a07aeca25688d001c2f0c!OpenDocument accessed 12 August 2005
ANAO (Australian National Audit Office). 1996-97 Commonwealth Natural Resource Management and Environment Programs. Australia's Land, Water and Vegetation Resources. Auditor-General Performance Audit. Audit Report No. 36.
Angst, C. 2001. Electric fencing of fallow deer enclosures in Switzerland - a predator proof method. Carnivore Damage Prevention News (No. 3 (July 2001)): 8-9.
Anon. 1880 The Australasian Sketcher 1880. Alfred May and Alfred Martin Ebsworth, Melbourne.
Anon. 1906. Vermin fencing in South Australia. The Pastoralist's Review 16 (15 September): 588-89.
Anon. 1912 The Stockowner's Guide. Appliances and Improvements. The Pastoralists’ Review Pty. Ltd., Sydney.
Anon. 1917. The wild dog problem. A most serious pest. The Pastoral Review 27 (16 August): 761-4.
Arid Recovery. 2006. Survival and establishment of the Greater Bilby outside the Arid Recovery reserve. http://www.aridrecovery.org.au/modules/content/index.php?id=17 accessed 1 March 2006
Arid Recovery Project. 2005. The Arid Recovery Fence. http://www.aridrecovery.org.au/reserve/fence.htm accessed 8 April 2005
Arthur, F. 1914a. Dog-proof fencing (Letter to the editor) The Pastoral Review 24 (15 May): 454.
Arthur, F. 1914b. Dog-proof fencing (Letter to the editor) The Pastoral Review 24 (16 September): 917.
Bauer, F. H. 1959. Sheep raising in northern Australia: an historical perspective. Australian Geographer 7: 169-79.
Black, J. R. 1988. B over Wallangra: the Life and Times of an Australian Pastoral Family, 1839-1921. Independent Marketing & Publishing, Inverell, NSW.
Brook, B. W., Whitehead, P. J., and Dingle, J. K. 2004. Potential Cane Toad short to medium term Control Techniques - the Biological Feasibility and Cost of Exclusion as a Mitigating Control Strategy. Final report to the Department of Environment and Heritage. Key Centre for Tropical Wildlife Management, Charles Darwin University. 60 pp. http://www.deh.gov.au/biodiversity/invasive/publications/cane-toad-exclusion/pubs/44767-final-report.pdf accessed 2 March 2006.
Charles D. Young and Co. post-1851. Description (with illustrations) of Iron and Wire Fences, Gates, etc. etc. adapted specially for Australia. Invented and manufactured by Charles D. Young and Company. Charles D. Young and Co., London.
Davidsons of New England Association. 1983. The Davidsons of New England: a History of William Davidson and his Descendants. Davidsons of New England Association, Armidale, NSW.
EconSearch. 2000. Economic Assessment of the Wild Dog Barrier Fence. Report for Queensland Department of Natural Resources.
Gordon, P. R. 1867. Fencing as a Means of improving our Pasture Lands and its Advantages to the Stock-owners and the Colony, with Suggestions for a Fencing Bill, and the Improvement of Pasture by Means of Sapping. William Maddock, Sydney.
Hogg, G. 1991. Peter Waite 1834-1922: the Story of his Life and Times. Waite Agricultural Research Institute, Adelaide.
Kingloc Ltd. 1914. Dingo-proof fencing (letter to the editor). The Pastoral Review 24 (16 June): 611.
Lange, R. T., Nicolson, A. D. and Nicolson, D. A. 1984. Vegetation management of chenopod rangelands in South Australia. Australian Rangeland Journal 6: 46-54.
L. A. N. T. (Legislative Assembly of the Northern Territory. Sessional Committee on Environment and Sustainable Development). 2003. Issues associated with the Progressive Entry into the Northern Territory of Cane Toads. Volume 1 (Report No. 1), volume 2 (Written submissions received), volume 3 (Hansard transcripts - public hearings). Legislative Assembly of the Northern Territory, Darwin.
Levin, M. 2000. Electrical fences against large predators. Carnivore Damage Prevention News No. 2 (November 2000): 6-7.
Levin, M. 2002. How to prevent damage from large predators with electric fences. Carnivore Damage Prevention News No.5 (May 2002): 5-8.
Long, K. and Robley, A. 2004. Cost effective Feral Animal Exclusion Fencing for Areas of high conservation Value in Australia. Victoria Department of Sustainability and Environment, Melbourne.
Macpherson, C. R. 1920. Wild dogs (letter to the editor) The Pastoral Review 30 (16 July): 478.
Marsh, M. H. 1914. Dingo-proof fencing (letter to the editor). The Pastoral Review 24 (15 August): 773.
McKeon, G., Hall, W., Henry, B., Stone, G. and Watson, I. (eds.) 2004. Pasture Degradation and Recovery in Australia's Rangelands. Learning from History. Queensland Department of Natural Resources, Mines and Energy, Brisbane.
McKnight, T. L. 1969. Barrier fencing for vermin control in Australia. The Geographical Review 59: 330-47.
Officer, H. S. 1917. [Rejoinder to Peter Waite letters in December 1916 and January 1917] The Pastoral Review 27 (16 February): 147.
Pearse, E. H. 1965. Sheep and Property Management. The Pastoral Review, Sydney. 8th edition
Pennycuick, R. 1995. Keeping Rabbits out: Darling Downs - Moreton Rabbit Board: a History of the Darling Downs Rabbit Board 1893 - 1964, the Moreton Rabbit Board 1905-1964 and the Darling Downs - Moreton Rabbit Board 1964 - 1994. Darling Downs - Moreton Rabbit Board, Warwick, Queensland.
Pickard, J. 1992. Technological change in fences and European pastoral heritage in western New South Wales. The Rangeland Journal 14: 190-204.
Pickard, J. (in press). Shepherding in colonial Australia. Rural History.
Pickard, J. (submitted). The transition from shepherding to fencing in colonial Australia Rural History.
Rabbit Royal Commission. 1890. Royal Commission of Inquiry into Schemes for Extermination of Rabbits in Australasia. Progress Report, Minutes of Proceedings, Minutes of Evidence and Appendices. Government Printer, Sydney.
Reddiex, B., Forsyth, D. M., McDonald-Madden, E., Einoder, L. D., Griffioen, P. A., Chick, R. R. and Robley, A. J. 2004. Review of existing Red Fox, Wild Dog, Feral Cat, Feral Rabbit, Feral Pig, and Feral Goat control in Australia. 1. Audit. Arthur Rylah Institute for Environmental Research, Department of Sustainability and Environment, Melbourne.
R. E. N. T. (pseudonym of R. E. N. Twopeny). 1893. On the Darling Downs. The Australasian Pastoralists’ Review 3 (15 September): 323-6.
Richardson, N. A. 1925. The Pioneers of the North-west of South Australia 1856 to 1914. W. K. Thomas, Adelaide.
Rural Management Partners. 2004. Economic Assessment of the Impact of Dingoes / Wild Dogs in Queensland. Report for Queensland Department of Natural Resources and Mines. Available at www.nrm.qld.gov.au/pests/pdf/eco_ass_wild_dog.pdf accessed 1 May 2005.
Santayana, G. 1922. The Life of Reason: or, the Phases of Human Progress. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York.
Schedvin, C. B. 1970. Rabbits and industrial development: Lysaght Brothers & Co. Pty Ltd, 1884 to 1929. Australian Economic History Review 10: 27-55.
Snook, G. D. 1994. Portrait of the Family within the Total Economy. A Study in Longrun Dynamics, Australia 1788-1990. Cambridge University Press, Sydney.
Waite, P. 1907. Vermin-proof fences. The Pastoralists’ Review 16 (15 February): 1047.
Waite, P. 1913. The evolution of vermin-proof fencing. The Pastoral Review 23 (15 March): 250-1.
Walker, J. 1988 Jondaryan Station: the Relationship between Pastoral Capital and Pastoral Labour. University of Queensland Press, St Lucia, Queensland.
Walsh, G. 1993 Pioneering Days. People and Innovations from Australia's Rural Past. Allen & Unwin, St Leonards, NSW.
Wam, H. K., Dokk, J. G. and Hjeljord, O. 2004. Reduced wolf attacks on sheep in Østfold, Norway using electric fencing. Carnivore Damage Prevention News (July 2004): 12-13.
Western Division Royal Commission. 1901 Western Division of New South Wales. Report of the Royal Commission to Inquire into the Condition of the Crown Tenants. 2 volumes, Government Printer, Sydney.
WMC Resources. 2005. Olympic Dam operations. Case studies, Arid Recovery case study. http://www.wmc.com/sustainability/2004/performance/odo/casestudies.htm accessed 1 May 2005.
Woodford, J. 2003 The Dog Fence. Text Publishing Company, Melbourne.
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Contents

Figures & Tables

References

( The Pastoral Review which is a major source of information for this paper changed its name several times during its almost 100 y life. See Walsh (1993, pp. 249-264) for details.)
ABS (Australian Bureau of Statistics). 2005 Consumer Price Index, Australia AusStats 6401.0 Table 1A: All Groups, Index Numbers (Financial Year)(a) http://www.abs.gov.au.simsrad.net.ocs.mq.edu.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/c08c69053a26f3e2ca2568b5007b861a/e236cc10ba2a07aeca25688d001c2f0c!OpenDocument accessed 12 August 2005
ANAO (Australian National Audit Office). 1996-97 Commonwealth Natural Resource Management and Environment Programs. Australia's Land, Water and Vegetation Resources. Auditor-General Performance Audit. Audit Report No. 36.
Angst, C. 2001. Electric fencing of fallow deer enclosures in Switzerland - a predator proof method. Carnivore Damage Prevention News (No. 3 (July 2001)): 8-9.
Anon. 1880 The Australasian Sketcher 1880. Alfred May and Alfred Martin Ebsworth, Melbourne.
Anon. 1906. Vermin fencing in South Australia. The Pastoralist's Review 16 (15 September): 588-89.
Anon. 1912 The Stockowner's Guide. Appliances and Improvements. The Pastoralists’ Review Pty. Ltd., Sydney.
Anon. 1917. The wild dog problem. A most serious pest. The Pastoral Review 27 (16 August): 761-4.
Arid Recovery. 2006. Survival and establishment of the Greater Bilby outside the Arid Recovery reserve. http://www.aridrecovery.org.au/modules/content/index.php?id=17 accessed 1 March 2006
Arid Recovery Project. 2005. The Arid Recovery Fence. http://www.aridrecovery.org.au/reserve/fence.htm accessed 8 April 2005
Arthur, F. 1914a. Dog-proof fencing (Letter to the editor) The Pastoral Review 24 (15 May): 454.
Arthur, F. 1914b. Dog-proof fencing (Letter to the editor) The Pastoral Review 24 (16 September): 917.
Bauer, F. H. 1959. Sheep raising in northern Australia: an historical perspective. Australian Geographer 7: 169-79.
Black, J. R. 1988. B over Wallangra: the Life and Times of an Australian Pastoral Family, 1839-1921. Independent Marketing & Publishing, Inverell, NSW.
Brook, B. W., Whitehead, P. J., and Dingle, J. K. 2004. Potential Cane Toad short to medium term Control Techniques - the Biological Feasibility and Cost of Exclusion as a Mitigating Control Strategy. Final report to the Department of Environment and Heritage. Key Centre for Tropical Wildlife Management, Charles Darwin University. 60 pp. http://www.deh.gov.au/biodiversity/invasive/publications/cane-toad-exclusion/pubs/44767-final-report.pdf accessed 2 March 2006.
Charles D. Young and Co. post-1851. Description (with illustrations) of Iron and Wire Fences, Gates, etc. etc. adapted specially for Australia. Invented and manufactured by Charles D. Young and Company. Charles D. Young and Co., London.
Davidsons of New England Association. 1983. The Davidsons of New England: a History of William Davidson and his Descendants. Davidsons of New England Association, Armidale, NSW.
EconSearch. 2000. Economic Assessment of the Wild Dog Barrier Fence. Report for Queensland Department of Natural Resources.
Gordon, P. R. 1867. Fencing as a Means of improving our Pasture Lands and its Advantages to the Stock-owners and the Colony, with Suggestions for a Fencing Bill, and the Improvement of Pasture by Means of Sapping. William Maddock, Sydney.
Hogg, G. 1991. Peter Waite 1834-1922: the Story of his Life and Times. Waite Agricultural Research Institute, Adelaide.
Kingloc Ltd. 1914. Dingo-proof fencing (letter to the editor). The Pastoral Review 24 (16 June): 611.
Lange, R. T., Nicolson, A. D. and Nicolson, D. A. 1984. Vegetation management of chenopod rangelands in South Australia. Australian Rangeland Journal 6: 46-54.
L. A. N. T. (Legislative Assembly of the Northern Territory. Sessional Committee on Environment and Sustainable Development). 2003. Issues associated with the Progressive Entry into the Northern Territory of Cane Toads. Volume 1 (Report No. 1), volume 2 (Written submissions received), volume 3 (Hansard transcripts - public hearings). Legislative Assembly of the Northern Territory, Darwin.
Levin, M. 2000. Electrical fences against large predators. Carnivore Damage Prevention News No. 2 (November 2000): 6-7.
Levin, M. 2002. How to prevent damage from large predators with electric fences. Carnivore Damage Prevention News No.5 (May 2002): 5-8.
Long, K. and Robley, A. 2004. Cost effective Feral Animal Exclusion Fencing for Areas of high conservation Value in Australia. Victoria Department of Sustainability and Environment, Melbourne.
Macpherson, C. R. 1920. Wild dogs (letter to the editor) The Pastoral Review 30 (16 July): 478.
Marsh, M. H. 1914. Dingo-proof fencing (letter to the editor). The Pastoral Review 24 (15 August): 773.
McKeon, G., Hall, W., Henry, B., Stone, G. and Watson, I. (eds.) 2004. Pasture Degradation and Recovery in Australia's Rangelands. Learning from History. Queensland Department of Natural Resources, Mines and Energy, Brisbane.
McKnight, T. L. 1969. Barrier fencing for vermin control in Australia. The Geographical Review 59: 330-47.
Officer, H. S. 1917. [Rejoinder to Peter Waite letters in December 1916 and January 1917] The Pastoral Review 27 (16 February): 147.
Pearse, E. H. 1965. Sheep and Property Management. The Pastoral Review, Sydney. 8th edition
Pennycuick, R. 1995. Keeping Rabbits out: Darling Downs - Moreton Rabbit Board: a History of the Darling Downs Rabbit Board 1893 - 1964, the Moreton Rabbit Board 1905-1964 and the Darling Downs - Moreton Rabbit Board 1964 - 1994. Darling Downs - Moreton Rabbit Board, Warwick, Queensland.
Pickard, J. 1992. Technological change in fences and European pastoral heritage in western New South Wales. The Rangeland Journal 14: 190-204.
Pickard, J. (in press). Shepherding in colonial Australia. Rural History.
Pickard, J. (submitted). The transition from shepherding to fencing in colonial Australia Rural History.
Rabbit Royal Commission. 1890. Royal Commission of Inquiry into Schemes for Extermination of Rabbits in Australasia. Progress Report, Minutes of Proceedings, Minutes of Evidence and Appendices. Government Printer, Sydney.
Reddiex, B., Forsyth, D. M., McDonald-Madden, E., Einoder, L. D., Griffioen, P. A., Chick, R. R. and Robley, A. J. 2004. Review of existing Red Fox, Wild Dog, Feral Cat, Feral Rabbit, Feral Pig, and Feral Goat control in Australia. 1. Audit. Arthur Rylah Institute for Environmental Research, Department of Sustainability and Environment, Melbourne.
R. E. N. T. (pseudonym of R. E. N. Twopeny). 1893. On the Darling Downs. The Australasian Pastoralists’ Review 3 (15 September): 323-6.
Richardson, N. A. 1925. The Pioneers of the North-west of South Australia 1856 to 1914. W. K. Thomas, Adelaide.
Rural Management Partners. 2004. Economic Assessment of the Impact of Dingoes / Wild Dogs in Queensland. Report for Queensland Department of Natural Resources and Mines. Available at www.nrm.qld.gov.au/pests/pdf/eco_ass_wild_dog.pdf accessed 1 May 2005.
Santayana, G. 1922. The Life of Reason: or, the Phases of Human Progress. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York.
Schedvin, C. B. 1970. Rabbits and industrial development: Lysaght Brothers & Co. Pty Ltd, 1884 to 1929. Australian Economic History Review 10: 27-55.
Snook, G. D. 1994. Portrait of the Family within the Total Economy. A Study in Longrun Dynamics, Australia 1788-1990. Cambridge University Press, Sydney.
Waite, P. 1907. Vermin-proof fences. The Pastoralists’ Review 16 (15 February): 1047.
Waite, P. 1913. The evolution of vermin-proof fencing. The Pastoral Review 23 (15 March): 250-1.
Walker, J. 1988 Jondaryan Station: the Relationship between Pastoral Capital and Pastoral Labour. University of Queensland Press, St Lucia, Queensland.
Walsh, G. 1993 Pioneering Days. People and Innovations from Australia's Rural Past. Allen & Unwin, St Leonards, NSW.
Wam, H. K., Dokk, J. G. and Hjeljord, O. 2004. Reduced wolf attacks on sheep in Østfold, Norway using electric fencing. Carnivore Damage Prevention News (July 2004): 12-13.
Western Division Royal Commission. 1901 Western Division of New South Wales. Report of the Royal Commission to Inquire into the Condition of the Crown Tenants. 2 volumes, Government Printer, Sydney.
WMC Resources. 2005. Olympic Dam operations. Case studies, Arid Recovery case study. http://www.wmc.com/sustainability/2004/performance/odo/casestudies.htm accessed 1 May 2005.
Woodford, J. 2003 The Dog Fence. Text Publishing Company, Melbourne.
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