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Grey kangaroo populations in south-eastern Australia can increase to the point where they are considered overabundant. In such populations, the management problem is too often oversimplified as high population density. A more useful approach is to identify the key, underlying problems associated with kangaroos and set clear objectives for them. Kangaroo-related problems may include road accidents, attacks on people, zoonotic disease, contamination of water supplies, lost crop production and competition with threatened species, as well as affects on kangaroos themselves, such as poor body condition and heavy juvenile mortality. Once specific problems have been identified, managers should set objectives that are clear and realistic. Population targets then have to be set for the density required to meet management objectives. Currently, some approaches to this are inadequate: basing targets by comparing density with other populations ignores site-specific differences in productivity and habitat structure; calculating the ecological carrying capacity considers only food resources and neglects other effects; constructing grazing exclosures provides no data on intermediate densities. The relationship between the problem and the population can be explored by analysing time-series data, but is most effectively elucidated by experimentally manipulating population density and measuring responses in the level of the problem.

Abu-Zidan, F., Parmar, K. and Rao, S. 2002. Kangaroo-related motor vehicle collisions. Journal of Trauma-injury Infection and Critical Care 53: 360-363.
A.C.T. Kangaroo Advisory Committee 1996 Living With Eastern Grey Kangaroos in the A.C.T. - Rural Lands. First report to the Minister for the Environment, Land and Planning, Australian Capital Territory, Canberra.
A.C.T. Kangaroo Advisory Committee 1997 Living With Eastern Grey Kangaroos in the A.C.T. - Public Land. Third report to the Minister for the Environment, Land and Planning. Australian Capital Territory, Canberra.
Adderton Herbert, C. 2004. Long-acting contraceptives: a new tool to manage overabundant kangaroo populations in nature reserves and urban areas. Australian Mammalogy 26: 67-74.
Alviano, P. 2000 The Impact of Kangaroo Grazing on Sediment and Nutrient Mobilisation. Ph. D. Thesis, University of Melbourne.
Arnold, G. W. and Steven, D. E., 1988. Variations in distribution of western grey kangaroos, Macropus fuliginosus ocydromus, in the Tutanning Nature Reserve and their impact on adjacent farmland. Australian Wildlife Research 15: 119-128.
Arnold, G. W., Steven, D. E. and Weeldenburg, J. R. 1989. The use of surrounding farmland by western grey kangaroos living in a remnant of wandoo woodland and their impact on crop production Australian Wildlife Research 16: 85-93.
Arundel, J. H., Dempster, K. J., Harrigan, K. E. and Black, R., 1990. Epidemiological observations on the helminth parasites of Macropus giganteus Shaw in Victoria. Australian Wildlife Research 17: 39-51.
Barker, I. K., Harrigan, K. E. and Dempster, J. K. 1972. Coccidiosis in wild grey kangaroos. International Journal of Parasitology 2: 187-92.
Barker, R. D. 1987. The diet of herbivores in the sheep rangelands. Pp. 69-83 in Kangaroos: their Ecology and Management in the Sheep Rangelands of Australia, edited by G. Caughley, N. Shepherd and J. Short. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Barnes, A. and Hill, G. J. E. 1992. Estimating kangaroo damage to winter wheat crops in the Bungunya district of southern Queensland. Wildlife Research 19: 417-27.
Bayliss, P. and Choquenot, D. 2002. The numerical response: rates of increase and food limitation in herbivores and predators. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society Series B 357: 1233-1248.
Ben-Ami, D. 2005. Kangaroo conundrums: kangaroo management in the peri-urban environment. Pp. 174-186 in Kangaroos - Myths and Realities, edited by M. Wilson and D.B. Croft. Australian Wildlife Protection Council, Melbourne.
Bender, H. 2003. Deterrence of kangaroos from agricultural areas using ultrasonic frequencies: efficacy of a commercial device. Wildlife Society Bulletin 31: 1037-1046.
Bender, H. 2005. Effectiveness of the eastern grey kangaroo foot thump for deterring conspecifics. Wildlife Research 32: 649-655.
Catanchin, H. 2005 Addressing Human-wildlife Conflicts: Population Assessment of Eastern Grey Kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) in Anglesea, Victoria. Honours Thesis, Department of Zoology, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria.
Caughley, G. 1981. Overpopulation. Pp. 7-19 in Problems in the Management of Locally Abundant Wild Animals, edited by P. A. Jewell, S. Holt, and D. Hart. Academic Press, New York.
Caughley, G. 1987a. Ecological relationships. Pp. 159-187 in Kangaroos: their Ecology and Management in the Sheep Rangelands of Australia, edited by G. Caughley, N. Shepherd and J. Short. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Caughley, G. 1987b. Introduction to the sheep rangelands. Pp. 1-13 in Kangaroos: their Ecology and Management in the Sheep Rangelands of Australia, edited by G. Caughley, N. Shepherd and J. Short. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Caughley, G. and Gunn, A. 1996 Conservation biology in Theory and Practice. Blackwell Science, Cambridge, Mass.
Cheal, D. 1986. A park with a kangaroo problem. Oryx 20:95-99.
Coulson, G. 1990. Hattah-Kulkyne Kangaroo Management Plan. Pp. 1-13. in Restoring the Balance: A Kangaroo Control Program for the Hattah-Kulkyne National Park. Department of Conservation & Environment, Melbourne.
Coulson, G. 1993. Use of heterogeneous habitat by the western grey kangaroo, Macropus fuliginosus. Wildlife Research 20: 137-149.
Coulson, G. 1998. Management of overabundant macropods - are there conservation benefits? Pp. 37-48 in Managing Marsupial Abundance for Conservation Benefits. Issues in Marsupial Conservation & Management, edited by A. Austin. Occasional Papers of the Marsupial CRC No. 1, Sydney.
Coulson, G. 2001. Overabundant kangaroo populations in southeastern Australia. Pp. 238-242 in Wildlife, Land and People: Priorities for the 21st Century. Proceedings of the Second International Wildlife Management Congress, edited by R. Field, R. J. Warren, H. Okarma and P. R. Sievert. The Wildlife Society, Bethesda, Maryland.
Coulson, G., Alviano, P., Ramp, D. and Way, S. 1999. The kangaroos of Yan Yean: history of a problem population. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria 111: 121-130.
Coulson, G., Alviano, P., Ramp, D., Way, S., McLean, N. and Yazgin, V. 2000. The kangaroos of Yan Yean: issues for a forested water catchment in a semi rural matrix. Pp. 146-156 in Nature Conservation 5: Conservation in Production Environments, edited by J. L. Craig, N. Mitchell and D. A. Saunders. Surrey Beatty & Sons, Chipping-Norton, NSW.
Coulson, G. M. and Raines, J. A. 1985. Methods for small-scale surveys of grey kangaroo populations. Australian Wildlife Research 12: 119-125.
Hill, G. J. E., Barnes, A. and Wilson, G.R. 1988. The use of wheat crops by grey kangaroos, Macropus giganteus, in southern Queensland. Australian Wildlife Research 15: 111-7.
Hone, J. 1994 Analysis of Vertebrate Pest Control. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Kirkpatrick, T. H. and McEvoy, J. S. 1966. Studies of Macropodidae in Queensland. 5. Effects of drought on reproduction in the grey kangaroo (Macropus giganteus). Queensland Journal of Agricultural and Animal Sciences 23: 339-442.
Lander, M. 2005. Slaughter at Googong Dam. Pp. 139-143 in Kangaroos - Myths and Realities, edited by M. Wilson and D.B. Croft. Australian Wildlife Protection Council, Melbourne.
Lee, E., Klöcker, U., Croft, D.B. and Ramp, D. 2004. Kangaroo-vehicle collisions in Australia's sheep rangelands, during and following drought periods. Australian Mammalogy 26: 215-226.
Leigh, J. H., Wood, D. H., Holgate, M. D., Slee, A. and Stanger, M. G. 1989. Effects of rabbit and kangaroo grazing on two semi-arid grassland communities in central-western New South Wales. Australian Journal of Botany 37: 375-396.
Linden, R. 2005. Puckapunyal Military Area. Victoria's killing fields. Pp. 63-67 in Kangaroos - Myths and Realities, edited by M. Wilson and D.B. Croft. Australian Wildlife Protection Council, Melbourne.
McDonald-Madden, E. and Coulson, G. 2002. A population study of eastern grey kangaroos Macropus giganteus at Tower Hill State Game Reserve, south-western Victoria. Victorian Naturalist 119: 252-258.
Meers, T. and Adams, R. 2003. The impact of grazing by eastern grey kangaroos ( Macropus giganteus) on vegetation recovery after fire at Reef Hills Regional Park, Victoria. Ecological Management and Restoration 4: 126-132.
Nave, C. D., Coulson, G., Poiani, A., Shaw, G. and Renfree, M. B. 2002. Fertility control in the eastern grey kangaroo using levenorgestrel implants. Journal of Wildlife Management 66: 470-477.
Neave, H. M. and Tanton, M. T. 1989. The effects of grazing by kangaroos and rabbits on the vegetation and the habitat of other fauna in the Tidbinbilla Nature Reserve, Australian Capital Territory. Australian Wildlife Research 16:337-351.
Norbury, G. L., Coulson, G. M. and Walters, B. L. 1988. Aspects of the demography of the western grey kangaroo, Macropus fuliginosus melanops, in semiarid north-west Victoria. Australian Wildlife Research 15: 257-66.
Power, M. L., Slade, M. B., Sangster, N. C., and Veal, D. A. 2004a. Genetic characterisation of Cryptospyridium from a wild population of eastern grey kangaroos Macropus giganteus inhabiting a water catchment. Infection, Genetics and Evolution 4: 59-67.
Power, M. L., Slade, M. B., Shanker, S. R., Sangster, N. C. and Veal, D. A. 2004b Cryptospyridium in eastern grey kangaroos Macropus giganteus. Pp. 207-209 in Cryptospyridium: from Molecules to Disease, edited by R.C.A. Thompson. Elsevier Science B.V.
Raines, J. A. 1982. Density estimates of three herbivores on Rotamah Island, Gippsland. Victorian Naturalist 99: 142-143.
Ramp, D. 2005. Is ‘control’ of kangaroo populations really necessary? Pp. 208-220 in Kangaroos - Myths and Realities, edited by M. Wilson and D.B. Croft. Australian Wildlife Protection Council, Melbourne.
Sandell, P., Ballentine, M. and Horner, G. 2002 Vegetation recovery in the Victorian Mallee Parks 1991-1998. Conservation Environmental Management Occasional Paper Series. Parks Victoria, Melbourne.
Shepherd, N. and Caughley, G. 1987. Options for management of kangaroos. Pp. 188-219 in Kangaroos: their Ecology and Management in the Sheep Rangelands of Australia, edited by G. Caughley, N. Shepherd and J. Short. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Sluiter, I. R. K., Allen, G. G., Morgan, D. G., Walker, I. S. 1997 Vegetation responses to stratified kangaroo grazing pressure at Hattah-Kulkyne National Park, 1992-96, Flora and Fauna Technical Report No. 149. Parks Victoria, Melbourne.
Tanner, Z. and Hocking, G. 2001 Status and management of the forester kangaroo in tasmania, 2000. Nature Conservation Report 2001/02. Department of Primary Industries, Water and Environment, Hobart.
Viggers, K. L. and Hearn, J. P. 2005. The kangaroo conundrum: home range studies and implications for management. Journal of Applied Ecology 42: 99-107.
Walters, C. J. and Holling, C. S. 1990. Large-scale management experiments and learning by doing. Ecology 71: 2060-2068.
Wilson, A. D. 1991a. Forage utilization by sheep and kangaroos in a semi-arid woodland. The Rangeland Journal 13: 81-90.
Wilson, A. D. 1991b. The influence of kangaroos and forage supply on sheep productivity in the semi-arid woodlands. The Rangeland Journal 13: 69-80.
Woolnough, A. P. and Johnson, C. N. 2000. Assessment of the potential for competition between two sympatric herbivores - the northern hairy-nosed wombat, Lasiorhinus krefftii, and the eastern grey kangaroo, Macropus giganteus. Wildlife Research 27: 301-308.
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References

Abu-Zidan, F., Parmar, K. and Rao, S. 2002. Kangaroo-related motor vehicle collisions. Journal of Trauma-injury Infection and Critical Care 53: 360-363.
A.C.T. Kangaroo Advisory Committee 1996 Living With Eastern Grey Kangaroos in the A.C.T. - Rural Lands. First report to the Minister for the Environment, Land and Planning, Australian Capital Territory, Canberra.
A.C.T. Kangaroo Advisory Committee 1997 Living With Eastern Grey Kangaroos in the A.C.T. - Public Land. Third report to the Minister for the Environment, Land and Planning. Australian Capital Territory, Canberra.
Adderton Herbert, C. 2004. Long-acting contraceptives: a new tool to manage overabundant kangaroo populations in nature reserves and urban areas. Australian Mammalogy 26: 67-74.
Alviano, P. 2000 The Impact of Kangaroo Grazing on Sediment and Nutrient Mobilisation. Ph. D. Thesis, University of Melbourne.
Arnold, G. W. and Steven, D. E., 1988. Variations in distribution of western grey kangaroos, Macropus fuliginosus ocydromus, in the Tutanning Nature Reserve and their impact on adjacent farmland. Australian Wildlife Research 15: 119-128.
Arnold, G. W., Steven, D. E. and Weeldenburg, J. R. 1989. The use of surrounding farmland by western grey kangaroos living in a remnant of wandoo woodland and their impact on crop production Australian Wildlife Research 16: 85-93.
Arundel, J. H., Dempster, K. J., Harrigan, K. E. and Black, R., 1990. Epidemiological observations on the helminth parasites of Macropus giganteus Shaw in Victoria. Australian Wildlife Research 17: 39-51.
Barker, I. K., Harrigan, K. E. and Dempster, J. K. 1972. Coccidiosis in wild grey kangaroos. International Journal of Parasitology 2: 187-92.
Barker, R. D. 1987. The diet of herbivores in the sheep rangelands. Pp. 69-83 in Kangaroos: their Ecology and Management in the Sheep Rangelands of Australia, edited by G. Caughley, N. Shepherd and J. Short. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Barnes, A. and Hill, G. J. E. 1992. Estimating kangaroo damage to winter wheat crops in the Bungunya district of southern Queensland. Wildlife Research 19: 417-27.
Bayliss, P. and Choquenot, D. 2002. The numerical response: rates of increase and food limitation in herbivores and predators. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society Series B 357: 1233-1248.
Ben-Ami, D. 2005. Kangaroo conundrums: kangaroo management in the peri-urban environment. Pp. 174-186 in Kangaroos - Myths and Realities, edited by M. Wilson and D.B. Croft. Australian Wildlife Protection Council, Melbourne.
Bender, H. 2003. Deterrence of kangaroos from agricultural areas using ultrasonic frequencies: efficacy of a commercial device. Wildlife Society Bulletin 31: 1037-1046.
Bender, H. 2005. Effectiveness of the eastern grey kangaroo foot thump for deterring conspecifics. Wildlife Research 32: 649-655.
Catanchin, H. 2005 Addressing Human-wildlife Conflicts: Population Assessment of Eastern Grey Kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) in Anglesea, Victoria. Honours Thesis, Department of Zoology, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria.
Caughley, G. 1981. Overpopulation. Pp. 7-19 in Problems in the Management of Locally Abundant Wild Animals, edited by P. A. Jewell, S. Holt, and D. Hart. Academic Press, New York.
Caughley, G. 1987a. Ecological relationships. Pp. 159-187 in Kangaroos: their Ecology and Management in the Sheep Rangelands of Australia, edited by G. Caughley, N. Shepherd and J. Short. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Caughley, G. 1987b. Introduction to the sheep rangelands. Pp. 1-13 in Kangaroos: their Ecology and Management in the Sheep Rangelands of Australia, edited by G. Caughley, N. Shepherd and J. Short. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Caughley, G. and Gunn, A. 1996 Conservation biology in Theory and Practice. Blackwell Science, Cambridge, Mass.
Cheal, D. 1986. A park with a kangaroo problem. Oryx 20:95-99.
Coulson, G. 1990. Hattah-Kulkyne Kangaroo Management Plan. Pp. 1-13. in Restoring the Balance: A Kangaroo Control Program for the Hattah-Kulkyne National Park. Department of Conservation & Environment, Melbourne.
Coulson, G. 1993. Use of heterogeneous habitat by the western grey kangaroo, Macropus fuliginosus. Wildlife Research 20: 137-149.
Coulson, G. 1998. Management of overabundant macropods - are there conservation benefits? Pp. 37-48 in Managing Marsupial Abundance for Conservation Benefits. Issues in Marsupial Conservation & Management, edited by A. Austin. Occasional Papers of the Marsupial CRC No. 1, Sydney.
Coulson, G. 2001. Overabundant kangaroo populations in southeastern Australia. Pp. 238-242 in Wildlife, Land and People: Priorities for the 21st Century. Proceedings of the Second International Wildlife Management Congress, edited by R. Field, R. J. Warren, H. Okarma and P. R. Sievert. The Wildlife Society, Bethesda, Maryland.
Coulson, G., Alviano, P., Ramp, D. and Way, S. 1999. The kangaroos of Yan Yean: history of a problem population. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria 111: 121-130.
Coulson, G., Alviano, P., Ramp, D., Way, S., McLean, N. and Yazgin, V. 2000. The kangaroos of Yan Yean: issues for a forested water catchment in a semi rural matrix. Pp. 146-156 in Nature Conservation 5: Conservation in Production Environments, edited by J. L. Craig, N. Mitchell and D. A. Saunders. Surrey Beatty & Sons, Chipping-Norton, NSW.
Coulson, G. M. and Raines, J. A. 1985. Methods for small-scale surveys of grey kangaroo populations. Australian Wildlife Research 12: 119-125.
Hill, G. J. E., Barnes, A. and Wilson, G.R. 1988. The use of wheat crops by grey kangaroos, Macropus giganteus, in southern Queensland. Australian Wildlife Research 15: 111-7.
Hone, J. 1994 Analysis of Vertebrate Pest Control. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Kirkpatrick, T. H. and McEvoy, J. S. 1966. Studies of Macropodidae in Queensland. 5. Effects of drought on reproduction in the grey kangaroo (Macropus giganteus). Queensland Journal of Agricultural and Animal Sciences 23: 339-442.
Lander, M. 2005. Slaughter at Googong Dam. Pp. 139-143 in Kangaroos - Myths and Realities, edited by M. Wilson and D.B. Croft. Australian Wildlife Protection Council, Melbourne.
Lee, E., Klöcker, U., Croft, D.B. and Ramp, D. 2004. Kangaroo-vehicle collisions in Australia's sheep rangelands, during and following drought periods. Australian Mammalogy 26: 215-226.
Leigh, J. H., Wood, D. H., Holgate, M. D., Slee, A. and Stanger, M. G. 1989. Effects of rabbit and kangaroo grazing on two semi-arid grassland communities in central-western New South Wales. Australian Journal of Botany 37: 375-396.
Linden, R. 2005. Puckapunyal Military Area. Victoria's killing fields. Pp. 63-67 in Kangaroos - Myths and Realities, edited by M. Wilson and D.B. Croft. Australian Wildlife Protection Council, Melbourne.
McDonald-Madden, E. and Coulson, G. 2002. A population study of eastern grey kangaroos Macropus giganteus at Tower Hill State Game Reserve, south-western Victoria. Victorian Naturalist 119: 252-258.
Meers, T. and Adams, R. 2003. The impact of grazing by eastern grey kangaroos ( Macropus giganteus) on vegetation recovery after fire at Reef Hills Regional Park, Victoria. Ecological Management and Restoration 4: 126-132.
Nave, C. D., Coulson, G., Poiani, A., Shaw, G. and Renfree, M. B. 2002. Fertility control in the eastern grey kangaroo using levenorgestrel implants. Journal of Wildlife Management 66: 470-477.
Neave, H. M. and Tanton, M. T. 1989. The effects of grazing by kangaroos and rabbits on the vegetation and the habitat of other fauna in the Tidbinbilla Nature Reserve, Australian Capital Territory. Australian Wildlife Research 16:337-351.
Norbury, G. L., Coulson, G. M. and Walters, B. L. 1988. Aspects of the demography of the western grey kangaroo, Macropus fuliginosus melanops, in semiarid north-west Victoria. Australian Wildlife Research 15: 257-66.
Power, M. L., Slade, M. B., Sangster, N. C., and Veal, D. A. 2004a. Genetic characterisation of Cryptospyridium from a wild population of eastern grey kangaroos Macropus giganteus inhabiting a water catchment. Infection, Genetics and Evolution 4: 59-67.
Power, M. L., Slade, M. B., Shanker, S. R., Sangster, N. C. and Veal, D. A. 2004b Cryptospyridium in eastern grey kangaroos Macropus giganteus. Pp. 207-209 in Cryptospyridium: from Molecules to Disease, edited by R.C.A. Thompson. Elsevier Science B.V.
Raines, J. A. 1982. Density estimates of three herbivores on Rotamah Island, Gippsland. Victorian Naturalist 99: 142-143.
Ramp, D. 2005. Is ‘control’ of kangaroo populations really necessary? Pp. 208-220 in Kangaroos - Myths and Realities, edited by M. Wilson and D.B. Croft. Australian Wildlife Protection Council, Melbourne.
Sandell, P., Ballentine, M. and Horner, G. 2002 Vegetation recovery in the Victorian Mallee Parks 1991-1998. Conservation Environmental Management Occasional Paper Series. Parks Victoria, Melbourne.
Shepherd, N. and Caughley, G. 1987. Options for management of kangaroos. Pp. 188-219 in Kangaroos: their Ecology and Management in the Sheep Rangelands of Australia, edited by G. Caughley, N. Shepherd and J. Short. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Sluiter, I. R. K., Allen, G. G., Morgan, D. G., Walker, I. S. 1997 Vegetation responses to stratified kangaroo grazing pressure at Hattah-Kulkyne National Park, 1992-96, Flora and Fauna Technical Report No. 149. Parks Victoria, Melbourne.
Tanner, Z. and Hocking, G. 2001 Status and management of the forester kangaroo in tasmania, 2000. Nature Conservation Report 2001/02. Department of Primary Industries, Water and Environment, Hobart.
Viggers, K. L. and Hearn, J. P. 2005. The kangaroo conundrum: home range studies and implications for management. Journal of Applied Ecology 42: 99-107.
Walters, C. J. and Holling, C. S. 1990. Large-scale management experiments and learning by doing. Ecology 71: 2060-2068.
Wilson, A. D. 1991a. Forage utilization by sheep and kangaroos in a semi-arid woodland. The Rangeland Journal 13: 81-90.
Wilson, A. D. 1991b. The influence of kangaroos and forage supply on sheep productivity in the semi-arid woodlands. The Rangeland Journal 13: 69-80.
Woolnough, A. P. and Johnson, C. N. 2000. Assessment of the potential for competition between two sympatric herbivores - the northern hairy-nosed wombat, Lasiorhinus krefftii, and the eastern grey kangaroo, Macropus giganteus. Wildlife Research 27: 301-308.
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