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Solenopsis invita Buren (the red imported fire ant) was officially identified in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia in early 2001 and soon after a national fire ant eradication program (funded by the Australian, State and Territory governments) to remove fire ants from Australia was approved. The Fire Ant Control Centre (FACC) was set up in Brisbane and the eradication program began in September 2001. This paper briefly summarises aspects of the biology of the ant, its impact and the impact of the eradication treatment on other fauna, together with additional information that has been gained as the eradication program ensued.

Abe, K., Okumura, H., Tsugoshi, T. and Nakamura, N. 1984. Reductive aminocyclization of alkane-2,6-diones to cis-6-alkyl-2-methylpiperidines using sodium cyanoborohydride. Synthesis, 1984: 597-598.
Ahrens M., Ross, K. G. and Shoemaker, D. D. 2005. Phylogeographic structure of the fire ant Solenopsis invicta in its native south American range: Roles of natural barriers and habitat connectivity. Evolution 59: 1733-1743.
Allen C. R., Epperson, D.M., Garmestani, A.S. 2004. Red Imported Fire Ants impacts on wildlife: A decade of research. The American Naturalist 152: 88-104.
Australian Government, Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry, viewed on 6 December 2005 http://affa.gov.au/corporate_docs/publications/word/quaratine/border/notice_industry_11_04_05.doc.
Banks W. A. 1986. Insect growth regulators for control of the imported fire ant. Pp. 387-392 in Fire ants and leaf cutting ants: Biology and management, edited by C. S. Lofgren and R. K. Vander Meer. Westview Press: Boulder, Colorado.
Banks W. A., Lofgren, C. S. and Plumley, J. K. 1978. Red imported fire ants: effects of insect growth regulators on caste formation and colony growth and survival. Journal of Economic Entomology 71: 75-78.
Banks W. A., Miles, L. R. and Harlan, D. P. 1983. The effects of insect growth regulators and their potential as control agents for imported fire ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Florida Entomologist 66: 172-181.
Barr C. L., Best, B., Fromme, D. R.L., Gregson. and., Jahn, R., 2000. Different ratios of s-methoprene and hydramethylnon baits as hopper for the suppression of red imported fire ants. Texas Agricultural Extension Service, Texas A&M University, Texas.
Barr C. L., Bade, D. H., Cohen, N. D., Cornforth, G. C. and Drees, B. M., Eugster, A. K., Reagor, J. C., Sprott, L. R. and Vinson, S. B. 1994. Texas veterinarian survey: impact of red imported fire ants on animal health. Texas Agricultural Extension Service, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas. 43 p.
Barr C. L., Drees, B. M., Eugster, A. K., Cohen, N. D., Reagor, J. C., Sprott, L. R., Bade, D. H., Cornforth, G. C. and Vinson, S. B. 1995. Fire ants and animal health: A comprehensive survey. DVM Issues (Texas Veterinary Medical Association) 1995 (March).
Bass J. A. and Hays, S. B. 1979. Nuptial flights of the imported fire ant in South Carolina. Journal of the Georgia Entomological Society 14: 158-161.
Bhatkar A. P. 1990. Reproductive strategies of the fire ant. Pp. 138-149 in Applied myrmecology, a world perspective, edited by R. K. Vander Meer, K. Jaffe and A. Cedeno. Westview Press: Boulder, Colorado.
Bhatkar A. P. and Vinson, S. B. 1987. Colony limits in Solenopsis invicta Buren. Pp. 599-600 in Chemistry and biology of social insects, edited by J. Eder and H. Rembold. Verlag J. Peperny: München. 757p.
Burns S. N., Teal, P. E. A., Vander Meer, R. K., Nation, J. L. and Vogt, J. T. 2002. Identification and action of juvenile hormone III from sexually mature alate females of the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta. Journal of Insect Physiology 48: 357-365.
Burwell, C.J. and Grimbacher, P. 2005. Biodiversity in the Brisbane Bush - a survey of the ants of selected bushland reserves in metropolitan Brisbane. In. Siepen, G.L. and Jones, D. Proceedings of the South East Queensland Biodiversity Conference, Vol. 2. University of Queensland-Gatton, 30th June-2nd July, 2004, University of Queensland-Gatton, Qld.
Cassill D. 2002. Brood care strategies by newly mated monogyne Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) queens during colony founding. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 95: 208-212.
Davis, L. R., Jr., Vander Meer, R. K., and Porter, S. D. 2001. Red imported fire ants expand their range across the West Indies. Florida Entomologist, 84: 735-736.
DeHeer C. J. 2002. A comparison of the colony-founding potential of queens from single- and multiple-queen colonies of the fire ant Solenopsis invicta. Animal Behaviour 64: 655-661.
DeHeer C. J., Goodisman, M. A. D. and Ross, K. G. 1999. Queen dispersal strategies in the multiple-queen form of the fire ant Solenopsis invicta. American Naturalist. 153: 660-675.
Drees B. M. and Barr, C. L. 1997. Evaluation of a new insect growth regulator Pyriproxyfen (V-71639), and other broadcast-applied bait products and product mixtures for suppression of the red imported fire ant. Texas A & M. University at http://fireants.tamu.edu./research/arr/Category/Broadcast/95-97Pg07/95-97Pg07.pdf 1997
Drees B. M., Barr, C. L., Shanklin, D. R., Pollet, D. K., Flanders, K. and Sparks, B. 1998. Managing red imported fire ants in agriculture. Texas Agricultural Extension Service Bulletin B-6076, 20 p.
Fowler H. G., Bernardi, J. V. E. and di Romagnano, L. F. T. 1990. Community structure and Solenopsis invicta in São Paulo. Pp. 199-207 in Applied myrmecology: a world perspective, edited by R. K. Vander Meer, K. Jaffe and A. Cedeno. Westview Press: Boulder.
Glancey B. M., Craig, C. H., Stringer, C. E. and Bishop, P. M. 1973. Multiple fertile queens in colonies of the imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta. Journal of the Georgia Entomological Society 8: 237-238.
Gooding, G. 2003. The Effect of Land Clearing on the Spread of Fire Ants. Honours Thesis. University of Southern Queensland.
Goodisman M. A. D., DeHeer, C. J. and Ross, K. G. 2000. Unusual behavior of polygyne fire ant queens on nuptial flights. Journal of Insect Behavior 13: 455-468.
Goodisman M. A. D., Mack, P. D., Pearse, D. E. and Ross, K. G. 1999. Effects of a single gene on worker and male body mass in the fire ant Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 92: 563-570.
Goodisman M. A. D. and Ross, K. G. 1996. Relationship of queen number and worker size in polygyne colonies of the fire ant Solenopsis invicta. Insectes Sociaux 43: 303-307.
Goodisman M. A. D. and Ross, K. G. 1997. Relationship of queen number and queen relatedness in multiple-queen colonies of the fire ant Solenopsis invicta. Ecological Entomology 22: 150-1.
Goodisman M. A. D. and Ross, K. G. 1999. Queen recruitment in a multiple-queen population of the fire ant Solenopsis invicta. Behavioral Ecology 10: 428-435.
Gotelli N. J. and Arnett, A. E. 2000. Biogeographic effects of red fire ant invasion. Ecology Letters 3: 257-261.
Green W. P., Pettry, D. E. and Switzer, R. E. 1999. Structure and hydrology of mounds of the imported fire ants in the southeastern United States. Geoderma 93: 1-17.
Greenberg L., Fletcher, D. J. C. and Vinson, S. B. 1985. Differences in worker size and mound distribution in monogynous and polygynous colonies of the fire ant Solenopsis invicta Buren. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 58: 9-18.
Harris E., Vanderwoude, C., McNicol, C., Garland, P., Mutzig, S. and Jennings, C. 2004. A evaluation of the fire ant eradication program: Report of the 2003 Infested Properties Survey. Report prepared by Scientific Services, Fire Ant Control Centre, DPI&F, Queensland on http://www2.dpi.qld.au/extra/fireants/monitoringreport.pdf
Eugster, A. K., Helms KR and Vinson B. 2002. Widespread association of the invasive ant Solenopsis invicta with an invasive mealybug. Ecology 83: 2425-38.
Henshaw M. T., Kunzmann, N., Vanderwoude, C., Sanetra, M. and Crozier, R. H. 2005. Population genetics and history of the introduced fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), in Australia. Australian Journal of Entomology 44: 37 - 44.
Heterick, B. E. 1997. The interaction between the coastal ant, Pheidole megacephala (Fabricius), and other invertebrate fauna of Mt Coot-tha (Brisbane, Australia), Australian. Journal of Ecology. 22: 218-221.
Hung A. C. F., Barlin, M. R. and Vinson, S. B. 1977. Identification, distribution, and biology of fire ants in Texas. Texas Agricultural Experimental Station Bulletin 1185: 1-24.
Hung A. C. F., Vinson, S. B. and Summerlin, J. W. 1974. Male sterility in the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 67: 909-912.
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Krieger M. J. B. and Ross, K. G. 2002. Identification of a major gene regulating complex social behavior. Science 295: 328-332.
Lard C., Willis, D. B., Salin, V. and Robison, S. 2002. Economic assessments of red imported fire ant on Texas' urban and agricultural sectors. Southwestern Entomologist 41: 123 - 137.
Lofgren C. S. 1986. The economic importance and control of imported fire ants in the United States. Pp. 227-256 in Economic impact and control of social insects, edited by S. B. Vinson. Praeger: New York.
Lofgren C. S., Banks, W. A. and Glancey, B. M. 1975. Biology and control of imported fire ants. Annual Review of Entomology 20: 1-30.
Markin G. P., Collins, H. L. and Dillier, J. H. 1972. Colony founding by queens of the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 65: 1053-1058.
Markin G. P., Dillier, J. H., Hill, S. O., Blum, M. S. and Hermann, H. R. 1971. Nuptial flight and flight ranges of the imported fire ant, Solenopsis saevissima richteri (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Journal of the Georgia Entomological Society 6: 145-156.
Mescher M. C., Ross, K. G., Shoemaker, D. D., Keller, L. and Krieger, M. J. B. 2003. Distribution of the two social forms of the fire ant Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in the native South American range. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 96: 810-817.
Mirenda J. T. and Vinson, S. B. 1982. Single and multiple queen colonies of imported fire ants in Texas. Southwestern Entomologist 7: 135-141.
Moffitt J. E., Barker, J. R. and Stafford, C. T. 1997. Management of imported fire ant allergy: results of a survey. Annals of Allergy, Asthma, & Immunology 79: 125-130.
Moloney S. and Vanderwoude, C. 2002. Red imported fire ants: a threat to eastern Australia's threatened wildlife? Ecological Management and Restoration 3: 167-175.
Moore G. C. 1999 Evaluation of Extinguish®, Distance®, combination of Distance and Ambro® and the two-step method for suppression of red imported fire ants in turf. Texas Agricultural Extension Service, Texas A&M University, Texas.
Morrill W. L. 1974a. Dispersal of red imported fire ants by water. The Florida Entomologist 57: 39-42.
Morrill W. L. 1974b. Production and flight of alate red imported fire ants. Environmental Entomology 3: 265-171.
Morrison L. W. 2002. Long-term impacts of an arthropod-community invasion by the imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta. Ecology 83: 2337-2345.
Nattrass R. and Vanderwoude, C. 2001. A preliminary investigation of the ecological effects of red imported fire ants ( Solenopsis invicta) in Brisbane, Australia. Ecological Management and Restoration 2: 220-223.
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O'Dowd D. J., Green, P. T. and Lake, P. S. 2003. Invasion ‘meltdown’ on an oceanic island. Ecology Letters 6: 812-817.
Oi D. H., Watson, C. A. and Williams, D. F. 2004. Monitoring and management of red imported fire ants in a tropical fish farm. Florida Entomologist 87: 522-527.
Pitts J. P., McHugh, J. V. and Ross, K. G. 2005. Cladistic analysis of the fire ants of the Solenopsis saevissima species-group (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Zoologica Scripta 34: 493-505.
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Porter S. D., Van Eimeren, B. and Gilbert, L. E. 1988. Invasion of red imported fire ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): microgeography of competitive replacement. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 81: 913-918.
Porter S. D., Williams, D. F., Patterson, R. S. and Fowler, H. G. 1997. Intercontinental differences in the abundance of Solenopsis fire ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): escape from natural enemies? Environmental Entomology 26: 373-384.
Purcell, W. 2004. Habitat Characteristic, Preferences and Nest Site Selection of the Red Imported Fire Ant, Solenopsis invicta, in South East Queensland, Honours Thesis, University of Queensland.
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Ross K. G. and Fletcher, D. J. C. 1985a. Comparative study of genetic and social structure in two forms of the fire ant Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 17: 349-356.
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Ross K. G. and Fletcher, D. J. C. 1986. Diploid male production - a significant colony mortality factor in the fire ant Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 19:283-292.
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References

Abe, K., Okumura, H., Tsugoshi, T. and Nakamura, N. 1984. Reductive aminocyclization of alkane-2,6-diones to cis-6-alkyl-2-methylpiperidines using sodium cyanoborohydride. Synthesis, 1984: 597-598.
Ahrens M., Ross, K. G. and Shoemaker, D. D. 2005. Phylogeographic structure of the fire ant Solenopsis invicta in its native south American range: Roles of natural barriers and habitat connectivity. Evolution 59: 1733-1743.
Allen C. R., Epperson, D.M., Garmestani, A.S. 2004. Red Imported Fire Ants impacts on wildlife: A decade of research. The American Naturalist 152: 88-104.
Australian Government, Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry, viewed on 6 December 2005 http://affa.gov.au/corporate_docs/publications/word/quaratine/border/notice_industry_11_04_05.doc.
Banks W. A. 1986. Insect growth regulators for control of the imported fire ant. Pp. 387-392 in Fire ants and leaf cutting ants: Biology and management, edited by C. S. Lofgren and R. K. Vander Meer. Westview Press: Boulder, Colorado.
Banks W. A., Lofgren, C. S. and Plumley, J. K. 1978. Red imported fire ants: effects of insect growth regulators on caste formation and colony growth and survival. Journal of Economic Entomology 71: 75-78.
Banks W. A., Miles, L. R. and Harlan, D. P. 1983. The effects of insect growth regulators and their potential as control agents for imported fire ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Florida Entomologist 66: 172-181.
Barr C. L., Best, B., Fromme, D. R.L., Gregson. and., Jahn, R., 2000. Different ratios of s-methoprene and hydramethylnon baits as hopper for the suppression of red imported fire ants. Texas Agricultural Extension Service, Texas A&M University, Texas.
Barr C. L., Bade, D. H., Cohen, N. D., Cornforth, G. C. and Drees, B. M., Eugster, A. K., Reagor, J. C., Sprott, L. R. and Vinson, S. B. 1994. Texas veterinarian survey: impact of red imported fire ants on animal health. Texas Agricultural Extension Service, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas. 43 p.
Barr C. L., Drees, B. M., Eugster, A. K., Cohen, N. D., Reagor, J. C., Sprott, L. R., Bade, D. H., Cornforth, G. C. and Vinson, S. B. 1995. Fire ants and animal health: A comprehensive survey. DVM Issues (Texas Veterinary Medical Association) 1995 (March).
Bass J. A. and Hays, S. B. 1979. Nuptial flights of the imported fire ant in South Carolina. Journal of the Georgia Entomological Society 14: 158-161.
Bhatkar A. P. 1990. Reproductive strategies of the fire ant. Pp. 138-149 in Applied myrmecology, a world perspective, edited by R. K. Vander Meer, K. Jaffe and A. Cedeno. Westview Press: Boulder, Colorado.
Bhatkar A. P. and Vinson, S. B. 1987. Colony limits in Solenopsis invicta Buren. Pp. 599-600 in Chemistry and biology of social insects, edited by J. Eder and H. Rembold. Verlag J. Peperny: München. 757p.
Burns S. N., Teal, P. E. A., Vander Meer, R. K., Nation, J. L. and Vogt, J. T. 2002. Identification and action of juvenile hormone III from sexually mature alate females of the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta. Journal of Insect Physiology 48: 357-365.
Burwell, C.J. and Grimbacher, P. 2005. Biodiversity in the Brisbane Bush - a survey of the ants of selected bushland reserves in metropolitan Brisbane. In. Siepen, G.L. and Jones, D. Proceedings of the South East Queensland Biodiversity Conference, Vol. 2. University of Queensland-Gatton, 30th June-2nd July, 2004, University of Queensland-Gatton, Qld.
Cassill D. 2002. Brood care strategies by newly mated monogyne Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) queens during colony founding. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 95: 208-212.
Davis, L. R., Jr., Vander Meer, R. K., and Porter, S. D. 2001. Red imported fire ants expand their range across the West Indies. Florida Entomologist, 84: 735-736.
DeHeer C. J. 2002. A comparison of the colony-founding potential of queens from single- and multiple-queen colonies of the fire ant Solenopsis invicta. Animal Behaviour 64: 655-661.
DeHeer C. J., Goodisman, M. A. D. and Ross, K. G. 1999. Queen dispersal strategies in the multiple-queen form of the fire ant Solenopsis invicta. American Naturalist. 153: 660-675.
Drees B. M. and Barr, C. L. 1997. Evaluation of a new insect growth regulator Pyriproxyfen (V-71639), and other broadcast-applied bait products and product mixtures for suppression of the red imported fire ant. Texas A & M. University at http://fireants.tamu.edu./research/arr/Category/Broadcast/95-97Pg07/95-97Pg07.pdf 1997
Drees B. M., Barr, C. L., Shanklin, D. R., Pollet, D. K., Flanders, K. and Sparks, B. 1998. Managing red imported fire ants in agriculture. Texas Agricultural Extension Service Bulletin B-6076, 20 p.
Fowler H. G., Bernardi, J. V. E. and di Romagnano, L. F. T. 1990. Community structure and Solenopsis invicta in São Paulo. Pp. 199-207 in Applied myrmecology: a world perspective, edited by R. K. Vander Meer, K. Jaffe and A. Cedeno. Westview Press: Boulder.
Glancey B. M., Craig, C. H., Stringer, C. E. and Bishop, P. M. 1973. Multiple fertile queens in colonies of the imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta. Journal of the Georgia Entomological Society 8: 237-238.
Gooding, G. 2003. The Effect of Land Clearing on the Spread of Fire Ants. Honours Thesis. University of Southern Queensland.
Goodisman M. A. D., DeHeer, C. J. and Ross, K. G. 2000. Unusual behavior of polygyne fire ant queens on nuptial flights. Journal of Insect Behavior 13: 455-468.
Goodisman M. A. D., Mack, P. D., Pearse, D. E. and Ross, K. G. 1999. Effects of a single gene on worker and male body mass in the fire ant Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 92: 563-570.
Goodisman M. A. D. and Ross, K. G. 1996. Relationship of queen number and worker size in polygyne colonies of the fire ant Solenopsis invicta. Insectes Sociaux 43: 303-307.
Goodisman M. A. D. and Ross, K. G. 1997. Relationship of queen number and queen relatedness in multiple-queen colonies of the fire ant Solenopsis invicta. Ecological Entomology 22: 150-1.
Goodisman M. A. D. and Ross, K. G. 1999. Queen recruitment in a multiple-queen population of the fire ant Solenopsis invicta. Behavioral Ecology 10: 428-435.
Gotelli N. J. and Arnett, A. E. 2000. Biogeographic effects of red fire ant invasion. Ecology Letters 3: 257-261.
Green W. P., Pettry, D. E. and Switzer, R. E. 1999. Structure and hydrology of mounds of the imported fire ants in the southeastern United States. Geoderma 93: 1-17.
Greenberg L., Fletcher, D. J. C. and Vinson, S. B. 1985. Differences in worker size and mound distribution in monogynous and polygynous colonies of the fire ant Solenopsis invicta Buren. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 58: 9-18.
Harris E., Vanderwoude, C., McNicol, C., Garland, P., Mutzig, S. and Jennings, C. 2004. A evaluation of the fire ant eradication program: Report of the 2003 Infested Properties Survey. Report prepared by Scientific Services, Fire Ant Control Centre, DPI&F, Queensland on http://www2.dpi.qld.au/extra/fireants/monitoringreport.pdf
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