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Cane toads Bufo marinus have been in Australia since 1935. Originally hailed as the potential savior of the ailing Queensland sugar cane industry, toads are now viewed as a nuisance, a scourge and a threat to Australian wildlife. In this paper, I will track the history of cane toads in Australia and investigate the changing perceptions that have ensued. Cane toads frequently make headlines when they venture into new areas, sparking a new wave of public animosity and outrage. Questions addressed: Are these responses justified or is Bufo marinus merely a highly recognizable target for public anger? Will the recent detection of a second species of toad in Australia, the Asian Black-spined toad B. melanostictus, be greeted with the same response or will it be accepted as a new arrival?

Adams, N.G. 1967 Bufo marinus eaten by Rattus rattus. North Queensland Naturalist 34:5.
Akizawa,T., Mukai, T., Matsukawa, M., Yoshioka., M, Morris, J.F. and Butler, V.P. 1994. Structure of novel bufadienolides in the eggs of a toad, Bufo marinus. Chemical Pharmacology Bulletin 42:754-756.
Alcala, A.C. 1957. Phillipine notes on the ecology of the giant marine toad. Silliman Journal 4:90-96.
Alexander, T.R. 1965. Observations of the feeding behaviour of Bufo marinus (Linne). Herpetologica 20(4): 255-259.
Alford, R.A. and Wilbur, H.M. 1985. Priority effects in experimental pond communities: competition between Bufo and Rana. Ecology 66:1097-1105.
Alford, R.A., Cohen, M.P., Crossland, M.R., Hearnden, M.N. and Schwarzkopf, L. 1995. Population biology of Bufo marinus in Northern Australia. Pp. 173-181 in Wetland Research in the Wet-Dry Tropics of Australia edited by C.M. Finlayson, Supervising Scientist Report No. 101, Office of the Supervising Scientist, Canberra.
Allen, E.R. and Neill, W.T. 1956. Effects of marine toad toxins on man. Herpetologica 12(2): 150-151.
Altman, J., Griffiths, T. and Whitehead, P. 2003. Invasion of the rubbish frog. Australian Nature 2003: 44-51.
Bailey, P. 1976. Food of the marine toad, Bufo marinus, and six species of skink in a cacao plantation in New Britain, Papua New Guinea. Australian Wildlife Research 3:185-188.
Banks, B. and Beebee, T.J.C. 1987. Spawn predation and larval growth inhibition as mechanisms for niche separation in amphibians. Oecologica 72:569-573.
Barton, K.E. 1977. Behavioural thermoregulation in the toad Bufo marinus in a temperature gradient. Bulletin of the New Jersey Academy of Science 22: 48-50.
Beiswenger, R.E. 1978. Response of Bufo tadpoles (Amphibia: Anura: Bufonidae) to laboratory gradients of temperature. Journal of Herpetology 12:499-504.
Bell, A.F. 1940. The giant toad in Queensland Australia. Agricultural Journal ( Fiji) 11(2): 55.
Bently, P.J. and Main, A.R. 1972. Zonal differences in permeability of the skin of some anuran amphibians. American Journal of Physiology 223:361-363.
Bettinger, H.F. and O'Loughlin, I. 1950. The use of the male toad, Bufo marinus, for pregnancy tests. Medical Journal of Australia July 8 1950: 40-42.
Boice, R and Boice, C. 1971. Interspecific competition in captive Bufo americanus toads. Journal of Biological Psychology 12: 32-36.
Brattstrom. B.H. 1962. Homing in the giant toad, Bufo marinus. Herpetologica 18: 176-180.
Breeden, K. 1963. Cane Toad. Wildlife Australia 1:31.
Burnett, S. 1997. Colonizing cane toads cause population declines in native predators: reliable anecdotal information and management implications. Pacific Conservation Biology 3:65-72.
Carpenter, C.C. and Gillingham, J.C. 1987. Water hole fidelity in the marine toad, Bufo marinus. Journal of Herpetology 21:158-161.
Cassels, M. (1970). Another predator of the Cane Toad. North Queensland Naturalist 37(151): 6.
Catling, P.C., Hertog, A., Burt, R.J., Wombey, J.C. and Forrester, R.I. 1999. The short-term effect of cane toads ( Bufo marinus) on native fauna in the Gulf Country of the Northern Territory. Wildlife Research 26:161-185.
Clayton, D., and Silke, A. 2003 Cane Toad. What happened to Baz? Independent Film. WWW.cane-toad.com.
Cohen. M.P. and Alford, R.A. 1996. Factors affecting diurnal shelter site use by the cane toad, Bufo marinus. Herpetologica 52: 172-181.
Covacevich, J. 1974. An unusual aggregation of snakes following major flooding in the Ipswich-Brisbane area, south-eastern Queensland. Herpetofauna 7:21-24.
Covacevich, J and Archer, M. 1975. The distribution of the Cane Toad, Bufo marinus, in Australia and its effects on indigenous vertebrates. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 17(2): 305-310.
Crossland, M.R. 1997 Impact of eggs, hatchlings and tadpoles of the introduced cane toad Bufo marinus (Anura: Bufonidae) on native aquatic fauna in northern Queensland. Unpublished PhD thesis, James Cook University of Northern Queensland, Townsville.
Crossland, M.R. 1998. Predation by tadpoles on toxic toad eggs: the effect of tadpole size on predation success and tadpole survival. Journal of Herpetology 32:443-446.
Crossland, M.R. and Alford, R.A. 1998. Evaluation of the toxicity of eggs, hatchlings and tadpoles of the introduced toad Bufo marinus (Anura: Bufonidae) on native Australian aquatic predators. Australian Journal of Ecology 23:129-137.
Crossland, M.R. and Azevedo-Ramos, C. 1999. Effects of Bufo (Anura: Bufonidae) toxins on tadpoles from native and exotic Bufo habitats. Herpetologica 1999:192-199.
Dexter, R.R. 1932. The food habitats of the imported toad Bufo marinus in the sugar cane sections of Puerto Rico. Bulletin of the International Society for Sugar Cane Technology 74: 1-6.
Dobkin, D.S., Gettinger, R.D. and O'Connor, M.P. 1989. Importance of retreat sites for the hydration state in Bufo marinus during a dry rainy season. American Journal of Zoology 29:88A.
Easteal, S. 1981. The history of introduction of Bufo marinus (Amphibia: Anura); a natural experiment in evolution. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 16: 93 - 113.
Easteal, S., Van Beurden, E.K. Floyd, R.B. and Sabath, M.D. 1985. Continuing geographical spread of Bufo marinus in Australia: range expansion between 1974 and 1980. Journal of Herpetology. 19(2): 185-188.
Easteal, S., and Floyd, R.B. 1986. The ecological genetics of introduced populations of the giant toad, Bufo marinus: dispersal and neighbourhood size. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 27:17-45.
Ely, C.A. 1944. Development of Bufo marinus larvae in dilute sea water. Copeia 1956(4): 256.
Evans, M., and Lampo, M. 1996. Diet of Bufo marinus in Venezuela. Journal of Herpetology 30:73-76.
Floyd, R.B. 1984. Variations in temperature preference with stage of development of Bufo marinus larva. Journal of Herpetology 18:153-158.
Freeland, W.J. 1985. The need to control cane toads. Search 16(7-8): 211-215.
Freeland, W.J. and Martin, K.C. 1985. The rate of expansion by Bufo marinus in northern Australia. Australian Wildlife Research 12: 555-559.
Freeland, W.J. 1986. Populations of cane toads, Bufo marinus, in relation to the since colonization. Australian Wildlife Research 13:321-329.
Freeland, W.J., Delvinqueir, B.L.J. and Bonnin, B. 1986. Food and parasitism of the cane toad Bufo marinus in relation to time since colonization. Australian Wildlife Research 13:489-499.
Freeland, W.J. and Kerin, S.H. 1988. Within-habitat relationships between invading Bufo marinus and Australian species of frog during the tropical dry season. Australian Wildlife Research 115:293-306.
Froggatt, W.W. 1936. The introduction of the great Mexican toad Bufo marinus into Australia. Australian Nature 9: 163-164.
Gleitzmann, M. 1999 Toad Rage. Pan MacMillan, Sydney.
Goodacre. W.A. 1947. The giant toad ( Bufo marinus) an enemy of bees. Aricultural Gazette of NSW 58: 374-375.
Gunn, R.H., Galloway, R.W., Walker, J., Nix, H.A., McAlpine, J.R. and Richardson, D.P. 1972 Shoalwater Bay area, Queensland. Technical memo 72/10 CSIRO Division of Land Research, Canberra.
Hearnden, M.N. 1991 Reproductive and larval ecology of Bufo marinus ( Anura: Bufonidae). Unpublished Ph. D Thesis. James Cook University of Northern Queensland, Townsville.
Hinckley, A.D. 1962. Diet of the giant toad, Bufo marinus (L.), in Fiji. Herpetologica 6:410-411.
Hutchings. R.W. 1979. A native predator of the cane toad ( Bufo marinus). North Queensland Naturalist 45(174): 4-5.
Illingworth, J.F. 1941. Feeding habits of Bufo marinus. Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society 11:51.
Inger, R.F., and Stuebing, R.B. 2005 A Field Guide to the Frogs of Borneo, (2nd Edition). Natural History Publications (Borneo), Kota Kinabalu.
Kinghorn, J.R. 1938. The giant toad Bufo marinus in Australia. Australian Museum Magazine 6:410-411.
Knowles, R.P. 1964. The poison toad and the canine. Veterinary Medicine 59:38-42.
Krakauer, T. 1968. The ecology of the neotropical toad Bufo marinus in south Florida. Herpetologica 24: 214-221.
Krakauer, T. 1970. Tolerance limits of the toad, Bufo marinus, in South Florida. Comp. Biochemical Physiology 33: 15-26.
Leonard, M.D. 1933. Notes on the food of the giant toad Bufo marinus (L.) in Puerto Rica. Journal of Economic Entomology 26: 11-12.
Lever, R.J.A.W. 1938. The giant toad - distribution, diet and development. Agricultural Journal ( Fiji). 9(2): 28.
Lever, R.J.A.W. 1944. Food of the Giant Toad. Agricultural Journal ( Fiji). 15(1): 28.
Lewis, M. 1988 Cane Toads. An unnatural History. Film, IMDB Promotions. Film Australia Pty Ltd. Distributed by Umbrella Entertainments Australia.
Marchal-Segault, D. 1976. Toxicite de quelques insecticides pour des entate de Bufo marinus (Amphibiens, Anoures). Bulletin of Ecology 7: 411 - 416.
Meredith,P. 1996. Some truths about cane toads. Australian Geographic 44:84-99.
Muntgomery, R.W. 1935. The great American toad ( Bufo marinus). Cane Growers Quarterly Bulletin 3:21-27.
Muntgomery, R.W. 1936. A survey of the feeding habits of the giant toad ( Bufo marinus) and notes on its progress since introduction to Queensland. Proceedings of the Queensland Society of Sugar Cane Technologists 1936:63-74.
Ormsby. A.I. 1957. Notes on the giant toad ( Bufo marinus). Proceedings of the Royal Zoological Society of NSW 1955-1956:54-55.
Otani, A., Palumbo, N. and Read, G. 1969. Pharmacodynamics and treatment of mammals poisoned by Bufo marinus toxin. American Journal of Veterinary Research 30: 1865-1872.
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References

Adams, N.G. 1967 Bufo marinus eaten by Rattus rattus. North Queensland Naturalist 34:5.
Akizawa,T., Mukai, T., Matsukawa, M., Yoshioka., M, Morris, J.F. and Butler, V.P. 1994. Structure of novel bufadienolides in the eggs of a toad, Bufo marinus. Chemical Pharmacology Bulletin 42:754-756.
Alcala, A.C. 1957. Phillipine notes on the ecology of the giant marine toad. Silliman Journal 4:90-96.
Alexander, T.R. 1965. Observations of the feeding behaviour of Bufo marinus (Linne). Herpetologica 20(4): 255-259.
Alford, R.A. and Wilbur, H.M. 1985. Priority effects in experimental pond communities: competition between Bufo and Rana. Ecology 66:1097-1105.
Alford, R.A., Cohen, M.P., Crossland, M.R., Hearnden, M.N. and Schwarzkopf, L. 1995. Population biology of Bufo marinus in Northern Australia. Pp. 173-181 in Wetland Research in the Wet-Dry Tropics of Australia edited by C.M. Finlayson, Supervising Scientist Report No. 101, Office of the Supervising Scientist, Canberra.
Allen, E.R. and Neill, W.T. 1956. Effects of marine toad toxins on man. Herpetologica 12(2): 150-151.
Altman, J., Griffiths, T. and Whitehead, P. 2003. Invasion of the rubbish frog. Australian Nature 2003: 44-51.
Bailey, P. 1976. Food of the marine toad, Bufo marinus, and six species of skink in a cacao plantation in New Britain, Papua New Guinea. Australian Wildlife Research 3:185-188.
Banks, B. and Beebee, T.J.C. 1987. Spawn predation and larval growth inhibition as mechanisms for niche separation in amphibians. Oecologica 72:569-573.
Barton, K.E. 1977. Behavioural thermoregulation in the toad Bufo marinus in a temperature gradient. Bulletin of the New Jersey Academy of Science 22: 48-50.
Beiswenger, R.E. 1978. Response of Bufo tadpoles (Amphibia: Anura: Bufonidae) to laboratory gradients of temperature. Journal of Herpetology 12:499-504.
Bell, A.F. 1940. The giant toad in Queensland Australia. Agricultural Journal ( Fiji) 11(2): 55.
Bently, P.J. and Main, A.R. 1972. Zonal differences in permeability of the skin of some anuran amphibians. American Journal of Physiology 223:361-363.
Bettinger, H.F. and O'Loughlin, I. 1950. The use of the male toad, Bufo marinus, for pregnancy tests. Medical Journal of Australia July 8 1950: 40-42.
Boice, R and Boice, C. 1971. Interspecific competition in captive Bufo americanus toads. Journal of Biological Psychology 12: 32-36.
Brattstrom. B.H. 1962. Homing in the giant toad, Bufo marinus. Herpetologica 18: 176-180.
Breeden, K. 1963. Cane Toad. Wildlife Australia 1:31.
Burnett, S. 1997. Colonizing cane toads cause population declines in native predators: reliable anecdotal information and management implications. Pacific Conservation Biology 3:65-72.
Carpenter, C.C. and Gillingham, J.C. 1987. Water hole fidelity in the marine toad, Bufo marinus. Journal of Herpetology 21:158-161.
Cassels, M. (1970). Another predator of the Cane Toad. North Queensland Naturalist 37(151): 6.
Catling, P.C., Hertog, A., Burt, R.J., Wombey, J.C. and Forrester, R.I. 1999. The short-term effect of cane toads ( Bufo marinus) on native fauna in the Gulf Country of the Northern Territory. Wildlife Research 26:161-185.
Clayton, D., and Silke, A. 2003 Cane Toad. What happened to Baz? Independent Film. WWW.cane-toad.com.
Cohen. M.P. and Alford, R.A. 1996. Factors affecting diurnal shelter site use by the cane toad, Bufo marinus. Herpetologica 52: 172-181.
Covacevich, J. 1974. An unusual aggregation of snakes following major flooding in the Ipswich-Brisbane area, south-eastern Queensland. Herpetofauna 7:21-24.
Covacevich, J and Archer, M. 1975. The distribution of the Cane Toad, Bufo marinus, in Australia and its effects on indigenous vertebrates. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 17(2): 305-310.
Crossland, M.R. 1997 Impact of eggs, hatchlings and tadpoles of the introduced cane toad Bufo marinus (Anura: Bufonidae) on native aquatic fauna in northern Queensland. Unpublished PhD thesis, James Cook University of Northern Queensland, Townsville.
Crossland, M.R. 1998. Predation by tadpoles on toxic toad eggs: the effect of tadpole size on predation success and tadpole survival. Journal of Herpetology 32:443-446.
Crossland, M.R. and Alford, R.A. 1998. Evaluation of the toxicity of eggs, hatchlings and tadpoles of the introduced toad Bufo marinus (Anura: Bufonidae) on native Australian aquatic predators. Australian Journal of Ecology 23:129-137.
Crossland, M.R. and Azevedo-Ramos, C. 1999. Effects of Bufo (Anura: Bufonidae) toxins on tadpoles from native and exotic Bufo habitats. Herpetologica 1999:192-199.
Dexter, R.R. 1932. The food habitats of the imported toad Bufo marinus in the sugar cane sections of Puerto Rico. Bulletin of the International Society for Sugar Cane Technology 74: 1-6.
Dobkin, D.S., Gettinger, R.D. and O'Connor, M.P. 1989. Importance of retreat sites for the hydration state in Bufo marinus during a dry rainy season. American Journal of Zoology 29:88A.
Easteal, S. 1981. The history of introduction of Bufo marinus (Amphibia: Anura); a natural experiment in evolution. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 16: 93 - 113.
Easteal, S., Van Beurden, E.K. Floyd, R.B. and Sabath, M.D. 1985. Continuing geographical spread of Bufo marinus in Australia: range expansion between 1974 and 1980. Journal of Herpetology. 19(2): 185-188.
Easteal, S., and Floyd, R.B. 1986. The ecological genetics of introduced populations of the giant toad, Bufo marinus: dispersal and neighbourhood size. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 27:17-45.
Ely, C.A. 1944. Development of Bufo marinus larvae in dilute sea water. Copeia 1956(4): 256.
Evans, M., and Lampo, M. 1996. Diet of Bufo marinus in Venezuela. Journal of Herpetology 30:73-76.
Floyd, R.B. 1984. Variations in temperature preference with stage of development of Bufo marinus larva. Journal of Herpetology 18:153-158.
Freeland, W.J. 1985. The need to control cane toads. Search 16(7-8): 211-215.
Freeland, W.J. and Martin, K.C. 1985. The rate of expansion by Bufo marinus in northern Australia. Australian Wildlife Research 12: 555-559.
Freeland, W.J. 1986. Populations of cane toads, Bufo marinus, in relation to the since colonization. Australian Wildlife Research 13:321-329.
Freeland, W.J., Delvinqueir, B.L.J. and Bonnin, B. 1986. Food and parasitism of the cane toad Bufo marinus in relation to time since colonization. Australian Wildlife Research 13:489-499.
Freeland, W.J. and Kerin, S.H. 1988. Within-habitat relationships between invading Bufo marinus and Australian species of frog during the tropical dry season. Australian Wildlife Research 115:293-306.
Froggatt, W.W. 1936. The introduction of the great Mexican toad Bufo marinus into Australia. Australian Nature 9: 163-164.
Gleitzmann, M. 1999 Toad Rage. Pan MacMillan, Sydney.
Goodacre. W.A. 1947. The giant toad ( Bufo marinus) an enemy of bees. Aricultural Gazette of NSW 58: 374-375.
Gunn, R.H., Galloway, R.W., Walker, J., Nix, H.A., McAlpine, J.R. and Richardson, D.P. 1972 Shoalwater Bay area, Queensland. Technical memo 72/10 CSIRO Division of Land Research, Canberra.
Hearnden, M.N. 1991 Reproductive and larval ecology of Bufo marinus ( Anura: Bufonidae). Unpublished Ph. D Thesis. James Cook University of Northern Queensland, Townsville.
Hinckley, A.D. 1962. Diet of the giant toad, Bufo marinus (L.), in Fiji. Herpetologica 6:410-411.
Hutchings. R.W. 1979. A native predator of the cane toad ( Bufo marinus). North Queensland Naturalist 45(174): 4-5.
Illingworth, J.F. 1941. Feeding habits of Bufo marinus. Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society 11:51.
Inger, R.F., and Stuebing, R.B. 2005 A Field Guide to the Frogs of Borneo, (2nd Edition). Natural History Publications (Borneo), Kota Kinabalu.
Kinghorn, J.R. 1938. The giant toad Bufo marinus in Australia. Australian Museum Magazine 6:410-411.
Knowles, R.P. 1964. The poison toad and the canine. Veterinary Medicine 59:38-42.
Krakauer, T. 1968. The ecology of the neotropical toad Bufo marinus in south Florida. Herpetologica 24: 214-221.
Krakauer, T. 1970. Tolerance limits of the toad, Bufo marinus, in South Florida. Comp. Biochemical Physiology 33: 15-26.
Leonard, M.D. 1933. Notes on the food of the giant toad Bufo marinus (L.) in Puerto Rica. Journal of Economic Entomology 26: 11-12.
Lever, R.J.A.W. 1938. The giant toad - distribution, diet and development. Agricultural Journal ( Fiji). 9(2): 28.
Lever, R.J.A.W. 1944. Food of the Giant Toad. Agricultural Journal ( Fiji). 15(1): 28.
Lewis, M. 1988 Cane Toads. An unnatural History. Film, IMDB Promotions. Film Australia Pty Ltd. Distributed by Umbrella Entertainments Australia.
Marchal-Segault, D. 1976. Toxicite de quelques insecticides pour des entate de Bufo marinus (Amphibiens, Anoures). Bulletin of Ecology 7: 411 - 416.
Meredith,P. 1996. Some truths about cane toads. Australian Geographic 44:84-99.
Muntgomery, R.W. 1935. The great American toad ( Bufo marinus). Cane Growers Quarterly Bulletin 3:21-27.
Muntgomery, R.W. 1936. A survey of the feeding habits of the giant toad ( Bufo marinus) and notes on its progress since introduction to Queensland. Proceedings of the Queensland Society of Sugar Cane Technologists 1936:63-74.
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