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Common carp are one of Australia's most despised introduced freshwater fish and have been implicated in the degradation of inland river systems. Although present in Australia for ~150 years, carp did not become a recognised pest until the appearance of the Boolarra strain in the 1960s. Following colonisation of the Murray River, and aided by widespread flooding in 1974, carp populations rapidly spread throughout the Murray-Darling Basin and established populations in all states except the Northern Territory. Although commercial, anecdotal and some scientific data suggest that carp populations have since declined in many areas, the species continues to spread and invade new waterways. Numerous forums and workshops have been held to develop and progress with potential carp control solutions. However most assessments of potential control alternatives have failed to provide effective means of managing the problem. These have included assessments of over-harvest, trapping, poisoning, exclusion, bio-controls, biotechnologies and habitat manipulation. However within the last few years, at least four initiatives are beginning to show some promise. These include: the Tasmanian Carp Management Program which utilised physical removal activities directed by a ‘Judas fish’ program, carp drafting devices named ‘William's Carp Separation Cages’ designed to remove carp as they migrate through fishways, a novel molecular genetic approach, ‘Daughterless Carp Gene Technology’ designed to integrate an inheritable gene into the population that limits the abundance of the highly fecund females, and the identification of discrete and finite carp breeding hot-spots within river systems, in order to provide targeted control options.

Battaglene, S.C. 1985. Preliminary study of the fish resources of the Hunter Valley. Division of Fisheries - New South Wales Department of Agriculture.
Bonneau, J., Scarnecchia, D.L. and Berard, E. 1995. Better fishing means less carping at Bowman-Haley Reservoir. North Dakota Outdoors Magazine, June. http://www.und.edu/org/ndwild/carp.html accessed 21/02/2006.
Broster, L. (ed.) 1996. Proceedings of the National Carp Summit, Renmark, South Australia, October 6-7, 1995. (Murray-Darling Basin Association, Adelaide)
Brown, P. and Walker, T. 2004. CARPSIM: stochastic simulation modelling of wild carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) population dynamics, with applications to pest control. Ecological Modelling 176: 83-97.
Brown, P., Sivakumaran, K.P., Stoessel, D. and Giles, A. 2005. Population biology of carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) in the mid-Murray River and Barmah Forest Wetlands, Australia. Marine and Freshwater Research 56: 1151-1164.
Breukelaret, A.W., Lammens, E.H. and Breteler, K. 1994. Effects of benthivorous bream ( Aramis brama) and carp ( Cyprinus carpio) on sediment re-suspension and concentrations of nutrients and chlorophyll a. Freshwater Biology 32: 113-121.
Brumley, A.R. 1996. Family Cyprinidae: Carps, minnows, etc. Pp 99 - 106 in Freshwater Fishes of South-Eastern Australia, edited by R. McDowall, Reed Books, Sydney.
Butcher, D. 1962. The implications of the introduction of carp into Victorian waters. Fisheries and Wildlife Department, Victoria.
Cadwallader, P.L. 1978. Some causes of the decline in range and abundance of native fish in the Murray-Darling River system. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria 90: 211-224.
Crane, M.S. and Eaton, B.T. 1997. Spring viraemia of carp virus ( Rhabdovirus carpio): a biological control agent? Pp 87 - 105 in Controlling Carp: Exploring the Options for Australia, edited by J. Roberts and R. Tilzey, CSIRO Land and Water, Griffith.
Cooperative Research Centre for Freshwater Ecology 1999. Technology Transfer Strategy: Hydrologic manipulation as a potential carp control strategy. Cooperative Research Centre for Freshwater Ecology, Canberra.
Crook, D. 2004. Contribution of the Barmah-Millewa floodplain lakes to carp populations in the mid River Murray. Final Report to the Barmah-Millewa Forum, Department of Sustainability and the Environment, Arthur Rylah Institute, Melbourne.
Crivelli, A.J. 1983. The destruction of aquatic vegetation by carp, a comparison between Southern France and the United States. Hydrobiologia 106: 37-41
Davis, K.M., Dixon, P.I. and Harris, J.H. 1999. Allozyme and mitochondrial DNA analysis of carp, Cyprinus carpio L. from south-eastern Australia. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 50: 253-261
Diggle, J., Day, J. and Bax, N. 2004. Eradicating European carp from Tasmania and implications for national European carp eradication. Inland Fisheries Service, Hobart, Tasmania.
Driver, P.D., Harris, J.H., Closs, G.P. and Koen, T.B. 2005. Effects of flow regulation on carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) recruitment in the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia. River Research and Applications 21: 327-335.
Faragher, R.A. and Harris, J.H. 1994. The historical and current status of freshwater fish in New South Wales. Australian Zoologist 29: 166-176.
Fletcher, R.F., Morison, A.K., and Hume, D.J. 1985. Effects of Carp Cyprinus carpio L. on Communities of Aquatic Vegetation and Turbidity of waterbodies in the Lower Goulbourn River Basin. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 36: 311-27.
Gafny, S., Gasith, A. and Goren, M. 1992. Effect of water level fluctuation on shore spawning of Mirogrex terraesanctae (Steintz), (Cyprinidae) in Lake Kinneret, Israel. Journal of Fish Biology 41: 863-871
Gehrke, P.C. 2003. Preliminary assessment of oral rotenone baits for carp control in New South Wales. Pp 143-154 in Managing invasive freshwater fish in New Zealand, proceedings of a workshop hosted by Department of Conservation, 10-12 May 2001, Hamilton. Produced by the New Zealand Department of Conservation.
Gehrke, P.C., Brown, P., Schiller. C.B. and Bruce, A.M. 1995. River regulation and fish communities in the Murray River system, Australia. Regulated Rivers: Research and Management 11: 363 - 375
Gehrke, P.C., Gilligan, D.M. and Barwick, M. 2002. Changes in fish communities of the Shoalhaven River 20 years after construction of Tallowa Dam, Australia. River Research and Applications 18: 265-286.
Gehrke, P.C. and Harris, J.H. 1994. The role of Fish in Cyanobacterial Blooms in Australia. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 45: 905-15
Gilligan, D.M. 2005a. Fish communities of the Murrumbidgee catchment: Status and trends. New South Wales Department of Primary Industries, Fisheries Final Report Series No. 75.
Gilligan, D.M. 2005b. Fish communities of the Lower Murray-Darling catchment: Status and trends. New South Wales Department of Primary Industries, Fisheries Final Report Series No. 83.
Gilligan, D., Gehrke, P. and Schiller, C. 2005. Testing methods and ecological consequences of large-scale removal of common carp. New South Wales Department of Primary Industries, Fisheries Final Report Series No. 77.
Gilligan, D. and Schiller, C. 2003. Downstream transport of larval and juvenile fish in the Murray River. New South Wales Fisheries, Fisheries Final Report Series No. 50.
Graham, K.J., Lowry, M.B. and Walford, T.R. 2005. Carp in NSW: assessment of distribution, fishery and fishing methods. NSW Department of Primary Industries, Cronulla, Fisheries Final Report Series No. 72.
Grewe, P. 1997. Potential of molecular approaches for the environmentally benign management of carp. Pp 119-127 in Controlling Carp: Exploring the Options for Australia, edited by J. Roberts and R. Tilzey, CSIRO Land and Water, Griffith.
Harris, J.H. 1995. Effects of Introduced fish in Australia. In Unwanted Aliens? Australia's introduced animals, edited by B. Diekman B., Proceedings of Nature Conservation Council of NSW Seminar, 23-24 September 1994, Sydney.
Hindmarsh, M. 1994. “Carp: a noxious fish or a resource”. In the proceedings of the forum on European carp, Wagga Wagga. Murrumbidgee Catchment Management Committee.
Hume, D.H., Fletcher, A.R. and Morison, A.K. 1983. Final report. Carp program report No. 10. Fisheries and Wildlife Division, Victorian Ministry for Conservation.
Inland Fisheries Service 2004. Carp Management Program Report: Lakes Crescent and Sorell 1995 - June 2004. Inland Fisheries Service, Hobart, Tasmania.
Koehn, J.D. 2004. Carp ( Cyprinus carpio) as a powerful invader in Australian waterways. Freshwater Biology 49: 882-894.
Koehn, J., Brumley, A. and Gehrke, P.C. 2000 Managing the impacts of carp. Bureau of Resource Sciences, Canberra.
Kuiter, R.H. 2005. Common carp; Its origin. Fishes of Sahul 19: 164-166.
Lachner, E.A., Robins, C.R. and Courtenay, Jr. 1970. Exotic fishes and other aquatic organisms introduced into North America. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 59. 29pp.
Lake J.S. 1967. Freshwater fish of the Murray-Darling River System. State Fisheries Research Bulletin Number 7. NSW Fisheries
Lake, P.S. 1980. Conservation. Pp 163-173 in An Ecological basis for water management, edited by W.D. Williams, Australian National University Press, Canberra.
Lapidge, K.L. (ed.) 2003. Proceedings of the National Carp Control Workshop, March 2003, Canberra. Cooperative Research Centre for Pest Animal Control, Canberra.
Lieschke, J. 2005. Victorian update. Pp 50 - 62 in the Australian Society for Fish Biology Newsletter 35(2), December 2005.
Lin, H.R. and Peter, R.E. 1991. Aquaculture. Pp 590 -617. In Cyprinid fishes: Systematics, Biology and Exploitation, edited by I.J. Winfield and J.S. Nelson, Chapman Hall, London.
Lintermans, M. 2002. Fish in the Murrumbidgee catchment: A review of current knowledge. Environment ACT, Canberra.
Llewellyn, L.C. 1983. The distribution of fish in New South Wales. Australian Society for Limnology, Special Publication No. 7.
Mackenzie, R., Jackson, P. and Cotterall, E. 2000. Control of exotic pest fishes - an operational strategy for Queenslands freshwaters. Department of Primary Industries, Queensland.
McLeod, R. 2004. Counting the cost: Impact of invasive animals in Australia, 2004. Cooperative Research Centre for Pest Animal Control, Canberra.
Murrumbidgee Catchment Management Committee 1994. Proceedings of the forum on European carp. Wagga Wagga, NSW 20/06/1994. Murrumbidgee Catchment Management Committee, Wagga Wagga.
Murray-Darling Basin Commission 2000a. National Management Strategy for carp control (2000-2005). Murray-Darling Basin Commission, Canberra.
Murray-Darling Basin Commission 2000b. Future directions for research into carp. Murray-Darling Basin Commission, Canberra.
Murray-Darling Basin Commission 2000c. Ranking areas for action: A guide for carp management groups. Murray-Darling Basin Commission, Canberra.
New Zealand Department of Conservation 2001. Managing invasive freshwater fish in New Zealand. Proceedings of a workshop hosted by Department of Conservation, 10-12 May 2001, Hamilton.
Nichols, S. and Gilligan, D. 2004. What about the fish?: Improving fish passage through wetland flow control structures in the lower River Murray. Australian Landscape Trust, Renmark, South Australia.
Panek, F.M. 1987. Biology and Ecology of carp. Pp 1 - 16 in Carp in North America, edited by E.L. Cooper, American Fisheries Society. Maryland, USA.
Page, L.M. and Burr, B.M. 1991 A field guide to freshwater fishes North America North of Mexico. Peterson Field Guide Series. Houghton Miffin Company. Boston. 432pp.
Piferrer, F., Zanuv, S., Carrillo, M., Solar, I.L., Devlin, R.I.L. and Donaldson, E.M. 1994. Brief treatment with a Aromatase inhibitor during sex differentiation causes chromosomally female salmon to develop as normal, functional males. The Journal of Experimental Zoology 270: 255-262.
Reid, D.D., Harris, J.H. and Chapman, D.J. 1997. NSW Inland Commercial Fishery data analysis. FRDC Project No. 94/027, NSW Fisheries, Cronulla.
Roberts, J. and Ebner, B. 1997. An overview of carp Cyprinus carpio L. in Australia. Part 1. CSIRO, Land and Water. Griffith.
Roberts J. and Tilzey R. (eds) 1997 Controlling Carp: Exploring the Options for Australia. CSIRO Land and Water, Griffith.
Rolls, R.J. 2005. Patterns in fish communities in the presence and absence of carp ( Cyprinus carpio) in slope and upland regions of the Murray-Darling Basin. Unpublished honours thesis, Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga.
Schiller, C. and Harris, J.H. 2001. Native and Alien fish. Pp 229 - 258 in Rivers as Ecological Systems: the Murray Darling Basin, edited by W.J. Young, Murray Darling Basin Commission. Canberra.
Shearer, K.D. and Mulley, J.C. 1978. The introduction and Distribution of Carp, Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, in Australia. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 29: 551-63.
Shields, J.T. 1957. Experimental control of carp reproduction through water drawdowns in For randall reservoir, South Dakota. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 87: 23-32.
Sivakumaran, K.P., Brown, P., Stoessel, D. and Giles, A. 2003. Maturation and reproductive biology of female wild carp, Cyprinus carpio, in Victoria, Australia. Environmental Biology of Fishes 68: 321-332.
Smith, B. 2005. The state of the art: a synopsis of information on common carp ( Cyprinus carpio) in Australia. Final Technical Report, SARDI Aquatic Sciences Publication No. RDO4/0064-2; SARDI Research Report Series No. 77, Adelaide.
Splitler, R.J. 1987. Sport fishing for carp. Pp 31 - 48 in Carp in North America, edited by E.L. Cooper, American Fisheries Society. Maryland, USA.
Stuart, I. and Jones, M. 2002. Ecology and management of common carp in the Barmah-Millewa forest. Arthur Rylah Institute for Environmental Research, Heidelberg, Victoria.
Stuart, I., Mckenzie, J., Williams, A. and Holt, T. 2003. Separation cages for the removal of carp from Murray-Darling Basin fishways. Final report on preliminary trials of the William's Carp Separation Cage. Murray Darling Basin Commission. Project R2104.
Thresher, R.E. 1997. Physical removal as an option for the control of feral carp populations. Pp 58 - 73 in Controlling Carp: Exploring the Options for Australia, edited by J. Roberts and R. Tilzey, CSIRO Land and Water, Griffith.
Thresher, R. and Bax, N. 2003. The science of producing daughterless technology; Possibilities for population control using daughterless technology; maximising the impact of carp control. Pp 19 - 24 in the Proceedings of the National Carp Control Workshop, March 2003, Canberra, edited by K.L. Lapidge, Cooperative Research Centre for Pest Animal Control, Canberra.
Williams, A. E., Moss, W. and Eaton, J. 2001. Fish induced macrophyte loss in shallow lakes: top-down and bottom-up processes in mesocosm experiments. Freshwater Biology. 47: 2216-2232.
Wilcox, T.P. and Hornbach, D.J. 1991. Macrobenthic Community Response to Carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) Foraging. Journal of Freshwater Ecology 6: 170-183.
Wilson, G. 2000. Carp spawning biology reveals control clues. Watershed May 2000: 10-11.
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References

Battaglene, S.C. 1985. Preliminary study of the fish resources of the Hunter Valley. Division of Fisheries - New South Wales Department of Agriculture.
Bonneau, J., Scarnecchia, D.L. and Berard, E. 1995. Better fishing means less carping at Bowman-Haley Reservoir. North Dakota Outdoors Magazine, June. http://www.und.edu/org/ndwild/carp.html accessed 21/02/2006.
Broster, L. (ed.) 1996. Proceedings of the National Carp Summit, Renmark, South Australia, October 6-7, 1995. (Murray-Darling Basin Association, Adelaide)
Brown, P. and Walker, T. 2004. CARPSIM: stochastic simulation modelling of wild carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) population dynamics, with applications to pest control. Ecological Modelling 176: 83-97.
Brown, P., Sivakumaran, K.P., Stoessel, D. and Giles, A. 2005. Population biology of carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) in the mid-Murray River and Barmah Forest Wetlands, Australia. Marine and Freshwater Research 56: 1151-1164.
Breukelaret, A.W., Lammens, E.H. and Breteler, K. 1994. Effects of benthivorous bream ( Aramis brama) and carp ( Cyprinus carpio) on sediment re-suspension and concentrations of nutrients and chlorophyll a. Freshwater Biology 32: 113-121.
Brumley, A.R. 1996. Family Cyprinidae: Carps, minnows, etc. Pp 99 - 106 in Freshwater Fishes of South-Eastern Australia, edited by R. McDowall, Reed Books, Sydney.
Butcher, D. 1962. The implications of the introduction of carp into Victorian waters. Fisheries and Wildlife Department, Victoria.
Cadwallader, P.L. 1978. Some causes of the decline in range and abundance of native fish in the Murray-Darling River system. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria 90: 211-224.
Crane, M.S. and Eaton, B.T. 1997. Spring viraemia of carp virus ( Rhabdovirus carpio): a biological control agent? Pp 87 - 105 in Controlling Carp: Exploring the Options for Australia, edited by J. Roberts and R. Tilzey, CSIRO Land and Water, Griffith.
Cooperative Research Centre for Freshwater Ecology 1999. Technology Transfer Strategy: Hydrologic manipulation as a potential carp control strategy. Cooperative Research Centre for Freshwater Ecology, Canberra.
Crook, D. 2004. Contribution of the Barmah-Millewa floodplain lakes to carp populations in the mid River Murray. Final Report to the Barmah-Millewa Forum, Department of Sustainability and the Environment, Arthur Rylah Institute, Melbourne.
Crivelli, A.J. 1983. The destruction of aquatic vegetation by carp, a comparison between Southern France and the United States. Hydrobiologia 106: 37-41
Davis, K.M., Dixon, P.I. and Harris, J.H. 1999. Allozyme and mitochondrial DNA analysis of carp, Cyprinus carpio L. from south-eastern Australia. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 50: 253-261
Diggle, J., Day, J. and Bax, N. 2004. Eradicating European carp from Tasmania and implications for national European carp eradication. Inland Fisheries Service, Hobart, Tasmania.
Driver, P.D., Harris, J.H., Closs, G.P. and Koen, T.B. 2005. Effects of flow regulation on carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) recruitment in the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia. River Research and Applications 21: 327-335.
Faragher, R.A. and Harris, J.H. 1994. The historical and current status of freshwater fish in New South Wales. Australian Zoologist 29: 166-176.
Fletcher, R.F., Morison, A.K., and Hume, D.J. 1985. Effects of Carp Cyprinus carpio L. on Communities of Aquatic Vegetation and Turbidity of waterbodies in the Lower Goulbourn River Basin. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 36: 311-27.
Gafny, S., Gasith, A. and Goren, M. 1992. Effect of water level fluctuation on shore spawning of Mirogrex terraesanctae (Steintz), (Cyprinidae) in Lake Kinneret, Israel. Journal of Fish Biology 41: 863-871
Gehrke, P.C. 2003. Preliminary assessment of oral rotenone baits for carp control in New South Wales. Pp 143-154 in Managing invasive freshwater fish in New Zealand, proceedings of a workshop hosted by Department of Conservation, 10-12 May 2001, Hamilton. Produced by the New Zealand Department of Conservation.
Gehrke, P.C., Brown, P., Schiller. C.B. and Bruce, A.M. 1995. River regulation and fish communities in the Murray River system, Australia. Regulated Rivers: Research and Management 11: 363 - 375
Gehrke, P.C., Gilligan, D.M. and Barwick, M. 2002. Changes in fish communities of the Shoalhaven River 20 years after construction of Tallowa Dam, Australia. River Research and Applications 18: 265-286.
Gehrke, P.C. and Harris, J.H. 1994. The role of Fish in Cyanobacterial Blooms in Australia. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 45: 905-15
Gilligan, D.M. 2005a. Fish communities of the Murrumbidgee catchment: Status and trends. New South Wales Department of Primary Industries, Fisheries Final Report Series No. 75.
Gilligan, D.M. 2005b. Fish communities of the Lower Murray-Darling catchment: Status and trends. New South Wales Department of Primary Industries, Fisheries Final Report Series No. 83.
Gilligan, D., Gehrke, P. and Schiller, C. 2005. Testing methods and ecological consequences of large-scale removal of common carp. New South Wales Department of Primary Industries, Fisheries Final Report Series No. 77.
Gilligan, D. and Schiller, C. 2003. Downstream transport of larval and juvenile fish in the Murray River. New South Wales Fisheries, Fisheries Final Report Series No. 50.
Graham, K.J., Lowry, M.B. and Walford, T.R. 2005. Carp in NSW: assessment of distribution, fishery and fishing methods. NSW Department of Primary Industries, Cronulla, Fisheries Final Report Series No. 72.
Grewe, P. 1997. Potential of molecular approaches for the environmentally benign management of carp. Pp 119-127 in Controlling Carp: Exploring the Options for Australia, edited by J. Roberts and R. Tilzey, CSIRO Land and Water, Griffith.
Harris, J.H. 1995. Effects of Introduced fish in Australia. In Unwanted Aliens? Australia's introduced animals, edited by B. Diekman B., Proceedings of Nature Conservation Council of NSW Seminar, 23-24 September 1994, Sydney.
Hindmarsh, M. 1994. “Carp: a noxious fish or a resource”. In the proceedings of the forum on European carp, Wagga Wagga. Murrumbidgee Catchment Management Committee.
Hume, D.H., Fletcher, A.R. and Morison, A.K. 1983. Final report. Carp program report No. 10. Fisheries and Wildlife Division, Victorian Ministry for Conservation.
Inland Fisheries Service 2004. Carp Management Program Report: Lakes Crescent and Sorell 1995 - June 2004. Inland Fisheries Service, Hobart, Tasmania.
Koehn, J.D. 2004. Carp ( Cyprinus carpio) as a powerful invader in Australian waterways. Freshwater Biology 49: 882-894.
Koehn, J., Brumley, A. and Gehrke, P.C. 2000 Managing the impacts of carp. Bureau of Resource Sciences, Canberra.
Kuiter, R.H. 2005. Common carp; Its origin. Fishes of Sahul 19: 164-166.
Lachner, E.A., Robins, C.R. and Courtenay, Jr. 1970. Exotic fishes and other aquatic organisms introduced into North America. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 59. 29pp.
Lake J.S. 1967. Freshwater fish of the Murray-Darling River System. State Fisheries Research Bulletin Number 7. NSW Fisheries
Lake, P.S. 1980. Conservation. Pp 163-173 in An Ecological basis for water management, edited by W.D. Williams, Australian National University Press, Canberra.
Lapidge, K.L. (ed.) 2003. Proceedings of the National Carp Control Workshop, March 2003, Canberra. Cooperative Research Centre for Pest Animal Control, Canberra.
Lieschke, J. 2005. Victorian update. Pp 50 - 62 in the Australian Society for Fish Biology Newsletter 35(2), December 2005.
Lin, H.R. and Peter, R.E. 1991. Aquaculture. Pp 590 -617. In Cyprinid fishes: Systematics, Biology and Exploitation, edited by I.J. Winfield and J.S. Nelson, Chapman Hall, London.
Lintermans, M. 2002. Fish in the Murrumbidgee catchment: A review of current knowledge. Environment ACT, Canberra.
Llewellyn, L.C. 1983. The distribution of fish in New South Wales. Australian Society for Limnology, Special Publication No. 7.
Mackenzie, R., Jackson, P. and Cotterall, E. 2000. Control of exotic pest fishes - an operational strategy for Queenslands freshwaters. Department of Primary Industries, Queensland.
McLeod, R. 2004. Counting the cost: Impact of invasive animals in Australia, 2004. Cooperative Research Centre for Pest Animal Control, Canberra.
Murrumbidgee Catchment Management Committee 1994. Proceedings of the forum on European carp. Wagga Wagga, NSW 20/06/1994. Murrumbidgee Catchment Management Committee, Wagga Wagga.
Murray-Darling Basin Commission 2000a. National Management Strategy for carp control (2000-2005). Murray-Darling Basin Commission, Canberra.
Murray-Darling Basin Commission 2000b. Future directions for research into carp. Murray-Darling Basin Commission, Canberra.
Murray-Darling Basin Commission 2000c. Ranking areas for action: A guide for carp management groups. Murray-Darling Basin Commission, Canberra.
New Zealand Department of Conservation 2001. Managing invasive freshwater fish in New Zealand. Proceedings of a workshop hosted by Department of Conservation, 10-12 May 2001, Hamilton.
Nichols, S. and Gilligan, D. 2004. What about the fish?: Improving fish passage through wetland flow control structures in the lower River Murray. Australian Landscape Trust, Renmark, South Australia.
Panek, F.M. 1987. Biology and Ecology of carp. Pp 1 - 16 in Carp in North America, edited by E.L. Cooper, American Fisheries Society. Maryland, USA.
Page, L.M. and Burr, B.M. 1991 A field guide to freshwater fishes North America North of Mexico. Peterson Field Guide Series. Houghton Miffin Company. Boston. 432pp.
Piferrer, F., Zanuv, S., Carrillo, M., Solar, I.L., Devlin, R.I.L. and Donaldson, E.M. 1994. Brief treatment with a Aromatase inhibitor during sex differentiation causes chromosomally female salmon to develop as normal, functional males. The Journal of Experimental Zoology 270: 255-262.
Reid, D.D., Harris, J.H. and Chapman, D.J. 1997. NSW Inland Commercial Fishery data analysis. FRDC Project No. 94/027, NSW Fisheries, Cronulla.
Roberts, J. and Ebner, B. 1997. An overview of carp Cyprinus carpio L. in Australia. Part 1. CSIRO, Land and Water. Griffith.
Roberts J. and Tilzey R. (eds) 1997 Controlling Carp: Exploring the Options for Australia. CSIRO Land and Water, Griffith.
Rolls, R.J. 2005. Patterns in fish communities in the presence and absence of carp ( Cyprinus carpio) in slope and upland regions of the Murray-Darling Basin. Unpublished honours thesis, Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga.
Schiller, C. and Harris, J.H. 2001. Native and Alien fish. Pp 229 - 258 in Rivers as Ecological Systems: the Murray Darling Basin, edited by W.J. Young, Murray Darling Basin Commission. Canberra.
Shearer, K.D. and Mulley, J.C. 1978. The introduction and Distribution of Carp, Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, in Australia. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 29: 551-63.
Shields, J.T. 1957. Experimental control of carp reproduction through water drawdowns in For randall reservoir, South Dakota. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 87: 23-32.
Sivakumaran, K.P., Brown, P., Stoessel, D. and Giles, A. 2003. Maturation and reproductive biology of female wild carp, Cyprinus carpio, in Victoria, Australia. Environmental Biology of Fishes 68: 321-332.
Smith, B. 2005. The state of the art: a synopsis of information on common carp ( Cyprinus carpio) in Australia. Final Technical Report, SARDI Aquatic Sciences Publication No. RDO4/0064-2; SARDI Research Report Series No. 77, Adelaide.
Splitler, R.J. 1987. Sport fishing for carp. Pp 31 - 48 in Carp in North America, edited by E.L. Cooper, American Fisheries Society. Maryland, USA.
Stuart, I. and Jones, M. 2002. Ecology and management of common carp in the Barmah-Millewa forest. Arthur Rylah Institute for Environmental Research, Heidelberg, Victoria.
Stuart, I., Mckenzie, J., Williams, A. and Holt, T. 2003. Separation cages for the removal of carp from Murray-Darling Basin fishways. Final report on preliminary trials of the William's Carp Separation Cage. Murray Darling Basin Commission. Project R2104.
Thresher, R.E. 1997. Physical removal as an option for the control of feral carp populations. Pp 58 - 73 in Controlling Carp: Exploring the Options for Australia, edited by J. Roberts and R. Tilzey, CSIRO Land and Water, Griffith.
Thresher, R. and Bax, N. 2003. The science of producing daughterless technology; Possibilities for population control using daughterless technology; maximising the impact of carp control. Pp 19 - 24 in the Proceedings of the National Carp Control Workshop, March 2003, Canberra, edited by K.L. Lapidge, Cooperative Research Centre for Pest Animal Control, Canberra.
Williams, A. E., Moss, W. and Eaton, J. 2001. Fish induced macrophyte loss in shallow lakes: top-down and bottom-up processes in mesocosm experiments. Freshwater Biology. 47: 2216-2232.
Wilcox, T.P. and Hornbach, D.J. 1991. Macrobenthic Community Response to Carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) Foraging. Journal of Freshwater Ecology 6: 170-183.
Wilson, G. 2000. Carp spawning biology reveals control clues. Watershed May 2000: 10-11.
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