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This paper examines populations of both abundant and overabundant native vertebrate species in New South Wales, human perceptions of the problem of overabundance and the ethical dimensions faced by managers. We argue that overabundant native vertebrate species form a group requiring specific policy and management attention, just as threatened species as a group have received special attention. The biological scores of a 1992 review of the status of all the native birds, mammals, frogs and reptiles in New South Wales were re-examined to identify the abundant species. Overabundant species, those that are too abundant, were identified from the licensing records of the Department of Environment and Climate Change (NSW) which lists species for which management action has been employed to control their numbers or impacts. Of the 891 species of native vertebrates listed in the 1992 study, 109 were identified as abundant, but not overabundant, while 50 were identified as overabundant (11 mammals and 39 birds).

Ampt, P. and Baumber, A. 2006. Building connections between kangaroos, commerce and conservation in the rangelands. Australian Zoologist 33: 398-409.
Archer, M. 2002. Confronting crises in conservation: a talk on the wild side. Pp.12-52 in A Zoological Revolution. Using native fauna to assist in its own survival, edited by D. Lunney and C. Dickman. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW, and Australian Museum, Sydney.
Archer, M. and Beale, B. 2004 Going Native. Living in the Australian environment. Hodder Headline, Sydney.
Augee, M. 1995. Short-beaked Echidna Tachyglossus aculeatus. Pp 40-43 in The Mammals of Australia, edited by R. Strahan. Reed Books, Chatswood, NSW.
Baker, J. 2004. Endangered populations: the concept in practice. Pp. 82-87 in Threatened species legislation: is it just an Act? edited by P. Hutchings, D. Lunney and C. Dickman. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Baumber, A. and Ampt, P. 2006. Book review of Kangaroos: Myths and Realities. 2005. 3rd edition, edited by M. Wilson and D.B. Croft. Australian Zoologist 33: 315-21.
Burns, G. L. 2006. The fascination of fur and feathers: managing human-animal interactions in wildlife tourism settings. Australian Zoologist 33: 446-57.
Cathles, H. 2001. A landholder perspective. Pp. 75-83 in A Symposium on the Dingo, edited by C. Dickman and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Catterall, C.A. 2004. Birds, garden plants and suburban bushlots: where good intentions meet unexpected outcomes. Pp. 21-31 in Urban Wildlife: more than meets the eye, edited by D. Lunney and S. Burgin. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Chapple, R. 2005. The politics of feral horse management in Guy Fawkes River National Park, NSW. Australian Zoologist 33: 233-46.
Commonwealth of Australia. 2002 Australian Terrestrial Biodiversity Assessment 2002. National Land and Water Resources Audit, ACT.
Dickman, C. and Lunney, D. (eds). 2001 A Symposium on the Dingo. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Eby, P. and Lunney, D. (eds). 2002 Managing the Grey-headed Flying-fox as aThreatened Species in New South Wales. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Garrott, R.A., White, P.J. and Vanderbuilt White, C.A. 1993. Overabundance: an issue for conservation biologists. Conservation Biology 7: 946-49.
Gigon, A., Langenauer, R., Meier, C. and Nievergelt, B. 2000. Blue lists of threatened species with stabilized or increasing abundance: a new instrument for conservation. Conservation Biology 14: 402-13.
Grigg, G. 2002. Conservation benefit from harvesting kangaroos: status report at the start of a new millennium. A paper to stimulate discussion and research. Pp.53-76 in A Zoological Revolution. Using native fauna to assist in its own survival, edited by D. Lunney and C. Dickman. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW, and Australian Museum, Sydney.
Grigg, G.C., Hale, P.T. and Lunney, D. (eds) 1995 Conservation Through Sustainable Use of Wildlife. Centre for Conservation Biology, University of Queensland, Brisbane.
Higgins, P.J., Peter, J.M. and Steele, W.K. 2001 Handbook of Australian, New Zealand and Antarctic Birds Vol 5. Oxford University Press, Melbourne.
Hutchings, P., Lunney, D. and Dickman, C. (eds). 2004 Threatened Species Legislation: is it just an Act? Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
Krebs, C. J. 1994 The Experimental Analysis of Distribution and Abundance. (4th edition). Harper Collins College Publishers, New York, USA.
Lunney, D. 1995. Kangaroo harvesting in the context of ecologically sustainable development (ESD) and biodiversity conservation. Pp.166-75 in Conservation Through Sustainable use of Wildlife, edited by G.C. Grigg, P.T. Hale and D. Lunney. Centre for Conservation Biology, University of Queensland, Brisbane.
Lunney, D., Curtin, A., Ayers, D., Cogger, H.G. and Dickman, C.R. 1996. An ecological approach to identifying the endangered fauna of New South Wales. Pacific Conservation Biology 2: 212-31.
Lunney, D. and Grigg, G. (eds). 1988 Kangaroo harvesting and the conservation of arid and semi-arid lands. Special Edition of Australian Zoologist 24: 121-93.
Lunney, D. and Dickman, C. (eds). 2002 A Zoological Revolution. Using native fauna to assist in its own survival. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW, and Australian Museum, Sydney, NSW.
Lunney, D., Curtin, A.L., Ayers, D., Cogger, H.G., Dickman, C.R., Maitz, W., Law, B. and Fisher, D. 2000. The threatened and non-threatened native vertebrate fauna of New South Wales: status and ecological attributes. Environmental and Heritage Monograph Series No. 4. National Parks and Wildlife Service, Hurstville, NSW.
Lunney, D., Matthews, A., Cogger, H. and Dickman, C. 2004. The neglected 74% - the non-threatened vertebrates - and a reflection on the limitations of the process that fashioned the current schedules of threatened species in New South Wales. Pp. 145-57 in Threatened Species Legislation: is it just an Act?, edited by P. Hutchings, D. Lunney, and C. Dickman. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
McKenzie, N.L., Burbidge, A.A., Baynes, A., Brereton, R.N., Dickman, C.R., Gordon, G., Gibson, L.A., Menkhorst, P.W., Robinson, A.C., Williams, M.R. and Woinarski, J.C.Z. 2007. Analysis of factors implicated in the recent decline of Australia's mammal fauna. Journal of Biogeography 34: 597-611.
Marks, C. 1999. Ethical issues in vertebrate pest management: can we balance the welfare of individuals and ecosystems? Pp. 79-89 in The Use of Wildlife in Research, edited by D. Mellor and V. Monamy. ANZCCART, Glen Osmond, South Australia.
Matthews, A., Lunney, D., Waples, K. and Hardy, J. 2004. Brushtail possums: “Champion of the suburbs” or “Our tormentors”. Pp. 159-68 in Urban Wildlife: more than meets the eye, edited by D. Lunney and S. Burgin. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Mellor, D. and Monamy, V. (eds). 1999 The Use of Wildlife in Research. ANZCCART, Glen Osmond, South Australia.
Oogjies, G. 1999. Our ethical obligation to “mislocated” animals - the Animals Australia approach. Pp. 100-7 in The Use of Wildlife in Research, edited by D. Mellor and V. Monamy. ANZCCART, Glen Osmond, South Australia.
Ramp, D., Caldwell, J., Edwards, K.A., Warton, D. and Croft, D. 2005. Modelling of wildlife fatality hotspots along the snowy mountain highway in New South Wales, Australia. Biological Conservation 126: 474-90.
Rose, M. 1998. Ethical dilemmas and imperatives in a changing animal welfare mandate. Pp 26-31 in Ethics, Money and Politics, edited by D. Lunney and T. Dawson. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW, Australia.
Rose, M. 2003. Ethical decisions - responsibilities and outcomes. ANZCCART News 16 (1): 1-4.
Ross, G A. 2004. Ibis in urban Sydney: a gift from Ra or a Pharaoh's Curse? Pp. 148-52 in Urban Wildlife: more than meets the eye, edited by D. Lunney and S. Burgin. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Sinclair, A.R.E., Fryxell, J.M. and Caughley, G. 2006 Wildlife Ecology, Conservation and Management. Blackwell, Carlton, Victoria.
Smith, G. and Carlisle, N. 1993. Models for population control within a silver gull colony. Wildlife Research 20: 219-26.
Waples, K. A. and Stagoll, C. S. 1997. Ethical issues in the release of animals from captivity. Bioscience 47: 115-120.
Wilson, M. and Croft, D.B. (eds). 2004 Kangaroos: Myths and Realities. Australian Wildlife Protection Council, Melbourne, Victoria.
Woodford, J. 2006. P.4, Sydney Morning Herald, 4 December 2006.
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References

Ampt, P. and Baumber, A. 2006. Building connections between kangaroos, commerce and conservation in the rangelands. Australian Zoologist 33: 398-409.
Archer, M. 2002. Confronting crises in conservation: a talk on the wild side. Pp.12-52 in A Zoological Revolution. Using native fauna to assist in its own survival, edited by D. Lunney and C. Dickman. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW, and Australian Museum, Sydney.
Archer, M. and Beale, B. 2004 Going Native. Living in the Australian environment. Hodder Headline, Sydney.
Augee, M. 1995. Short-beaked Echidna Tachyglossus aculeatus. Pp 40-43 in The Mammals of Australia, edited by R. Strahan. Reed Books, Chatswood, NSW.
Baker, J. 2004. Endangered populations: the concept in practice. Pp. 82-87 in Threatened species legislation: is it just an Act? edited by P. Hutchings, D. Lunney and C. Dickman. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Baumber, A. and Ampt, P. 2006. Book review of Kangaroos: Myths and Realities. 2005. 3rd edition, edited by M. Wilson and D.B. Croft. Australian Zoologist 33: 315-21.
Burns, G. L. 2006. The fascination of fur and feathers: managing human-animal interactions in wildlife tourism settings. Australian Zoologist 33: 446-57.
Cathles, H. 2001. A landholder perspective. Pp. 75-83 in A Symposium on the Dingo, edited by C. Dickman and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Catterall, C.A. 2004. Birds, garden plants and suburban bushlots: where good intentions meet unexpected outcomes. Pp. 21-31 in Urban Wildlife: more than meets the eye, edited by D. Lunney and S. Burgin. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Chapple, R. 2005. The politics of feral horse management in Guy Fawkes River National Park, NSW. Australian Zoologist 33: 233-46.
Commonwealth of Australia. 2002 Australian Terrestrial Biodiversity Assessment 2002. National Land and Water Resources Audit, ACT.
Dickman, C. and Lunney, D. (eds). 2001 A Symposium on the Dingo. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Eby, P. and Lunney, D. (eds). 2002 Managing the Grey-headed Flying-fox as aThreatened Species in New South Wales. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Garrott, R.A., White, P.J. and Vanderbuilt White, C.A. 1993. Overabundance: an issue for conservation biologists. Conservation Biology 7: 946-49.
Gigon, A., Langenauer, R., Meier, C. and Nievergelt, B. 2000. Blue lists of threatened species with stabilized or increasing abundance: a new instrument for conservation. Conservation Biology 14: 402-13.
Grigg, G. 2002. Conservation benefit from harvesting kangaroos: status report at the start of a new millennium. A paper to stimulate discussion and research. Pp.53-76 in A Zoological Revolution. Using native fauna to assist in its own survival, edited by D. Lunney and C. Dickman. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW, and Australian Museum, Sydney.
Grigg, G.C., Hale, P.T. and Lunney, D. (eds) 1995 Conservation Through Sustainable Use of Wildlife. Centre for Conservation Biology, University of Queensland, Brisbane.
Higgins, P.J., Peter, J.M. and Steele, W.K. 2001 Handbook of Australian, New Zealand and Antarctic Birds Vol 5. Oxford University Press, Melbourne.
Hutchings, P., Lunney, D. and Dickman, C. (eds). 2004 Threatened Species Legislation: is it just an Act? Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
Krebs, C. J. 1994 The Experimental Analysis of Distribution and Abundance. (4th edition). Harper Collins College Publishers, New York, USA.
Lunney, D. 1995. Kangaroo harvesting in the context of ecologically sustainable development (ESD) and biodiversity conservation. Pp.166-75 in Conservation Through Sustainable use of Wildlife, edited by G.C. Grigg, P.T. Hale and D. Lunney. Centre for Conservation Biology, University of Queensland, Brisbane.
Lunney, D., Curtin, A., Ayers, D., Cogger, H.G. and Dickman, C.R. 1996. An ecological approach to identifying the endangered fauna of New South Wales. Pacific Conservation Biology 2: 212-31.
Lunney, D. and Grigg, G. (eds). 1988 Kangaroo harvesting and the conservation of arid and semi-arid lands. Special Edition of Australian Zoologist 24: 121-93.
Lunney, D. and Dickman, C. (eds). 2002 A Zoological Revolution. Using native fauna to assist in its own survival. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW, and Australian Museum, Sydney, NSW.
Lunney, D., Curtin, A.L., Ayers, D., Cogger, H.G., Dickman, C.R., Maitz, W., Law, B. and Fisher, D. 2000. The threatened and non-threatened native vertebrate fauna of New South Wales: status and ecological attributes. Environmental and Heritage Monograph Series No. 4. National Parks and Wildlife Service, Hurstville, NSW.
Lunney, D., Matthews, A., Cogger, H. and Dickman, C. 2004. The neglected 74% - the non-threatened vertebrates - and a reflection on the limitations of the process that fashioned the current schedules of threatened species in New South Wales. Pp. 145-57 in Threatened Species Legislation: is it just an Act?, edited by P. Hutchings, D. Lunney, and C. Dickman. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
McKenzie, N.L., Burbidge, A.A., Baynes, A., Brereton, R.N., Dickman, C.R., Gordon, G., Gibson, L.A., Menkhorst, P.W., Robinson, A.C., Williams, M.R. and Woinarski, J.C.Z. 2007. Analysis of factors implicated in the recent decline of Australia's mammal fauna. Journal of Biogeography 34: 597-611.
Marks, C. 1999. Ethical issues in vertebrate pest management: can we balance the welfare of individuals and ecosystems? Pp. 79-89 in The Use of Wildlife in Research, edited by D. Mellor and V. Monamy. ANZCCART, Glen Osmond, South Australia.
Matthews, A., Lunney, D., Waples, K. and Hardy, J. 2004. Brushtail possums: “Champion of the suburbs” or “Our tormentors”. Pp. 159-68 in Urban Wildlife: more than meets the eye, edited by D. Lunney and S. Burgin. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Mellor, D. and Monamy, V. (eds). 1999 The Use of Wildlife in Research. ANZCCART, Glen Osmond, South Australia.
Oogjies, G. 1999. Our ethical obligation to “mislocated” animals - the Animals Australia approach. Pp. 100-7 in The Use of Wildlife in Research, edited by D. Mellor and V. Monamy. ANZCCART, Glen Osmond, South Australia.
Ramp, D., Caldwell, J., Edwards, K.A., Warton, D. and Croft, D. 2005. Modelling of wildlife fatality hotspots along the snowy mountain highway in New South Wales, Australia. Biological Conservation 126: 474-90.
Rose, M. 1998. Ethical dilemmas and imperatives in a changing animal welfare mandate. Pp 26-31 in Ethics, Money and Politics, edited by D. Lunney and T. Dawson. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW, Australia.
Rose, M. 2003. Ethical decisions - responsibilities and outcomes. ANZCCART News 16 (1): 1-4.
Ross, G A. 2004. Ibis in urban Sydney: a gift from Ra or a Pharaoh's Curse? Pp. 148-52 in Urban Wildlife: more than meets the eye, edited by D. Lunney and S. Burgin. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Sinclair, A.R.E., Fryxell, J.M. and Caughley, G. 2006 Wildlife Ecology, Conservation and Management. Blackwell, Carlton, Victoria.
Smith, G. and Carlisle, N. 1993. Models for population control within a silver gull colony. Wildlife Research 20: 219-26.
Waples, K. A. and Stagoll, C. S. 1997. Ethical issues in the release of animals from captivity. Bioscience 47: 115-120.
Wilson, M. and Croft, D.B. (eds). 2004 Kangaroos: Myths and Realities. Australian Wildlife Protection Council, Melbourne, Victoria.
Woodford, J. 2006. P.4, Sydney Morning Herald, 4 December 2006.
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