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With European settlement, the landscape of Australia changed dramatically due to clearing for agriculture, forestry and urban development. These changes have impacted on the diversity and abundance of many Australian native fauna. The avifauna provides a conspicuous example. Despite their generally striking colours, strident call and large body size, the status of parrot populations in urban regions have been largely ignored. We reviewed three bird data bases to determine trends. The two species, recorded within 10 km of Sydney's General Post Office pre-1900, are no longer present, although 15 species are now known from this area. Populations of the five most common of these species have continued to increase in the last 20 years, one appears to have remained unchanged and others are present in insufficient numbers to comment. No species appears to have declined in numbers. Escapees or deliberate releases from aviaries are major sources of birds that establish viable populations, although even in these populations, numbers may also have been supplemented by vagrants. We suggest that supplementary feeding, and changes in the vegetation in the city landscape, are major contributing factors to the current diversity and abundance of parrots within Sydney.

Barratt, D. G. 1997. Predation by house cats, Felis catus (L.), in Canberra, Australia. Prey composition and preference. Wildlife Research 24: 263-277.
Barrett, G., Silcocks, A., Barry, S., Cunningham, R., and Poulter, R. 2003 The Atlas of Australian Birds. Royal Australasian Ornithologists Union, Melbourne.
Barrett, G. and Silcocks, A. 2002 Comparison of the first and second Atlas of Australian Birds to Determine the Conservation Status of Woodland-dependent and Other Bird Species in New South Wales over the last 20 years. Birds Australia, Hawthorn East.
Belant, J. L. 1997. Gulls in urban environments - landscape-level management to reduce conflict. Landscape and Urban Planning (Amsterdam) 38: 245-258.
Blakers, M., Davies, S. J. J. F., and Reilly, P. N. 1984 The Atlas of Australian Birds, Melbourne University Press, Carlton.
Brittingham, M. C. 1991. Effects of winter feeding on wild birds. Pp. 185-190 in Wildlife Conservation in Metropolitan Environments, edited by L. W. Adams and D. L. Leedy. National Institute for Urban Wildlife, California.
Brittingham, M. C. and Temple, S. A. 1992. Does winter bird feeding promote dependency? Journal of Field Ornithology 63: 190-194.
Buchanan, R.A. 1989. Pied currawongs ( Strepera graculina): their diet and role in weed dispersal in suburban New South Wales. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales. 111: 241-255.
Burgin, S. 2004. A 2020 vision: urban wildlife in the backyards of the future. Pp. 219-226 in Urban Wildlife: More than Meets the Eye, edited by D. Lunney and S. Burgin. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman.
Cannon, A. 1999. The significance of private gardens for bird conservation. Bird Conservation International 9: 287-297.
Cannon, A. 2000 The Garden Birdwatch Handbook. British Trust for Ornithology, The Nunnery, Thetford.
Cannon, C. E. 1984. Movements of lorikeets with an artificially supplemented diet. Australian Wildlife Research 11: 173-179.
Catterall, C. 2004. Birds, garden plants and suburban bushlots: where good intentions meet unexpected outcomes. Pp. 21-31 in Urban Wildlife: More than Meets the Eye, edited by D. Lunney and S. Burgin. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman.
Catterall, C., Green, R. J. and Jones, D. N. 1991. Habitat use by birds across a forest-suburb interface in Brisbane: implications for corridors. Pp. 247-258 in Nature Conservation 2, The Role of Corridors, edited by D. A. Saunders and R. H. Hobbs. Surrey Beatty and Sons, Chipping Norton.
Chebez, J. C. and Bertonatti, C. C. 1991. On the presence of some subtropical parrots in Buenos Aires (Argentina) and surrounding area (Aves: Psittaciformes: Psittacidae). Boletin Cientifico APRONA (Buenos Aires) 19: 19-32.
Conover, M. R. 2002 Resolving Human-wildlife Conflicts: The Science of Wildlife Damage Management. Lewis Publishers, London.
Cowie, R. J. and Hinsley, S. A. 1987. Feeding ecology of great tits ( Parus major) and blue tits ( Parus caeruleus), breeding in suburban gardens. Journal of Animal Ecology 57: 611-626.
Crome, F. and Shields, J. 1992 Parrots and Pigeons of Australia. Angus and Robertson, Sydney.
Deis, R. 1986. Is bird feeding a no-no? Defenders 54: 17-18.
Elliot, R. 1994 Attracting wildlife to your garden. Lothian Books, Melbourne.
Ferrier, T., White, G. and Birbeck, J. 1993. Planning for bird conservation in urban Queensland. Pp. 195-196 in Birds and Their Habitats: Status and Conservation in Queensland edited by C. P. Catterall, P. Driscoll, K. Hulsman, and A. Taplin. Queensland Ornithological Society, Brisbane.
Fitzsimons, J. A., Antos, M. J. and White, J. G. 2003. Refugees and residents: Densities and habitat preferences of lorikeets in urban Melbourne. Australian Field Ornithology 20: 3-7.
Forshaw, J. M. 2002 Australian Parrots. Alexander Editions, Brisbane.
Franklin D. C. and Noske, R. A. 1999. Birds and nectar in a monsoonal woodland: correlations at three spatio-temporal scales. Emu 99: 15-28.
Garrett, K. L. 1997. Population status and distribution of naturalized parrots in southern California West. Birds 28: 181-195.
Gibbons, P. and Lindenmayer, D. 2002 Tree Hollows and Wildlife Conservation in Australia. CSIRO Press, Port Melbourne.
Grey, M. J., Clarke, M. F. and Loyn, R. H. 1998. Influence of the Noisy Minor Manorina melanocephala on avian diversity and abundance in remnant grey box woodland. Pacific Conservation Biology 4: 55-69.
Hindwood, K. A. 1939. Nectar-feeding birds near Sydney. Emu 39: 40-44.
Hoskin, E. S. 1991 Birds of Sydney. Surrey Beatty & Sons, Chipping Norton.
Howard, P. and Jones, D. N. 2004. A qualitative study of wildlife feeding in south-east Queensland. Pp. 55-62 in Urban Wildlife: More than Meets the Eye, edited by D. Lunney and S. Burgin. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman
Keast, A. 1995. Habitat loss and species loss: the birds of Sydney 50 years ago and now. Australian Zoologist 30: 3-25.
Knight, R. L. and Anderson, D. P. 1990. Effects of supplemental feeding on an avian scavenging guild. Wildlife Society Bulletin 18: 188-194.
Landsberg, H. E. 1981. The urban heat island. Pp. 83-126 in The Urban Climate edited by H. E. Landsberg. Academic Press, New York.
Law, B., Mackowski, C., Schoer, L. and Tweedie, T. 2000. Flowering phenology of myrtaceous trees and their relation to climatic, environmental and disturbance variables in northern New South Wales. Austral Ecology 25: 160-178.
Low, T. 1994. Invasion of the savage honeyeaters. Australian Natural History 24: 26-33.
Macdonald, J. D. 1992 Birds of Australia. Reed, Chatswood.
Major, R. E., Gowing, G., and Kendel, C. E. 1996. Nest predation in Australian urban environments and the role of the Pied Currawong, Strepera graculina. Australian Journal of Ecology 21: 399-409.
Matthews, A., Dickman, C. R. and Major, R. E. 1999. The influence of fragment size and edge nest predation in urban bushland. Ecography 22: 349-356.
McLees, B. 2001 Feeding wildlife: right and wrong. BSc (Hons). Deakin University, Melbourne.
Morecombe, M. 1986 The Great Australian Birdfinder. Promotional Reprints, Willoughby.
Moskoff, W. 2003. The Monk Parakeets of Chicago. Strangers in a strange land. Birding 35: 268-277.
Neck, R. W. 1986. Expansion of Red-crowned Parrot, Amazona viridigenalis, into southern Texas and changes in agricultural practices in northern Mexico. Texas Ornithological Society 19: 6-12.
North, A. J. 1889. A list of the birds found in the County of Cumberland. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 12: 1773-1780.
O'Leary, R. A. 2002 Implications of wildlife feeding in the suburban environment: a natural experiment involving Australian magpies. BSc (Hons), Griffith University, Brisbane.
O'Leary, R. A. and Jones, D. N. 2006. The use of supplementary foods by Australian magpies Gymnorhina tibicen: Implications for wildlife feeding in suburban environments. Austral Ecology 31: 208-216.
Parris, K. M. and Hazell, D. L. 2005. Biotic effects of climate change in urban environments: The case of the grey-headed flying-fox ( Pteropus poliocephalus) in Melbourne, Australia. Biological Conservation 124: 267-276.
Parsons, H. M. and Major, R. E. 2004. Bird interactions in Sydney gardens: some initial findings of the Birds in Backyards program. Pp. 211-215 in Urban Wildlife: More than Meets the Eye, edited by D. Lunney and S. Burgin. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman.
Parsons, H., Major, R. E. and French, K., 2006. Species interactions and habitat associations of birds inhabiting urban areas of Sydney, Australia. Austral Ecology 31: 217-227.
Perry, J. 2001. Factors influencing the distribution of Australian white ibis in urban Sydney. MSc Thesis, University of Sydney, Sydney.
Petterson, R. T. 2000 Feeder Birds. Houghton Mifflin, New York.
Piper, S. D. and Catterall, C. P. 2003. A particular case and a general pattern: hyperaggressive behaviour by one species may mediate avifaunal decreases in fragmented Australian forests. Oikos 101: 602-614.
Pizzey, G. 2000 The Australian Bird Garden. Creating Havens for Native Birds. Angus and Robertson, Sydney.
Recher, H. F. 2004. The Kings Park avifauna: keeping birds in the city. Pp. 8-20 in Urban Wildlife: More than Meets the Eye, edited by D. Lunney and S. Burgin. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman.
Recher, H. F., Hutchings, P. A. and Rosen, S. 1993. The biota of the Hawkesbury - Nepean catchment: reconstruction and restoration. Australian Zoologist 29: 3-41.
Recher, H. F., and Serventy, D. L. 1991. Long term changes in the relative abundance of birds in Kings Park, Perth, Western Australia. Conservation Biology 5: 90-102.
Rollinson, D. J., O'Leary, R. A. and Jones, D. N. 2003. The practice of wildlife feeding in suburban Brisbane. Corella 27: 52-58.
Ross, G. A. 2000. White ibis Threskiornis molucca at Sydney airport: the pertinacious pest? Proceedings of the NSW Pest Animal Control Conference, 25-27th October 2000. Orange.
Ross, G. A. 2004. Ibis in urban Sydney: a gift from Ra or a Pharaoh's curse? Pp. 148-152 in Urban Wildlife: More than Meets the Eye, edited by D. Lunney and S. Burgin. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman.
Schodde, R. and Tidemann, S. C. (eds) 1986 Reader's Digest Complete Book of Australian Birds. Reader's Digest Services, Sydney.
Shukuroglou. P. and McCarthy, M. A. 2006. Modelling the occurrence of rainbow lorikeets ( Trichoglossus haematodus) in Melbourne. Austral Ecology 31: 240-253.
Smith, G. C. and Carlile, N. 1993. Food and feeding ecology of breeding silver gulls ( Larus novaehollandiae) in urban Australia. Colonial Waterbirds 16: 9-17.
Sewell, S. R., and Catterall, C. P. 1998. Bushland modifications and styles of urban development: their effects on birds in south-eastern Queensland. Wildlife Research 25: 41-63.
Suhonen, J., and Jokimaki, J. 1988. A biogeographical comparison of the breeding bird species assemblages in twenty Finnish urban parks. Ornis Fennica 65: 76-83.
Temby, I. D. 2004. Silver gulls: urban waste creates flying problems. Pp. 151-158 in Urban Wildlife: More than Meets the Eye, edited by D. Lunney and S. Burgin. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman.
Thomas, L. 2000 Wildlife and humans in a suburban setting. New approaches to the management of positive and negative interactions. PhD, Griffith University, Brisbane.
Tomialojc, L. and Profus, P. 1977. Comparative analysis of breeding bird communities in two parks of Wroclaw and in an adjacent Querco carpinetum forest. Acta Ornithologica 29: 117-171.
Torok, S. J., Morris, C. J. G., Skinner, C. and Plummer, N. 2001. Urban heat island features of southeast Australian towns. Australian Meteorological Magazine. 50: 1-13.
Triggs, B., Brunner, H. and Cullen, J. M. 1984. The food of fox, dog and cat in Croajingalong National Park, South-eastern Victoria. Australian Wildlife Research 11: 491-499.
Veerman, P. A. 1991. The changing status of the Rainbow Lorikeet Trichoglossus haematodus in south-east Australia: the role of wild and escaped birds. Australian Bird Watcher 14: 3-9.
Waterhouse, R. D. 1997. Some observations on the ecology of the rainbow lorikeet Trichoglossus haematodus in Oatley, South Sydney. Corella 21: 17-24.
White, A. W. and Burgin, S, 2004. Current status and future prospects of reptiles and frogs in Sydney's urban-impacted bushland reserves. Pp. 109-123 in Urban Wildlife: More than Meets the Eye, edited by D. Lunney and S. Burgin. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman.
White, J. G., Antos, M. J., Fitzsimons, J. A. and Palmer, G. C. 2005. Non-uniform bird assemblages in urban environments: the influence of streetscape vegetation. Landscape and Urban Planning 71: 123-135.
Wilson, W. H. 2001. The effects of supplementary feeding on wintering black-capped chickadees ( Pocile atricapilla) in central Maine: population individual responses. Wilson Bulletin 113: 65-72.
Woodall, P. R. 1995. Results of the QOS garden survey, 1979-1980, with particular reference to South-east Queensland. Sunbird 25: 1-17.
Woodall, P. R. 2002. The Birds Queensland garden bird survey, 1999. Sunbird 32: 37-51.
Woods, M., McDonald, R. A. and Harris, S. 2003. Predation of wildlife by domestic cats Felis catus in Great Britain. Mammal Review 33: 174-188.
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References

Barratt, D. G. 1997. Predation by house cats, Felis catus (L.), in Canberra, Australia. Prey composition and preference. Wildlife Research 24: 263-277.
Barrett, G., Silcocks, A., Barry, S., Cunningham, R., and Poulter, R. 2003 The Atlas of Australian Birds. Royal Australasian Ornithologists Union, Melbourne.
Barrett, G. and Silcocks, A. 2002 Comparison of the first and second Atlas of Australian Birds to Determine the Conservation Status of Woodland-dependent and Other Bird Species in New South Wales over the last 20 years. Birds Australia, Hawthorn East.
Belant, J. L. 1997. Gulls in urban environments - landscape-level management to reduce conflict. Landscape and Urban Planning (Amsterdam) 38: 245-258.
Blakers, M., Davies, S. J. J. F., and Reilly, P. N. 1984 The Atlas of Australian Birds, Melbourne University Press, Carlton.
Brittingham, M. C. 1991. Effects of winter feeding on wild birds. Pp. 185-190 in Wildlife Conservation in Metropolitan Environments, edited by L. W. Adams and D. L. Leedy. National Institute for Urban Wildlife, California.
Brittingham, M. C. and Temple, S. A. 1992. Does winter bird feeding promote dependency? Journal of Field Ornithology 63: 190-194.
Buchanan, R.A. 1989. Pied currawongs ( Strepera graculina): their diet and role in weed dispersal in suburban New South Wales. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales. 111: 241-255.
Burgin, S. 2004. A 2020 vision: urban wildlife in the backyards of the future. Pp. 219-226 in Urban Wildlife: More than Meets the Eye, edited by D. Lunney and S. Burgin. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman.
Cannon, A. 1999. The significance of private gardens for bird conservation. Bird Conservation International 9: 287-297.
Cannon, A. 2000 The Garden Birdwatch Handbook. British Trust for Ornithology, The Nunnery, Thetford.
Cannon, C. E. 1984. Movements of lorikeets with an artificially supplemented diet. Australian Wildlife Research 11: 173-179.
Catterall, C. 2004. Birds, garden plants and suburban bushlots: where good intentions meet unexpected outcomes. Pp. 21-31 in Urban Wildlife: More than Meets the Eye, edited by D. Lunney and S. Burgin. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman.
Catterall, C., Green, R. J. and Jones, D. N. 1991. Habitat use by birds across a forest-suburb interface in Brisbane: implications for corridors. Pp. 247-258 in Nature Conservation 2, The Role of Corridors, edited by D. A. Saunders and R. H. Hobbs. Surrey Beatty and Sons, Chipping Norton.
Chebez, J. C. and Bertonatti, C. C. 1991. On the presence of some subtropical parrots in Buenos Aires (Argentina) and surrounding area (Aves: Psittaciformes: Psittacidae). Boletin Cientifico APRONA (Buenos Aires) 19: 19-32.
Conover, M. R. 2002 Resolving Human-wildlife Conflicts: The Science of Wildlife Damage Management. Lewis Publishers, London.
Cowie, R. J. and Hinsley, S. A. 1987. Feeding ecology of great tits ( Parus major) and blue tits ( Parus caeruleus), breeding in suburban gardens. Journal of Animal Ecology 57: 611-626.
Crome, F. and Shields, J. 1992 Parrots and Pigeons of Australia. Angus and Robertson, Sydney.
Deis, R. 1986. Is bird feeding a no-no? Defenders 54: 17-18.
Elliot, R. 1994 Attracting wildlife to your garden. Lothian Books, Melbourne.
Ferrier, T., White, G. and Birbeck, J. 1993. Planning for bird conservation in urban Queensland. Pp. 195-196 in Birds and Their Habitats: Status and Conservation in Queensland edited by C. P. Catterall, P. Driscoll, K. Hulsman, and A. Taplin. Queensland Ornithological Society, Brisbane.
Fitzsimons, J. A., Antos, M. J. and White, J. G. 2003. Refugees and residents: Densities and habitat preferences of lorikeets in urban Melbourne. Australian Field Ornithology 20: 3-7.
Forshaw, J. M. 2002 Australian Parrots. Alexander Editions, Brisbane.
Franklin D. C. and Noske, R. A. 1999. Birds and nectar in a monsoonal woodland: correlations at three spatio-temporal scales. Emu 99: 15-28.
Garrett, K. L. 1997. Population status and distribution of naturalized parrots in southern California West. Birds 28: 181-195.
Gibbons, P. and Lindenmayer, D. 2002 Tree Hollows and Wildlife Conservation in Australia. CSIRO Press, Port Melbourne.
Grey, M. J., Clarke, M. F. and Loyn, R. H. 1998. Influence of the Noisy Minor Manorina melanocephala on avian diversity and abundance in remnant grey box woodland. Pacific Conservation Biology 4: 55-69.
Hindwood, K. A. 1939. Nectar-feeding birds near Sydney. Emu 39: 40-44.
Hoskin, E. S. 1991 Birds of Sydney. Surrey Beatty & Sons, Chipping Norton.
Howard, P. and Jones, D. N. 2004. A qualitative study of wildlife feeding in south-east Queensland. Pp. 55-62 in Urban Wildlife: More than Meets the Eye, edited by D. Lunney and S. Burgin. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman
Keast, A. 1995. Habitat loss and species loss: the birds of Sydney 50 years ago and now. Australian Zoologist 30: 3-25.
Knight, R. L. and Anderson, D. P. 1990. Effects of supplemental feeding on an avian scavenging guild. Wildlife Society Bulletin 18: 188-194.
Landsberg, H. E. 1981. The urban heat island. Pp. 83-126 in The Urban Climate edited by H. E. Landsberg. Academic Press, New York.
Law, B., Mackowski, C., Schoer, L. and Tweedie, T. 2000. Flowering phenology of myrtaceous trees and their relation to climatic, environmental and disturbance variables in northern New South Wales. Austral Ecology 25: 160-178.
Low, T. 1994. Invasion of the savage honeyeaters. Australian Natural History 24: 26-33.
Macdonald, J. D. 1992 Birds of Australia. Reed, Chatswood.
Major, R. E., Gowing, G., and Kendel, C. E. 1996. Nest predation in Australian urban environments and the role of the Pied Currawong, Strepera graculina. Australian Journal of Ecology 21: 399-409.
Matthews, A., Dickman, C. R. and Major, R. E. 1999. The influence of fragment size and edge nest predation in urban bushland. Ecography 22: 349-356.
McLees, B. 2001 Feeding wildlife: right and wrong. BSc (Hons). Deakin University, Melbourne.
Morecombe, M. 1986 The Great Australian Birdfinder. Promotional Reprints, Willoughby.
Moskoff, W. 2003. The Monk Parakeets of Chicago. Strangers in a strange land. Birding 35: 268-277.
Neck, R. W. 1986. Expansion of Red-crowned Parrot, Amazona viridigenalis, into southern Texas and changes in agricultural practices in northern Mexico. Texas Ornithological Society 19: 6-12.
North, A. J. 1889. A list of the birds found in the County of Cumberland. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 12: 1773-1780.
O'Leary, R. A. 2002 Implications of wildlife feeding in the suburban environment: a natural experiment involving Australian magpies. BSc (Hons), Griffith University, Brisbane.
O'Leary, R. A. and Jones, D. N. 2006. The use of supplementary foods by Australian magpies Gymnorhina tibicen: Implications for wildlife feeding in suburban environments. Austral Ecology 31: 208-216.
Parris, K. M. and Hazell, D. L. 2005. Biotic effects of climate change in urban environments: The case of the grey-headed flying-fox ( Pteropus poliocephalus) in Melbourne, Australia. Biological Conservation 124: 267-276.
Parsons, H. M. and Major, R. E. 2004. Bird interactions in Sydney gardens: some initial findings of the Birds in Backyards program. Pp. 211-215 in Urban Wildlife: More than Meets the Eye, edited by D. Lunney and S. Burgin. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman.
Parsons, H., Major, R. E. and French, K., 2006. Species interactions and habitat associations of birds inhabiting urban areas of Sydney, Australia. Austral Ecology 31: 217-227.
Perry, J. 2001. Factors influencing the distribution of Australian white ibis in urban Sydney. MSc Thesis, University of Sydney, Sydney.
Petterson, R. T. 2000 Feeder Birds. Houghton Mifflin, New York.
Piper, S. D. and Catterall, C. P. 2003. A particular case and a general pattern: hyperaggressive behaviour by one species may mediate avifaunal decreases in fragmented Australian forests. Oikos 101: 602-614.
Pizzey, G. 2000 The Australian Bird Garden. Creating Havens for Native Birds. Angus and Robertson, Sydney.
Recher, H. F. 2004. The Kings Park avifauna: keeping birds in the city. Pp. 8-20 in Urban Wildlife: More than Meets the Eye, edited by D. Lunney and S. Burgin. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman.
Recher, H. F., Hutchings, P. A. and Rosen, S. 1993. The biota of the Hawkesbury - Nepean catchment: reconstruction and restoration. Australian Zoologist 29: 3-41.
Recher, H. F., and Serventy, D. L. 1991. Long term changes in the relative abundance of birds in Kings Park, Perth, Western Australia. Conservation Biology 5: 90-102.
Rollinson, D. J., O'Leary, R. A. and Jones, D. N. 2003. The practice of wildlife feeding in suburban Brisbane. Corella 27: 52-58.
Ross, G. A. 2000. White ibis Threskiornis molucca at Sydney airport: the pertinacious pest? Proceedings of the NSW Pest Animal Control Conference, 25-27th October 2000. Orange.
Ross, G. A. 2004. Ibis in urban Sydney: a gift from Ra or a Pharaoh's curse? Pp. 148-152 in Urban Wildlife: More than Meets the Eye, edited by D. Lunney and S. Burgin. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman.
Schodde, R. and Tidemann, S. C. (eds) 1986 Reader's Digest Complete Book of Australian Birds. Reader's Digest Services, Sydney.
Shukuroglou. P. and McCarthy, M. A. 2006. Modelling the occurrence of rainbow lorikeets ( Trichoglossus haematodus) in Melbourne. Austral Ecology 31: 240-253.
Smith, G. C. and Carlile, N. 1993. Food and feeding ecology of breeding silver gulls ( Larus novaehollandiae) in urban Australia. Colonial Waterbirds 16: 9-17.
Sewell, S. R., and Catterall, C. P. 1998. Bushland modifications and styles of urban development: their effects on birds in south-eastern Queensland. Wildlife Research 25: 41-63.
Suhonen, J., and Jokimaki, J. 1988. A biogeographical comparison of the breeding bird species assemblages in twenty Finnish urban parks. Ornis Fennica 65: 76-83.
Temby, I. D. 2004. Silver gulls: urban waste creates flying problems. Pp. 151-158 in Urban Wildlife: More than Meets the Eye, edited by D. Lunney and S. Burgin. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman.
Thomas, L. 2000 Wildlife and humans in a suburban setting. New approaches to the management of positive and negative interactions. PhD, Griffith University, Brisbane.
Tomialojc, L. and Profus, P. 1977. Comparative analysis of breeding bird communities in two parks of Wroclaw and in an adjacent Querco carpinetum forest. Acta Ornithologica 29: 117-171.
Torok, S. J., Morris, C. J. G., Skinner, C. and Plummer, N. 2001. Urban heat island features of southeast Australian towns. Australian Meteorological Magazine. 50: 1-13.
Triggs, B., Brunner, H. and Cullen, J. M. 1984. The food of fox, dog and cat in Croajingalong National Park, South-eastern Victoria. Australian Wildlife Research 11: 491-499.
Veerman, P. A. 1991. The changing status of the Rainbow Lorikeet Trichoglossus haematodus in south-east Australia: the role of wild and escaped birds. Australian Bird Watcher 14: 3-9.
Waterhouse, R. D. 1997. Some observations on the ecology of the rainbow lorikeet Trichoglossus haematodus in Oatley, South Sydney. Corella 21: 17-24.
White, A. W. and Burgin, S, 2004. Current status and future prospects of reptiles and frogs in Sydney's urban-impacted bushland reserves. Pp. 109-123 in Urban Wildlife: More than Meets the Eye, edited by D. Lunney and S. Burgin. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman.
White, J. G., Antos, M. J., Fitzsimons, J. A. and Palmer, G. C. 2005. Non-uniform bird assemblages in urban environments: the influence of streetscape vegetation. Landscape and Urban Planning 71: 123-135.
Wilson, W. H. 2001. The effects of supplementary feeding on wintering black-capped chickadees ( Pocile atricapilla) in central Maine: population individual responses. Wilson Bulletin 113: 65-72.
Woodall, P. R. 1995. Results of the QOS garden survey, 1979-1980, with particular reference to South-east Queensland. Sunbird 25: 1-17.
Woodall, P. R. 2002. The Birds Queensland garden bird survey, 1999. Sunbird 32: 37-51.
Woods, M., McDonald, R. A. and Harris, S. 2003. Predation of wildlife by domestic cats Felis catus in Great Britain. Mammal Review 33: 174-188.
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