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Five claims about Eastern Grey Kangaroos Macropus giganteus, or their management, are tested with evidence. Most of the evidence is drawn from three populations of M. giganteus located on reserved land in or near the ACT, which have the highest measured densities of any kangaroo populations. Additional evidence is drawn from four ACT grazing properties where kangaroo populations are suppressed by shooting. Conclusions reached in relation to the five claims are: (1) M. giganteus does not give birth continuously all year; (2) kangaroo shooting in south eastern Australia can be timed to minimise the number of young that are orphaned at a vulnerable age; (3) winter starvation of sub-adults is common, it is an important demographic process, and in some places it provides a rare opportunity for public education; (4) in this temperate environment, M. giganteus continues to produce young-at-foot in drought years in spite of food shortage or high density. In testing the claims against the evidence, age-specific fecundity, demographic sensitivity, and age structure of M. giganteus populations are quantified. The hypothesis of Arnold et al. (1991) and Dawson (1995), that mortality of sub-adults is the population-limiting demographic rate, is supported by relating the observed stage-specific mortality to the result of a demographic sensitivity analysis.

ACT Kangaroo Advisory Committee 1996a Living With Eastern Grey Kangaroos in the ACT - Rural Land: First Report to the Minister for the Environment, Land and Planning. Australian Capital Territory, Canberra. www.environment.act.gov.au
ACT Kangaroo Advisory Committee 1996b Kangaroos in Captivity in the ACT: Second Report to the Minister for Environment, Land and Planning. Australian Capital Territory, Canberra. www.environment.act.gov.au
ACT Kangaroo Advisory Committee 1997 Living With Eastern Grey Kangaroos in the ACT - Public Land: Third Report to the Minister for the Environment, Land and Planning. Australian Capital Territory, Canberra. www.environment.act.gov.au
Arnold, G. W., Grassia, A., Weeldenburg, J. R. and Steven, D. E. 1991. Population ecology of western grey kangaroos in a remnant of wandoo woodland at Baker's Hill, southern Western Australia. Wildlife Research 18, 561-575.
Arnold, S. 2005. Requiem for kangaroos. Pp. 168-73 in Kangaroos: Myths and Realities. 3rd Edn. edited by M. Wilson and D. B. Croft. Australian Wildlife Protection Council Inc., Sydney.
Arundel, J. H., Barker, I. K. and Beveridge, I. 1977. Diseases of marsupials. Pp. 141-54 in The Biology of Marsupials. edited by B. Stonehouse and D. Gilmore. Macmillan, London.
Australian Capital Territory 1994. Code of Practice for the Humane Destruction of Kangaroos in the A.C.T. Australian Capital Territory, Canberra.
Banks, P. B., Newsome, A. E. and Dickman, C. R. 2000. Predation by red foxes limits recruitment in populations of eastern grey kangaroos. Austral Ecology 25, 283-291.
Bayliss, P. and Choquenot, D. 2002. The numerical response: rate of increase and food limitation in herbivores and predators. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, London, Series B 357, 1233-1248.
Bilton, A. and Croft, D. 2004. Lifetime reproductive success in a population of female red kangaroos ( Macropus rufus) in the sheep rangelands of western New South Wales: environmental effects and population dynamics. Australian Mammalogy 26, 45-60.
Buckland, S. T., Anderson, D. R., Burnham, K. P. and Laake, J. L. 1993 Distance Sampling: Estimating Abundance of Biological Populations. Chapman and Hall, London.
Caughley, G. 1976. Wildlife management and the dynamics of ungulate populations. Pp. 183-246 in Applied Biology. edited by T. H. Coaker. Academic Press, London.
Caughley, G. 1977 Analysis of Vertebrate Populations. Wiley & Sons, London.
Caughley, G. 1983. Dynamics of large mammals and their relevance to culling. Pp. 115-26 in Management of Large Mammals in African Conservation Areas. edited by N. Owen-Smith. Haum Educational Publishers, Pretoria, South Africa.
Caughley, G. and Sinclair, A. R. E. 1994 Wildlife Ecology and Management. Blackwell Science, Boston.
Cayley, J. W. D. and Bird, P. R. 1996 Techniques for Measuring Pastures. 2nd Edn. Agriculture Victoria, Hamilton, Victoria.
Clancy, T. F. and Croft, D. B. 1992. Population dynamics of the common wallaroo ( Macropus robustus erubescens) in arid New South Wales. Wildlife Research 19, 1-16.
Clutton-Brock, T. H. and Albon, S. D. 1989 Red Deer in the Highlands. BSP Professional Books, Oxford.
Coulson, G. M. 2001. Overabundant kangaroo populations in south eastern Australia. Pp. 238-42 in Wildlife, Land and People: Priorities for the 21st Century. edited by R. Field, R. J. Warren, H. Okarma, and P. R. Sievert. The Wildlife Society, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.
Council of Nature Conservation Ministers (CONCOM) 1990. Code of Practice for the Humane Destruction of Kangaroos. 2nd Edn. AGPS, Canberra.
Dawson, T. J. 1995 Kangaroos: Biology of the Largest Marsupials. University of NSW Press, Sydney.
Eberhardt, L. L. 1985. Assessing the dynamics of wild populations. Journal of Wildlife Management 49, 997-1012.
Environment ACT 2000. Roonotes for Rangers. Environment ACT, Canberra.
Friedel, M. H. and Bastin G. N. 1988. Photographic standards for estimating comparative yield in arid rangelands. Australian Rangelands Journal 10, 34-38.
Gaillard, J.-M., Festa-Bianchet, M. and Yoccoz, N. G. 1998. Population dynamics of large herbivores: variable recruitment with constant adult survival. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 13, 58-63.
Gaillard, J.-M., Festa-Bianchet, M., Yoccoz, N. G., Loison, A. and Toigo, C. 2000. Temporal variation in fitness components and population dynamics of large herbivores. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 31, 367-393.
Gellately, J. 2005. Killing for kicks. Pp. 50-55 in Kangaroos: Myths and Realities. 3rd Edn. edited by M. Wilson and D. B. Croft. Australian Wildlife Protection Council Inc., Sydney.
Gilbert, B. A. and Raedeke, K. J. 2004. Recruitment dynamics of black-tailed deer in the Western Cascades. Journal of Wildlife Management 68, 120-128.
Hanks, J. 1981. Characterisation of population condition. Pp. 47-73 in Dynamics of Large Mammal Populations. edited by C. W. Fowler and T. D. Smith. Wiley, New York.
Haydock, K. P. and Shaw, N. H. 1975. The comparative yield method for estimating dry matter yield of pasture. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture and Animal Husbandry 15, 663-670.
Hinds, L. A. and Loudon, A. S. I. 1997. Mechanisms of seasonality in marsupials: a comparative view. Pp. 41-69 in Marsupial Biology: Recent Research, New Perspectives. edited by N. Saunders and L. Hinds. UNSW Press, Sydney.
Hume, I. D. 1999 Marsupial Nutrition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Jaremovic, R. V. 1984 Space and Time Related Behaviour in Eastern Grey Kangaroos (Macropus Giganteus Shaw). PhD Thesis. Uni. NSW, Sydney.
Kirkpatrick, T. H. 1964. Molar progression and macropod age. Queensland Journal of Agricultural and Animal Sciences 21, 163-165.
Kirkpatrick, T. H. 1965. Studies of Macropodidae in Queensland. 3. Reproduction in the grey kangaroo ( Macropus major) in southern Queensland. Queensland Journal of Agricultural and Animal Sciences 22, 319-328.
Kirkpatrick, T. H. and McEvoy, J. S. 1966. Studies of Macropodidae in Queensland. 5. Effects of drought on reproduction in the grey kangaroo Macropus giganteus. Queensland Journal of Agricultural and Animal Sciences 23, 439-442.
Lande, R. 1988. Demographic models of the northern spotted owl ( Strix occidentalis caurina). Oecologia 75, 601-607.
Lander, M. 2005. Slaughter at Googong Dam. Pp. 139-43 in Kangaroos: Myths and Realities. 3rd Edn. edited by M. Wilson and D. B. Croft. Australian Wildlife Protection Council Inc., Sydney. Note: Author is given in contents as Lander and O'Brien.
Leopold, A. 1943. Deer irruptions. Wisconsin Conservation Bulletin 8, 3-11.
Leopold, A. 1949. Thinking like a mountain. in A Sand County Almanac and Sketches Here and There. Oxford University Press, New York.
Loison, A., Festa-Bianchet, M., Gaillard, J. M., Jorgenson, J. T. and Jullien, J. M. 1999. Age-specific survival in five populations of ungulates: evidence of senescence. Ecology 80, 2539-2554.
t'Mannetje, L. and Jones, R. M. 2000 Field and Laboratory Methods for Grassland and Animal Production. CABI Publishing, London.
Munn, A. J. and Dawson, T. J. 2003. Energy requirements of the red kangaroo ( Macropus rufus): impacts of age, growth and body size in a large desert-dwelling herbivore. Journal of Comparative Physiology B - Biochemical Systemic and Environmental Physiology 173, 575-582.
Nieland, K. A. 1970. Weight of dried marrow as indicator of fat in caribou femurs. Journal of Wildlife Management 34, 904-907.
Poole, W. E. 1973. A study of breeding in grey kangaroos Macropus giganteus Shaw, and M. fuliginosus (Desmarest), in central New South Wales. Australian Journal of Zoology 21, 183-212.
Poole, W. E. 1975. Reproduction in the two species of grey kangaroo, Macropus giganteus Shaw and M. fuliginosus (Desmarest). II. Gestation, parturition and pouch life. Australian Journal of Zoology 23, 333-353.
Poole, W. E. 1983. Breeding in the grey kangaroo, Macropus giganteus, from widespread locations in eastern Australia. Australian Wildlife Research 10, 453-466.
Poole, W. E., Carpenter, S. M. and Wood, J. T. 1982. Growth of grey kangaroos and the reliability of age determination from body measurements. I. The eastern grey kangaroo, Macropus giganteus. Australian Wildlife Research 9, 9-20.
Poole, W. E. and Catling, P. C. 1974. Reproduction in the two species of grey kangaroo, Macropus giganteus Shaw and M. fuliginosus (Desmarest). I. Sexual maturity and oestrus. Australian Journal of Zoology 22, 277-302.
Quin, D. E. 1989. Age structures, reproduction and mortality of the eastern grey kangaroos ( Macropus giganteus Shaw) from Yan Yean, Victoria. Pp. 787-94 in Kangaroos, Wallabies and Rat-Kangaroos. edited by G. C. Grigg, P. J. Jarman, and I. Hume. Surrey Beatty, Sydney.
Robertson, G. G. 1986. The mortality of kangaroos in drought. Australian Wildlife Research 13, 349-354.
Robertson, G. G. 1987. Plant dynamics. Pp. 50-68 in Kangaroos: Their Ecology and Management in the Sheep Rangelands of Australia. edited by G. Caughley, N. Shepherd, and J. Short. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Shepherd, N. C. 1987. Condition and recruitment of kangaroos. Pp. 135-58 in Kangaroos: Their Ecology and Management in the Sheep Rangelands of Australia. edited by G. Caughley, N. C. Shepherd, and J. Short. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Sinclair, A. R. E. 1996. Mammal populations: fluctuation, regulation, life history theory and their implications for conservation. Pp. 127-54 in Frontiers of Population Ecology. edited by R. B. Floyd, A. W. Sheppard, and P. J. De Barro. CSIRO, Melbourne.
Southwell, C. J. 1989. Techniques for monitoring the abundance of kangaroo and wallaby populations. Pp. 659-93 in Kangaroos, Wallabies and Rat-Kangaroos. edited by G. C. Grigg, P. J. Jarman, and I. Hume. Surrey Beatty, Sydney.
Southwell, C. J. 1994. Evaluation of walked line transect counts for estimating macropod density. Journal of Wildlife Management 58, 348-356.
Southwell, C. J., Cairns, S. C., Palmer, R., Delaney, R. and Broers, R. 1997. Abundance of large macropods in the eastern highlands of Australia. Wildlife Society Bulletin 25, 125-132.
StatSoft Inc. 2004. STATISTICA (data analysis software system), version 6. StatSoft Inc., www.statsoft.com.
Stewart, K. M., Bowyer, R. T., Dick, B. L., Johnson, B. K. and Kie, J. G. 2005. Density-dependent effects on physical condition and reproduction in North American elk: an experimental test. Oecologia 143, 85-93.
Stuart-Dick, R. I. 1987 Parental Investment and Rearing Schedules in the Eastern Grey Kangaroo. PhD. Thesis. University of New England, Armidale.
Stuart-Dick, R. I. and Higginbottom, K. B. 1989. Strategies of parental investment in Macropodoids. Pp. 571-92 in Kangaroos, Wallabies and Rat Kangaroos. edited by G. C. Grigg, P. J. Jarman, and I. D. Hume. Surrey Beatty, Sydney.
Wilson, M. and Croft, D. B. 2005 Kangaroos: Myths and Realities. 3rd Edn. Australian Wildlife Protection Council Inc., Sydney.
Witte, I. 2005. Kangaroos - misunderstood and maligned reproductive miracle workers. Pp. 188-207 in Kangaroos: Myths and Realities. 3rd Edn. edited by M. Wilson and D. B. Croft. Australian Wildlife Protection Council Inc., Sydney.
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References

ACT Kangaroo Advisory Committee 1996a Living With Eastern Grey Kangaroos in the ACT - Rural Land: First Report to the Minister for the Environment, Land and Planning. Australian Capital Territory, Canberra. www.environment.act.gov.au
ACT Kangaroo Advisory Committee 1996b Kangaroos in Captivity in the ACT: Second Report to the Minister for Environment, Land and Planning. Australian Capital Territory, Canberra. www.environment.act.gov.au
ACT Kangaroo Advisory Committee 1997 Living With Eastern Grey Kangaroos in the ACT - Public Land: Third Report to the Minister for the Environment, Land and Planning. Australian Capital Territory, Canberra. www.environment.act.gov.au
Arnold, G. W., Grassia, A., Weeldenburg, J. R. and Steven, D. E. 1991. Population ecology of western grey kangaroos in a remnant of wandoo woodland at Baker's Hill, southern Western Australia. Wildlife Research 18, 561-575.
Arnold, S. 2005. Requiem for kangaroos. Pp. 168-73 in Kangaroos: Myths and Realities. 3rd Edn. edited by M. Wilson and D. B. Croft. Australian Wildlife Protection Council Inc., Sydney.
Arundel, J. H., Barker, I. K. and Beveridge, I. 1977. Diseases of marsupials. Pp. 141-54 in The Biology of Marsupials. edited by B. Stonehouse and D. Gilmore. Macmillan, London.
Australian Capital Territory 1994. Code of Practice for the Humane Destruction of Kangaroos in the A.C.T. Australian Capital Territory, Canberra.
Banks, P. B., Newsome, A. E. and Dickman, C. R. 2000. Predation by red foxes limits recruitment in populations of eastern grey kangaroos. Austral Ecology 25, 283-291.
Bayliss, P. and Choquenot, D. 2002. The numerical response: rate of increase and food limitation in herbivores and predators. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, London, Series B 357, 1233-1248.
Bilton, A. and Croft, D. 2004. Lifetime reproductive success in a population of female red kangaroos ( Macropus rufus) in the sheep rangelands of western New South Wales: environmental effects and population dynamics. Australian Mammalogy 26, 45-60.
Buckland, S. T., Anderson, D. R., Burnham, K. P. and Laake, J. L. 1993 Distance Sampling: Estimating Abundance of Biological Populations. Chapman and Hall, London.
Caughley, G. 1976. Wildlife management and the dynamics of ungulate populations. Pp. 183-246 in Applied Biology. edited by T. H. Coaker. Academic Press, London.
Caughley, G. 1977 Analysis of Vertebrate Populations. Wiley & Sons, London.
Caughley, G. 1983. Dynamics of large mammals and their relevance to culling. Pp. 115-26 in Management of Large Mammals in African Conservation Areas. edited by N. Owen-Smith. Haum Educational Publishers, Pretoria, South Africa.
Caughley, G. and Sinclair, A. R. E. 1994 Wildlife Ecology and Management. Blackwell Science, Boston.
Cayley, J. W. D. and Bird, P. R. 1996 Techniques for Measuring Pastures. 2nd Edn. Agriculture Victoria, Hamilton, Victoria.
Clancy, T. F. and Croft, D. B. 1992. Population dynamics of the common wallaroo ( Macropus robustus erubescens) in arid New South Wales. Wildlife Research 19, 1-16.
Clutton-Brock, T. H. and Albon, S. D. 1989 Red Deer in the Highlands. BSP Professional Books, Oxford.
Coulson, G. M. 2001. Overabundant kangaroo populations in south eastern Australia. Pp. 238-42 in Wildlife, Land and People: Priorities for the 21st Century. edited by R. Field, R. J. Warren, H. Okarma, and P. R. Sievert. The Wildlife Society, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.
Council of Nature Conservation Ministers (CONCOM) 1990. Code of Practice for the Humane Destruction of Kangaroos. 2nd Edn. AGPS, Canberra.
Dawson, T. J. 1995 Kangaroos: Biology of the Largest Marsupials. University of NSW Press, Sydney.
Eberhardt, L. L. 1985. Assessing the dynamics of wild populations. Journal of Wildlife Management 49, 997-1012.
Environment ACT 2000. Roonotes for Rangers. Environment ACT, Canberra.
Friedel, M. H. and Bastin G. N. 1988. Photographic standards for estimating comparative yield in arid rangelands. Australian Rangelands Journal 10, 34-38.
Gaillard, J.-M., Festa-Bianchet, M. and Yoccoz, N. G. 1998. Population dynamics of large herbivores: variable recruitment with constant adult survival. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 13, 58-63.
Gaillard, J.-M., Festa-Bianchet, M., Yoccoz, N. G., Loison, A. and Toigo, C. 2000. Temporal variation in fitness components and population dynamics of large herbivores. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 31, 367-393.
Gellately, J. 2005. Killing for kicks. Pp. 50-55 in Kangaroos: Myths and Realities. 3rd Edn. edited by M. Wilson and D. B. Croft. Australian Wildlife Protection Council Inc., Sydney.
Gilbert, B. A. and Raedeke, K. J. 2004. Recruitment dynamics of black-tailed deer in the Western Cascades. Journal of Wildlife Management 68, 120-128.
Hanks, J. 1981. Characterisation of population condition. Pp. 47-73 in Dynamics of Large Mammal Populations. edited by C. W. Fowler and T. D. Smith. Wiley, New York.
Haydock, K. P. and Shaw, N. H. 1975. The comparative yield method for estimating dry matter yield of pasture. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture and Animal Husbandry 15, 663-670.
Hinds, L. A. and Loudon, A. S. I. 1997. Mechanisms of seasonality in marsupials: a comparative view. Pp. 41-69 in Marsupial Biology: Recent Research, New Perspectives. edited by N. Saunders and L. Hinds. UNSW Press, Sydney.
Hume, I. D. 1999 Marsupial Nutrition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Jaremovic, R. V. 1984 Space and Time Related Behaviour in Eastern Grey Kangaroos (Macropus Giganteus Shaw). PhD Thesis. Uni. NSW, Sydney.
Kirkpatrick, T. H. 1964. Molar progression and macropod age. Queensland Journal of Agricultural and Animal Sciences 21, 163-165.
Kirkpatrick, T. H. 1965. Studies of Macropodidae in Queensland. 3. Reproduction in the grey kangaroo ( Macropus major) in southern Queensland. Queensland Journal of Agricultural and Animal Sciences 22, 319-328.
Kirkpatrick, T. H. and McEvoy, J. S. 1966. Studies of Macropodidae in Queensland. 5. Effects of drought on reproduction in the grey kangaroo Macropus giganteus. Queensland Journal of Agricultural and Animal Sciences 23, 439-442.
Lande, R. 1988. Demographic models of the northern spotted owl ( Strix occidentalis caurina). Oecologia 75, 601-607.
Lander, M. 2005. Slaughter at Googong Dam. Pp. 139-43 in Kangaroos: Myths and Realities. 3rd Edn. edited by M. Wilson and D. B. Croft. Australian Wildlife Protection Council Inc., Sydney. Note: Author is given in contents as Lander and O'Brien.
Leopold, A. 1943. Deer irruptions. Wisconsin Conservation Bulletin 8, 3-11.
Leopold, A. 1949. Thinking like a mountain. in A Sand County Almanac and Sketches Here and There. Oxford University Press, New York.
Loison, A., Festa-Bianchet, M., Gaillard, J. M., Jorgenson, J. T. and Jullien, J. M. 1999. Age-specific survival in five populations of ungulates: evidence of senescence. Ecology 80, 2539-2554.
t'Mannetje, L. and Jones, R. M. 2000 Field and Laboratory Methods for Grassland and Animal Production. CABI Publishing, London.
Munn, A. J. and Dawson, T. J. 2003. Energy requirements of the red kangaroo ( Macropus rufus): impacts of age, growth and body size in a large desert-dwelling herbivore. Journal of Comparative Physiology B - Biochemical Systemic and Environmental Physiology 173, 575-582.
Nieland, K. A. 1970. Weight of dried marrow as indicator of fat in caribou femurs. Journal of Wildlife Management 34, 904-907.
Poole, W. E. 1973. A study of breeding in grey kangaroos Macropus giganteus Shaw, and M. fuliginosus (Desmarest), in central New South Wales. Australian Journal of Zoology 21, 183-212.
Poole, W. E. 1975. Reproduction in the two species of grey kangaroo, Macropus giganteus Shaw and M. fuliginosus (Desmarest). II. Gestation, parturition and pouch life. Australian Journal of Zoology 23, 333-353.
Poole, W. E. 1983. Breeding in the grey kangaroo, Macropus giganteus, from widespread locations in eastern Australia. Australian Wildlife Research 10, 453-466.
Poole, W. E., Carpenter, S. M. and Wood, J. T. 1982. Growth of grey kangaroos and the reliability of age determination from body measurements. I. The eastern grey kangaroo, Macropus giganteus. Australian Wildlife Research 9, 9-20.
Poole, W. E. and Catling, P. C. 1974. Reproduction in the two species of grey kangaroo, Macropus giganteus Shaw and M. fuliginosus (Desmarest). I. Sexual maturity and oestrus. Australian Journal of Zoology 22, 277-302.
Quin, D. E. 1989. Age structures, reproduction and mortality of the eastern grey kangaroos ( Macropus giganteus Shaw) from Yan Yean, Victoria. Pp. 787-94 in Kangaroos, Wallabies and Rat-Kangaroos. edited by G. C. Grigg, P. J. Jarman, and I. Hume. Surrey Beatty, Sydney.
Robertson, G. G. 1986. The mortality of kangaroos in drought. Australian Wildlife Research 13, 349-354.
Robertson, G. G. 1987. Plant dynamics. Pp. 50-68 in Kangaroos: Their Ecology and Management in the Sheep Rangelands of Australia. edited by G. Caughley, N. Shepherd, and J. Short. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Shepherd, N. C. 1987. Condition and recruitment of kangaroos. Pp. 135-58 in Kangaroos: Their Ecology and Management in the Sheep Rangelands of Australia. edited by G. Caughley, N. C. Shepherd, and J. Short. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Sinclair, A. R. E. 1996. Mammal populations: fluctuation, regulation, life history theory and their implications for conservation. Pp. 127-54 in Frontiers of Population Ecology. edited by R. B. Floyd, A. W. Sheppard, and P. J. De Barro. CSIRO, Melbourne.
Southwell, C. J. 1989. Techniques for monitoring the abundance of kangaroo and wallaby populations. Pp. 659-93 in Kangaroos, Wallabies and Rat-Kangaroos. edited by G. C. Grigg, P. J. Jarman, and I. Hume. Surrey Beatty, Sydney.
Southwell, C. J. 1994. Evaluation of walked line transect counts for estimating macropod density. Journal of Wildlife Management 58, 348-356.
Southwell, C. J., Cairns, S. C., Palmer, R., Delaney, R. and Broers, R. 1997. Abundance of large macropods in the eastern highlands of Australia. Wildlife Society Bulletin 25, 125-132.
StatSoft Inc. 2004. STATISTICA (data analysis software system), version 6. StatSoft Inc., www.statsoft.com.
Stewart, K. M., Bowyer, R. T., Dick, B. L., Johnson, B. K. and Kie, J. G. 2005. Density-dependent effects on physical condition and reproduction in North American elk: an experimental test. Oecologia 143, 85-93.
Stuart-Dick, R. I. 1987 Parental Investment and Rearing Schedules in the Eastern Grey Kangaroo. PhD. Thesis. University of New England, Armidale.
Stuart-Dick, R. I. and Higginbottom, K. B. 1989. Strategies of parental investment in Macropodoids. Pp. 571-92 in Kangaroos, Wallabies and Rat Kangaroos. edited by G. C. Grigg, P. J. Jarman, and I. D. Hume. Surrey Beatty, Sydney.
Wilson, M. and Croft, D. B. 2005 Kangaroos: Myths and Realities. 3rd Edn. Australian Wildlife Protection Council Inc., Sydney.
Witte, I. 2005. Kangaroos - misunderstood and maligned reproductive miracle workers. Pp. 188-207 in Kangaroos: Myths and Realities. 3rd Edn. edited by M. Wilson and D. B. Croft. Australian Wildlife Protection Council Inc., Sydney.
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