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Red-eared Sliders Trachemys scripta elegans have become the ubiquitous ‘pet terrapin’. They are endemic to much of eastern United States of America and northern Mexico, and have been traded to the four corners of the world, mainly from the ‘turtle farms’ of Louisiana, predominantly for the pet industry. There has been sustained growth in the industry (which included turtles for the Asian food market) since its establishment. In many countries, escaped and released animals have formed the basis of feral populations and in some areas they appear to have had a major impact on the biodiversity of local waterways. There are now breeding populations within Australia, at least in New South Wales and Queensland. This paper reviews the current evidence for feral Red-eared Sliders populations in this country and the approach governments of Australia have taken to overcome the spread of this species and the associated threats to biodiversity.

Alderton, D. 1986 A Petkeeper's Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians. Salamander Books Ltd, London.
Anon. 2004. Invading turtles. Feral Herald 1(7): 8.
Anon. 2005a Feral Turtle Find Prompts Call for Survey. ABC New Online. http://www.abc.net.au/news/newsitem/200504/s1340116.htm.
Anon. 2005b Red Eared Slider Turtle Update from Simon Godschalx - Australian Capital Territory Wildlife Research and Monitoring. November 2005. http://www.envirotalk.com.au/forum/indx.php?act=Print&client=printer&f=91&t=5156.
Australian Customs Service 2000 Digitally Identified - Something to Declare. 5(January 2000). Media Release http://www.customs.gov.au/site/page.cfm?u=4600.
Australian Customs Service 2005 Snakes Alive - Customs Seizes Exotic Reptiles. Media Release. http://www.customs.gov.au/site/page.cfm?c=6004.
Bomford, M. 2003 Risk-Assessment for the Import and Keeping of Exotic Vertebrates in Australia. Australian Government, Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry, Canberra.
Branch, B. 1998 Field Guide to Snakes and Other Reptiles of South Africa. Struik Publishers Pty Ltd, Cape Town.
Burgin, S. 2006. Confirmation of an established population of exotic turtles in urban Sydney. Australian Zoologist. 33: 379-384.
Burgin, S., Emerton, S. and Burgin, M. 1999. A comparison of sample and total census data for a population of the Eastern longneck turtle Celodina longicollis in a farm dam north-west of Sydney, New South Wales. Australian Zoologist 31: 161-164.
Cadi, A., Delmas, V., Prevot-Julliard, A., Joly, P., Pieau, C. and Girondot, M. 2004. Successful reproduction of the introduced slider turtle ( Trachemys scripta elegans) in the South of France. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 14: 237-246.
CALM 2004. (Department of Conservation and Land Management) Feral toads and turtles a cause for concern. April 2004. NatureBase: Latest News. http://www.calm.wa.gov.au/news/news.cgi?item=1079589429.
Cann, J. and Legler, J. 1994. The Mary River tortoise: a new genus and species of chelid from Queensland, Australia (Testudines: Pleurodira). Chelonian Conservation and Biology 1: 81-96.
Chen, T. and Lue, K. 1998. Ecological notes on feral populations of Trachemys scripta elegans in northern Taiwan, Chelonian Conservation and Biology 3(1): 87-90.
CITES 2003. (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora). Trade in Tortoises and Freshwater Turtles: Development of Mid- and Long-Term Conservation Measures for Tortoises and Freshwater Turtles. AC19 Deco. 15.2(Rev. 1). http://www.cites.org/eng/res/11/11-09R13.shtml.
Connor, M. J. 1992. The Red-eared Slider, Trachemys scripta elegans. Tortuga Gazette 28(4): 1-3.
Covington, M. 1995. Learn some helpful hints about what to do if your turtles lay eggs. Reptiles June 1995: 49-54.
Dalem, A. 1998 Demography and Movement Patterns of a Population of Eastern Snake-Necked Turtles, Chelodina longicollis (Shaw 1794). MSc Thesis, University of Western Sydney - Hawkesbury, Richmond.
Department of Agriculture 2004. Feral toads and turtles a cause for concern. Nature Base: Latest News, 17 March. http://www.calm.wa.gov.au/news/news.cgi?item=1079589429.
DPI 2004b. (Department of Primary Industries) Red-eared Slider. Under Control Pest Plant and Animal Management News. Victoria Department of Primary Industries. 27: 7.
Dupré, A. 1996. La Tortue de Floride en France: un bilan de la situation actuelle. Pp. 295-297 in Proceedings of International Congress on Chelonian Conservation, Gonfaron, France July 1995. Edited by B. Devaux. Editions SOPTOM, Gonfaron.
Ernst, C., Barbour, R. and Lovich J. 1994 Turtles of the United States and Canada. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington.
Ewert, M. and Nelson, C. 1991. Sex determination in turtles: diverse patterns and some possible adaptive values. Copeia 1: 59-69.
Ferri, V. and di Cerbo, A. 1996. Lombardy Arcadia Project: Initiatives and propositions for the control of the Red-eared pond turtle ( Trachemys scripta, Schoepff). Pp. 297-300 in Proceedings of International Congress on Chelonian Conservation, Gonfaron, France July 1995. Edited by B. Devaux. Editions SOPTOM, Gonfaron.
Fieldman, M. 1992. Can turtles reproduce in New Zealand? Moko, Winter issue: 14-16.
Fieldman, N. 1998. The ulcerative shell disease in New Zealand turtles. Moko, Summer issue. 14-16.
Fieldman, 2005. The Red-eared Slider turtle ( Trachemys scripta elegans) in New Zealand. Pp. 96-101. In Proceedings 13th Australasian Vertebrate Pest Conference, Te Papa Wellington, New Zealand 2-6 May 2005, unedited. Manaaki Whenua - Landcare Research, Lincoln, New Zealand. www.landcareresearch.co.nz/news/conferences.
Griffiths, K. 1997 Frogs and reptiles of the Sydney region. University of New South Wales Press, Sydney.
Holloway, P. 2005. (on behalf of Hon. T.G. Roberts) Red Eared Sliders - In Reply to Hon. Sandra Kanck (28 February). http://sa.democrats.org.au/html/print.php?sid=666.
Hoover, G. 2002. The role of the United States and China in the global turtle trade. (Abstract) International Herpetological Symposium, Inc. 26th Annual Meeting, July 18-21, 2002. St Louis.
Hughes, D. W. 2000. The contribution of the pet turtle industry to the Louisiana Economy. Louisiana Rural Economist. 62(2): 4-6.
Hutchinson, A. M. 1992. A reproducing population of Trachemys scripta elegans in Southern Pinellas County, Florida. Herpetological Review 23: 74-75.
ISSG. 2005. (Invasive Species Specialist Group, International Union for the Conservation of Nature) Global Invasive Species Data Base. http://www.issg.org/database/species/ecology.asp?si=71&fr=&sts=tss.
Kanck, S. 2005 Red eared Sliders. (Parliamentary question to Hon. T.G. Roberts) Australian Democrats, South Australian Division. http://sa.democrats.org.au/html/print.php?sid=666.
Kemp, D. 2004 Australians Warned to Hand in Illegal Reptiles. Media Release. http://www.deh.gov.au/minister/env/2004/mr2804.html.
Kuzenski, S. 1976. Louisiana turtle industry - down but not out. Sea Grant ′70s 6(7): 5-7.
Lehrer, J. 1990 Turtles and Tortoises: a Photographic Survey. Headline Publishing PLC Book, London.
Levell, J. 2000. Review of Turtles of Borneo and Peninsular Malaysia by Lim Boo Liat and Indraneil Das (1999). Turtle and Tortoise Newsletter 4: 25.
Luiselli, L., Capula, M., Capizzi, D., Filippi, E., Trujillo Jesus, V. and Anibaldi, C. 1997. Problems for conservation of Pond turtles ( Emys orbicularis) in Central Italy: is the introduced Red-eared Turtle ( Trachemys scripta) a serious threat? Chelonian Conservation and Biology 2(3): 417-419.
Lutz, C. G., Sambidi, P. and Harrison, R. W. 2003 (updated C. Tordsen, March 2005). Turtle profile. AgMRC (Agriculture Marketing Resource Center). http://www.agmrc.org/agmrc/commodity/aquaculture/turtles/turtleprofile.htm.
Moll, D. and Moll, E. 1990. The slider turtle in the neotropics: Adaptation of a temperate species to a tropical environment. Pp. 152-161 in Life History and Ecology of the Slider Turtle. Edited by J. W. Gibbons, Washington, DC, Smithsonian Institution Press.
Murray, K. 2005 Petrie Doctor Fined for Keeping 22 Red-eared Sliders Press release http://www.nrm.qld.gov.au/about/media/apr/12turtle_prosecution.html.
McCoid, M. J. 1993. The ‘new’ herpetofauna of Guam, Mariana Islands. Herpetological Review 24: 16-17.
Ng, P., Chou, L. and Lam, T. 1993. The status and impact of introduced freshwater animals in Singapore. Biological Conservation 64: 19-24.
Nilson, G. and Andren, C. 1986. Turtles of Sweden - past and present. Fauna och Flora 81: 17-22.
Norris, A., Low, T., Gordon, I., Saunders, G., Lapidge, S., Lapidge, K. Peacock, T. and Pech, R. 2005 Review of the Management of Feral Animals and their Impact on Biodiversity in the Rangeland. A Resource to Aid NRM Planning. Report by the Pest Animal Control CRC for the Australian Government Department of Environment and Heritage, Canberra.
NRM 2004a. (Department of Natural Resources and Mines) Hunt Discovers Large Female Slider Turtle. Media Release. November 2004. http://www.nrm.qld.gov.au/about/media/nov/25_slider_turtle.html.
NRM 2004b. (Department of Natural Resources and Mines) Pest Turtles Turn up in New Spots. Media Release. December 2004. http://www.nrm.qld.gov.au/about/media/dec/21_slider_turtle.html.
NRM 2005a. (Department of Natural Resources and Mines). Eradicating Red-eared Slider Turtles. Media Release. November 2005. http://www.nrm.qld.gov.au/about/documents/annual_report/performance/turtle.html.
NRM 2005b. (Department of Natural Resources and Mines) Slider-Turtle Trapper Wins Praise. Press Release, January 2005. http://www.nrm.qld.gov.au/about/media/jan/17_turtle_award.html.
NRM 2005c. (Department of Natural Resources and Mines) Pest Turtle Trapped. Media Release. July 2005. http://www.nrm.qld.gov.au/about/media/jul/15_pest_turtle.html.
NRM 2005d. (Department of Natural Resources and Mines) Petrie Doctor Fined for Keeping 22 Red-Eared Slider Turtles. Media Release. April 2005. http://www.nrm.qld.gov.au/about/media/apr/12_turtle_prosecution.html
Oakes, D. 2006 Smuggled Reptiles Threaten Our Ecosystem. The Global Invasive Species Programme, IUCN. http://www.gisp.org/whatsnew/shownews.asp?id=522&MyMenuIterm=news&worldmap=&country=.
O'Connor, A. 2005 Illegal Trade Takes Reptiles a Long Way from Home. The Age. August 2005. http://www.theage.com.au.
O'Keeffe, S. 2005 The World Today - Pest Attacks Qld's Waterways. ABC Online, Interview with Eleanor Hall, 13 October 2005. http://www.abc.net.au/worldtoday/content/2005/s1346125.htm.
O'Keeffe, S. 2005. Investing in conjecture: eradicating the Red-eared Slider in Queensland. Pp. 169-176 in Proceedings 13th Australasian Vertebrate Pest Conference, Te Papa Wellington, New Zealand 2-6 May 2005 (unedited). Manaaki Whenua - Landcare Research, Lincoln, New Zealand. www.landcareresearch.co.nz/news/conferences.
Pendergrass, M. 2002 Introduced Species Summary Project - Red-eared Slider Turtle (Trachemys scripta elegans). http://www.columbia.edu/itc/cerc/danoff-burg/invasion_bio/inv_spp_summ/Red-eared%20Slider%20Turtle.html.
Qld NRM. 2005 (Queensland Department of Natural Resources and Mines). Homepage. http://www.nrm.qld.au/search/index.php.
Roberts, M. F. 1988 Turtles. TFH Publications, Neptune City.
Rose, F. and Manning, R. 1996. Notes on the biology of the slider, Trachemys scripta elegans (Reptilia: Emydidae), inhabiting man-made cattle ponds in west Texas. Texas Journal of Science. 48: 191-206.
Ross, J. 2000 The Influence of Water Quality Parameters on Freshwater Vertebrate Dynamics in the Upper Parramatta River Catchment. MSc(Hons) Thesis. University of Western Sydney, Richmond.
Rosser, T. 1997 Haematozoa in Three Freshwater Turtle Species from the Lane Cove River, Sydney, Australia. BSc(Hons) Thesis, University of Western Sydney - Hawkesbury, Richmond.
Silva, E. and Blasco, M. 1995 Trachemys scripta elegans in Southwestern Spain. Herpetological Review 26: 133-134.
Stanhope, J. 2005 Red-Eared Slider Turtle Potential Feral Pest. Media Release 349/05. Australian Capital Territory Government, Canberra.
Smith, B. 2004 Exotic Creatures Seized in Raid. The Age. http://www.theage.com.au/articles/2004/06/02/1086058916953.html?from=storylhs.
Townsend, I. 2005 The World Today - Pest Attacks Qld's Waterways. ABC Online, Interview with Eleanor Hall, 13 October 2005. http://www.abc.net.au/worldtoday/content/2005/s1346125.htm.
Truss, W. 2005 Keeping Wild Camel and Deer on the Back Hoof. Media Release. http://www.maff.gov.au/releases/05/05184wt.html.
Van de Wetering, J. 2005 Mississippi Turtles on the Move in Queensland. ABC Wide Bay Queensland. http://www.abc.net.au/widebay/stories/s1297591.htm.
Wood, F. 1991. Turtle culture. Chapter 14 in Production of Aquatic Animals, World Animal Science, Elsevier Science, Amsterdam.
Warwick, C. 1986. Red-eared terrapin farms and conservation. Oryx 20: 237-240.
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References

Alderton, D. 1986 A Petkeeper's Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians. Salamander Books Ltd, London.
Anon. 2004. Invading turtles. Feral Herald 1(7): 8.
Anon. 2005a Feral Turtle Find Prompts Call for Survey. ABC New Online. http://www.abc.net.au/news/newsitem/200504/s1340116.htm.
Anon. 2005b Red Eared Slider Turtle Update from Simon Godschalx - Australian Capital Territory Wildlife Research and Monitoring. November 2005. http://www.envirotalk.com.au/forum/indx.php?act=Print&client=printer&f=91&t=5156.
Australian Customs Service 2000 Digitally Identified - Something to Declare. 5(January 2000). Media Release http://www.customs.gov.au/site/page.cfm?u=4600.
Australian Customs Service 2005 Snakes Alive - Customs Seizes Exotic Reptiles. Media Release. http://www.customs.gov.au/site/page.cfm?c=6004.
Bomford, M. 2003 Risk-Assessment for the Import and Keeping of Exotic Vertebrates in Australia. Australian Government, Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry, Canberra.
Branch, B. 1998 Field Guide to Snakes and Other Reptiles of South Africa. Struik Publishers Pty Ltd, Cape Town.
Burgin, S. 2006. Confirmation of an established population of exotic turtles in urban Sydney. Australian Zoologist. 33: 379-384.
Burgin, S., Emerton, S. and Burgin, M. 1999. A comparison of sample and total census data for a population of the Eastern longneck turtle Celodina longicollis in a farm dam north-west of Sydney, New South Wales. Australian Zoologist 31: 161-164.
Cadi, A., Delmas, V., Prevot-Julliard, A., Joly, P., Pieau, C. and Girondot, M. 2004. Successful reproduction of the introduced slider turtle ( Trachemys scripta elegans) in the South of France. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 14: 237-246.
CALM 2004. (Department of Conservation and Land Management) Feral toads and turtles a cause for concern. April 2004. NatureBase: Latest News. http://www.calm.wa.gov.au/news/news.cgi?item=1079589429.
Cann, J. and Legler, J. 1994. The Mary River tortoise: a new genus and species of chelid from Queensland, Australia (Testudines: Pleurodira). Chelonian Conservation and Biology 1: 81-96.
Chen, T. and Lue, K. 1998. Ecological notes on feral populations of Trachemys scripta elegans in northern Taiwan, Chelonian Conservation and Biology 3(1): 87-90.
CITES 2003. (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora). Trade in Tortoises and Freshwater Turtles: Development of Mid- and Long-Term Conservation Measures for Tortoises and Freshwater Turtles. AC19 Deco. 15.2(Rev. 1). http://www.cites.org/eng/res/11/11-09R13.shtml.
Connor, M. J. 1992. The Red-eared Slider, Trachemys scripta elegans. Tortuga Gazette 28(4): 1-3.
Covington, M. 1995. Learn some helpful hints about what to do if your turtles lay eggs. Reptiles June 1995: 49-54.
Dalem, A. 1998 Demography and Movement Patterns of a Population of Eastern Snake-Necked Turtles, Chelodina longicollis (Shaw 1794). MSc Thesis, University of Western Sydney - Hawkesbury, Richmond.
Department of Agriculture 2004. Feral toads and turtles a cause for concern. Nature Base: Latest News, 17 March. http://www.calm.wa.gov.au/news/news.cgi?item=1079589429.
DPI 2004b. (Department of Primary Industries) Red-eared Slider. Under Control Pest Plant and Animal Management News. Victoria Department of Primary Industries. 27: 7.
Dupré, A. 1996. La Tortue de Floride en France: un bilan de la situation actuelle. Pp. 295-297 in Proceedings of International Congress on Chelonian Conservation, Gonfaron, France July 1995. Edited by B. Devaux. Editions SOPTOM, Gonfaron.
Ernst, C., Barbour, R. and Lovich J. 1994 Turtles of the United States and Canada. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington.
Ewert, M. and Nelson, C. 1991. Sex determination in turtles: diverse patterns and some possible adaptive values. Copeia 1: 59-69.
Ferri, V. and di Cerbo, A. 1996. Lombardy Arcadia Project: Initiatives and propositions for the control of the Red-eared pond turtle ( Trachemys scripta, Schoepff). Pp. 297-300 in Proceedings of International Congress on Chelonian Conservation, Gonfaron, France July 1995. Edited by B. Devaux. Editions SOPTOM, Gonfaron.
Fieldman, M. 1992. Can turtles reproduce in New Zealand? Moko, Winter issue: 14-16.
Fieldman, N. 1998. The ulcerative shell disease in New Zealand turtles. Moko, Summer issue. 14-16.
Fieldman, 2005. The Red-eared Slider turtle ( Trachemys scripta elegans) in New Zealand. Pp. 96-101. In Proceedings 13th Australasian Vertebrate Pest Conference, Te Papa Wellington, New Zealand 2-6 May 2005, unedited. Manaaki Whenua - Landcare Research, Lincoln, New Zealand. www.landcareresearch.co.nz/news/conferences.
Griffiths, K. 1997 Frogs and reptiles of the Sydney region. University of New South Wales Press, Sydney.
Holloway, P. 2005. (on behalf of Hon. T.G. Roberts) Red Eared Sliders - In Reply to Hon. Sandra Kanck (28 February). http://sa.democrats.org.au/html/print.php?sid=666.
Hoover, G. 2002. The role of the United States and China in the global turtle trade. (Abstract) International Herpetological Symposium, Inc. 26th Annual Meeting, July 18-21, 2002. St Louis.
Hughes, D. W. 2000. The contribution of the pet turtle industry to the Louisiana Economy. Louisiana Rural Economist. 62(2): 4-6.
Hutchinson, A. M. 1992. A reproducing population of Trachemys scripta elegans in Southern Pinellas County, Florida. Herpetological Review 23: 74-75.
ISSG. 2005. (Invasive Species Specialist Group, International Union for the Conservation of Nature) Global Invasive Species Data Base. http://www.issg.org/database/species/ecology.asp?si=71&fr=&sts=tss.
Kanck, S. 2005 Red eared Sliders. (Parliamentary question to Hon. T.G. Roberts) Australian Democrats, South Australian Division. http://sa.democrats.org.au/html/print.php?sid=666.
Kemp, D. 2004 Australians Warned to Hand in Illegal Reptiles. Media Release. http://www.deh.gov.au/minister/env/2004/mr2804.html.
Kuzenski, S. 1976. Louisiana turtle industry - down but not out. Sea Grant ′70s 6(7): 5-7.
Lehrer, J. 1990 Turtles and Tortoises: a Photographic Survey. Headline Publishing PLC Book, London.
Levell, J. 2000. Review of Turtles of Borneo and Peninsular Malaysia by Lim Boo Liat and Indraneil Das (1999). Turtle and Tortoise Newsletter 4: 25.
Luiselli, L., Capula, M., Capizzi, D., Filippi, E., Trujillo Jesus, V. and Anibaldi, C. 1997. Problems for conservation of Pond turtles ( Emys orbicularis) in Central Italy: is the introduced Red-eared Turtle ( Trachemys scripta) a serious threat? Chelonian Conservation and Biology 2(3): 417-419.
Lutz, C. G., Sambidi, P. and Harrison, R. W. 2003 (updated C. Tordsen, March 2005). Turtle profile. AgMRC (Agriculture Marketing Resource Center). http://www.agmrc.org/agmrc/commodity/aquaculture/turtles/turtleprofile.htm.
Moll, D. and Moll, E. 1990. The slider turtle in the neotropics: Adaptation of a temperate species to a tropical environment. Pp. 152-161 in Life History and Ecology of the Slider Turtle. Edited by J. W. Gibbons, Washington, DC, Smithsonian Institution Press.
Murray, K. 2005 Petrie Doctor Fined for Keeping 22 Red-eared Sliders Press release http://www.nrm.qld.gov.au/about/media/apr/12turtle_prosecution.html.
McCoid, M. J. 1993. The ‘new’ herpetofauna of Guam, Mariana Islands. Herpetological Review 24: 16-17.
Ng, P., Chou, L. and Lam, T. 1993. The status and impact of introduced freshwater animals in Singapore. Biological Conservation 64: 19-24.
Nilson, G. and Andren, C. 1986. Turtles of Sweden - past and present. Fauna och Flora 81: 17-22.
Norris, A., Low, T., Gordon, I., Saunders, G., Lapidge, S., Lapidge, K. Peacock, T. and Pech, R. 2005 Review of the Management of Feral Animals and their Impact on Biodiversity in the Rangeland. A Resource to Aid NRM Planning. Report by the Pest Animal Control CRC for the Australian Government Department of Environment and Heritage, Canberra.
NRM 2004a. (Department of Natural Resources and Mines) Hunt Discovers Large Female Slider Turtle. Media Release. November 2004. http://www.nrm.qld.gov.au/about/media/nov/25_slider_turtle.html.
NRM 2004b. (Department of Natural Resources and Mines) Pest Turtles Turn up in New Spots. Media Release. December 2004. http://www.nrm.qld.gov.au/about/media/dec/21_slider_turtle.html.
NRM 2005a. (Department of Natural Resources and Mines). Eradicating Red-eared Slider Turtles. Media Release. November 2005. http://www.nrm.qld.gov.au/about/documents/annual_report/performance/turtle.html.
NRM 2005b. (Department of Natural Resources and Mines) Slider-Turtle Trapper Wins Praise. Press Release, January 2005. http://www.nrm.qld.gov.au/about/media/jan/17_turtle_award.html.
NRM 2005c. (Department of Natural Resources and Mines) Pest Turtle Trapped. Media Release. July 2005. http://www.nrm.qld.gov.au/about/media/jul/15_pest_turtle.html.
NRM 2005d. (Department of Natural Resources and Mines) Petrie Doctor Fined for Keeping 22 Red-Eared Slider Turtles. Media Release. April 2005. http://www.nrm.qld.gov.au/about/media/apr/12_turtle_prosecution.html
Oakes, D. 2006 Smuggled Reptiles Threaten Our Ecosystem. The Global Invasive Species Programme, IUCN. http://www.gisp.org/whatsnew/shownews.asp?id=522&MyMenuIterm=news&worldmap=&country=.
O'Connor, A. 2005 Illegal Trade Takes Reptiles a Long Way from Home. The Age. August 2005. http://www.theage.com.au.
O'Keeffe, S. 2005 The World Today - Pest Attacks Qld's Waterways. ABC Online, Interview with Eleanor Hall, 13 October 2005. http://www.abc.net.au/worldtoday/content/2005/s1346125.htm.
O'Keeffe, S. 2005. Investing in conjecture: eradicating the Red-eared Slider in Queensland. Pp. 169-176 in Proceedings 13th Australasian Vertebrate Pest Conference, Te Papa Wellington, New Zealand 2-6 May 2005 (unedited). Manaaki Whenua - Landcare Research, Lincoln, New Zealand. www.landcareresearch.co.nz/news/conferences.
Pendergrass, M. 2002 Introduced Species Summary Project - Red-eared Slider Turtle (Trachemys scripta elegans). http://www.columbia.edu/itc/cerc/danoff-burg/invasion_bio/inv_spp_summ/Red-eared%20Slider%20Turtle.html.
Qld NRM. 2005 (Queensland Department of Natural Resources and Mines). Homepage. http://www.nrm.qld.au/search/index.php.
Roberts, M. F. 1988 Turtles. TFH Publications, Neptune City.
Rose, F. and Manning, R. 1996. Notes on the biology of the slider, Trachemys scripta elegans (Reptilia: Emydidae), inhabiting man-made cattle ponds in west Texas. Texas Journal of Science. 48: 191-206.
Ross, J. 2000 The Influence of Water Quality Parameters on Freshwater Vertebrate Dynamics in the Upper Parramatta River Catchment. MSc(Hons) Thesis. University of Western Sydney, Richmond.
Rosser, T. 1997 Haematozoa in Three Freshwater Turtle Species from the Lane Cove River, Sydney, Australia. BSc(Hons) Thesis, University of Western Sydney - Hawkesbury, Richmond.
Silva, E. and Blasco, M. 1995 Trachemys scripta elegans in Southwestern Spain. Herpetological Review 26: 133-134.
Stanhope, J. 2005 Red-Eared Slider Turtle Potential Feral Pest. Media Release 349/05. Australian Capital Territory Government, Canberra.
Smith, B. 2004 Exotic Creatures Seized in Raid. The Age. http://www.theage.com.au/articles/2004/06/02/1086058916953.html?from=storylhs.
Townsend, I. 2005 The World Today - Pest Attacks Qld's Waterways. ABC Online, Interview with Eleanor Hall, 13 October 2005. http://www.abc.net.au/worldtoday/content/2005/s1346125.htm.
Truss, W. 2005 Keeping Wild Camel and Deer on the Back Hoof. Media Release. http://www.maff.gov.au/releases/05/05184wt.html.
Van de Wetering, J. 2005 Mississippi Turtles on the Move in Queensland. ABC Wide Bay Queensland. http://www.abc.net.au/widebay/stories/s1297591.htm.
Wood, F. 1991. Turtle culture. Chapter 14 in Production of Aquatic Animals, World Animal Science, Elsevier Science, Amsterdam.
Warwick, C. 1986. Red-eared terrapin farms and conservation. Oryx 20: 237-240.
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