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Using data from 57 sites across suburban Perth we tested the influence of Cat Density on species richness and community composition of passerine birds as well as on the presence/absence of 15 common passerine species. Cat Density was not a significant predictor of any of the dependent variables. Instead, passerine species richness declined with increasing Distance to Bushland and with increasing Housing Density, but increased proportionately with the Size of, Nearest Bushland > 5ha. Together, these predictors explained approximately half the variability in bird species richness (adjusted R2 for the complete data set = 0.414). Passerine community composition was significantly affected by Housing Density, Distance to, and Size of, Nearest Bushland >5ha. These environmental variables, especially Housing Density, appeared to act principally by their effect on the number of small and medium sized insectivores. Attempts to predict the presence/absence of 15 common passerines did not yield clear results, although Housing Density appeared the most likely predictor. While cat predation might be significant adjacent to remnant bushland or other areas of conservation significance, blaming cats for bird conservation issues in long-established suburbs may be a scapegoat for high residential densities, inappropriate landscaping at a range of scales or poor conservation of remnant bushland.

Armstrong, J.A. and Abbott, I. 1995. Sustainable conservation - a practical approach to conserving biodiversity in Western Australia. Pp. 21-28 in Conservation through sustainable use of wildlife, edited by G. Grigg, P. Hale and D. Lunney. Centre for Conservation Biology, The University of Queensland.
Atkinson, P.I. 2003 Edge effects and birds across karri forest (Eucalyptus diversicolor) edges: a study of theory and conservation management. Ph.D. Thesis. Murdoch University: Perth, Western Australia. http://wwwlib.murdoch.edu.au/find/theses/
Barker, R.D. and Vestjens, W.J.M. 1990 The Food of Australian Birds. Volume 2 -Passerines. CSIRO, Melbourne.
Barratt, D.G. 1995. Ecological impact of domestic cats. Pp. 181-187 in People and Nature Conservation: perspectives on private land use and endangered species recovery, edited by A. Bennett, G. Backhouse and T. Clark. Surrey Beatty and Sons, Chipping Norton, New South Wales.
Barratt, D.G. 1997. Predation by house cats Felis catus (L) in Canberra, Australia. I. Prey composition and preference. Wildlife Research 24: 263-277.
Barratt, D.G. 1998. Predation by house cats Felis catus (L) in Canberra, Australia. II. Factors affecting the amount of prey caught and estimates of the impact on wildlife. Wildlife Research 25: 475-487.
Bezzel, E. 1985. Birdlife in intensively used rural and urban environments. Ornis Fennica 62: 90-95.
Bhullar, S. and Majer, J. 2000. Arthropods on street trees: a food resource for wildlife. Pacific Conservation Biology 6: 171-173.
Bray, J.R. and Curtis, J.T. 1957. An ordination of the upland forest communities of southern Wisconsin. Ecological Monographs 27: 325-349.
Burbidge, A.A. and Manly, B.F.J. 2002. Mammal extinctions on Australian islands: causes and conservation implications. Journal of Biogeography 29: 465-473.
Catterall, C.P. 2004. Birds, garden plants and suburban bushlots: where good intentions meet unexpected outcomes. Pp. 21-31 in: Urban Wildlife: more than meets the eye, edited by D. Lunney and S. Burgin. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, New South Wales.
Catterall, C.P, Green, R.J. and Jones, D.N. 1989. The occurrence of birds in relation to plants in a subtropical city. Australian Wildlife Research 16: 289-305.
Catterall, C.P, Green, R.J. and Jones, D.N. 1991. Habitat use by birds across a forest-suburb interface in Brisbane: implications for corridors. Pp. 247-258 in: Nature Conservation 2, the Role of Corridors, edited by D.A. Saunders and R. Hobbs. Surrey Beatty and Sons, Chipping Norton, New South Wales.
Catterall, C.P., Piper, S. and Goodall, K. 2002. Noisy miner irruptions associated with land use by humans in south-east Queensland: causes, effects and management implications. Pp. 117-127 in: Landscape Health of Queensland, edited by A. Franks, J. Playford and A. Shapcott. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Queensland, Brisbane.
Chaseling, S. 2001. Pet populations in Australia. Dogs increasing and cats decreasing - why is it so? 10th Urban Animal Management Conference, Melbourne. http://www.iimage.com.au/ava.com.au/UAM/proceed%20intro.htm
Churcher, P.B. and Lawton J.H. 1987. Predation by domestic cats in an English village. Journal of Zoology (London) 212: 439-455.
Clarke, K.R. and Gorley, R.N. 2001 PRIMER v5: user manual/tutorial. PRIMER-E, Plymouth.
Clergeau, P., Jokimaki, J. and Savard, J.L. 2001. Are urban bird communities influenced by the bird diversity of adjacent landscapes? Journal of Applied Ecology 38: 1122-1134.
Courchamp, F., Langlais, M. and Sugihara, G. 2000. Rabbits killing birds: modelling the hyperpredation process. Journal of Animal Ecology 69: 154-164.
Craig, M. 2002. Comparative ecology of four passerine species in jarrah forest used for timber production in southwestern Western Australia. Conservation Biology 16: 1609-1619.
Crookes, K.R., Suarez, A.V. and Bolger, D.T. 2004. Avian assemblages along a gradient of urbanisation in a highly fragmented landscape. Biological Conservation 115: 451-462.
Department for Planning and Infrastructure. 2000. www.dpi.wa.gov.au
Dickman, C.R. 2002. The cat and its prey in Australia: behavioural, population and community-level interactions. In: Wildlife Management: vertebrate pest control. Module 4, Edited by A. Newsome and A. English. University of Sydney, Sydney.
Fernandez-Juricic, E. 2000. Avifaunal use of wooded streets in an urban landscape. Conservation Biology 14: 513-521.
Fitzgerald, B.M. 1990. Is cat control needed to protect urban wildlife? Environmental Conservation 17: 168-169.
Fitzgerald, B.M. and Turner D.C. 2000. Hunting behaviour of domestic cats and their impact on prey populations. Pp 151-175 in: The Domestic Cat: the biology of its behaviour, edited by D. C. Turner and P. Bateson. Cambridge Universtiy Press, New York.
Ford, H. 1989 Ecology of Birds: an Australian perspective. Surrey Beatty and Sons, Chipping Norton NSW.
Forman, T. and Deblinger, R. 2000. The ecological road-effect zone of a Massachusetts (U.S.A.) suburban highway. Conservation Biology 14: 36-46.
Forman, T., Reineking, B. and Hersperger, A. 2002. Road traffic and nearby grassland bird patterns in a suburbanizing landscape. Environmental Management 29: 782-800.
Freudenberger, D., Noble, J. and Morton, S. 1997 A consultancy report prepared for the NSW Department of Land and Water Conservation and the Southern Mallee Regional Planning Committee. CSIRO Wildlife and Ecology, Lyneham, ACT.
Germaine, S., Rosenstock, S., Schweinsburg, R. and Richardson, W. 1998. Relationships among breeding birds, habitat and residential development in Greater Tucson, Arizona. Ecological Applications 8: 680-691.
Gillies, C. and Clout, M., 2003. The prey of domestic cats ( Felis catus) in two suburbs of Auckland City, New Zealand. Journal of Zoology (London) 259: 309-315.
Goldstein, E. L., Gross M. and DeGraff, R M. 1981. Explorations in bird-land ecology. Urban Ecology 5: 113-124.
Grayson, J. and Calver M.C. 2004. Regulation of domestic cat ownership to protect urban wildlife: a justification based on the precautionary principle. Pp. 169-178 in: Urban Wildlife: more than meets the eye, edited by D. Lunney and S. Burgin. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, New South Wales.
Grayson, J., Calver, M.C. and Styles, I., 2002. Suburban West Australians support most aspects of cat control legislation. Australian Veterinary Journal 80: 536-543.
Green, R.J. 1984. Native and exotic birds in a suburban habitat. Australian Wildlife Research 11: 181-190.
Green, R., Catterall, C.P and Jones, D.N. 1989. Foraging and other behaviour of birds in subtropical and temperate suburban habitats. Emu 89: 216-222.
How, R.A. and Dell, J. 1994. The zoogeographic significance of urban bushland remnants to reptiles in the Perth region, Western Australia. Pacific Conservation Biology 1: 132-140.
How, R. A. and Dell, J. 2000. Ground vertebrate fauna of Perth's vegetation remnants: impact of 170 years of urbanization. Pacific Conservation Biology 6: 198-217.
Krebs, C.J. 1999 Ecological Methodology. Benjamin/Cummings, Menlo Park, California.
Lancaster, R.K. and Rees, W.E. 1979. Bird communities and the structure of urban habitats. Canadian Journal of Zoology 57: 2358-2368.
Lepczyk, C.A., Mertig, A.G. and Liu, J. 2004a. Landowners and cat predation across rural-to-urban landscapes. Biological Conservation 115: 191-201
Lepczyk, C.A., Mertig, A.G. and Liu, J. 2004b. Assessing landowner activities related to birds across rural-to-urban landscapes. Environmental Management 33: 110-125.
Lilith, M., Calver, M.C., Styles, I. and Garkaklis, M. 2006. Protecting wildlife from predation by owned domestic cats: application of a precautionary approach to the acceptability of proposed cat regulations. Austral Ecology 31: 176-189.
Loyn, R.H. 1987. Effects of patch area and habitat on bird abundances, species numbers and tree health in fragmented Victoria forests. Pp. 65-77 in: Nature Conservation: the role of remnants of native vegetation, edited by D. Saunders, G. Arnold, A. Burbidge and A. Hopkins. Chipping Norton, Surrey Beatty and Sons.
Low, T. 1994. Invasion of the savage honeyeaters. Australian Natural History 24/10: 27-34.
Low, T. 2002 The New Nature. Penguin Books Australia.
Majer, J.D., Recher, H. and Keals, N. 2000. Canopy arthropod faunas in fragmented agricultural landscapes. Pp. 235-247 in: Temperate Eucalypt Woodlands in Australia, edited by R. J. Hobbs and C. J. Yates, Surrey Beatty and Sons.
Majer, J., Recher, H. F., Graham, R. and Watson, A. 2001. The potential of revegetation programs to encourage invertebrates and insectivorous birds. Curtin University Department of Environmental Biology Bulletin 20: 32pp.
Marzluff, J., Bowman, R. and Donnelly, R. 2001. A historical perspective on urban bird research: trends, terms and approaches. Pp. 1-18 in: Avian Ecology and Conservation in an Urbaninsing World, edited by J. Marzluff, R. Bowman and R. Donnelly. Kluwer Academic.
Mead, C. 1982. Ringed birds killed by cats. Mammal Review 12: 183-186.
Melles, S., Glenn, S. and Martin, K. 2003. Urban bird diversity and landscape complexity: species-environment associations along a multiscale habitat gradient. Conservation Ecology 7(1), Article 5. http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol7/iss1/art5/
Mills, G., Dunning, J. and Bates, J. 1989. Effects of urbanisation on breeding bird conmmunity structure in southwestern desert habitats. The Condor 91: 416-428.
Munyenyembe, F., Harris, J. and Hone, J. 1989. Determinants of bird populations in an urban area. Australian Journal of Ecology 14: 549-557.
Nattrass, R. 1992. Wildlife conservation in the urban environment: are pets a threat? 1st Urban Animal Management Conference. http://www.iimage.com.au/ava.com.au/UAM/proceed%20intro.htm
Nealon, C. 1996. Suburban bird survey. Supplement to Western Australian Bird Notes 77.
Nelson, S.H., Evans, A.D. and Bradbury, R.B. 2005. The efficacy of collar-mounted devices in reducing the rate of predation of wildlife by domestic cats. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 94: 273-285.
Paton, D.C. 1994 Ecology of cats in South Australia and testing possible methods of control. Department of Zooology, University of Adelaide.
Patronek, G.J. 1998. Free-roaming and feral cats - their impact on wildlife and human beings. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 212: 218-226.
Penland, S. 1986. Public attitudes toward birds. Pp. 77-82 in: Intergrating man and nature in the metropolitan environment. Proceedings of a National Symposium on urban wildlife, edited by L.W. Adams and D.L. Leedy. National Institute of Urban Wildlife, Chevy Chase, Maryland, USA.
Quinn, G.P. and Keough, M.J. 2002. Experimental Design and Data Analysis for Biologists. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Recher, H.F. 1996. Conservation and management of eucalypt forest vertebrates. Pp. 339-388 in: Conservation of Faunal Diversity in Forested Landscapes, edited by R.M. DeGraaf and R.I. Miller. Chapman and Hall, London.
Recher, H.F. 2004. The Kings Park avifauna: keeping birds in the city. Pp. 8-20 in: Urban Wildlife: more than meets the eye, edited by D. Lunney and S. Burgin. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, New South Wales.
Risbey, D.A., Calver, M.C., Short, J., Bradley, J.S. and Wright, I.W. 2000. The impact of cats and foxes on the small vertebrate fauna of Heirisson Prong, Western Australia: II. A field experiment. Wildlife Research 27: 223-235.
Schodde, R. and Mason, I.J. 1999 The directory of Australian birds: passerines. CSIRO Publishiing, Collingwood, Victoria.
Sewell, S.R. and Catterall, C.P. 1998. Bushland modification and styles of urban development: their effects on birds in south-east Queensland. Wildlife Research 25: 41-63.
Statsoft 1999 Statistica. Statsoft Inc., Tulsa, Oklahoma.
Stewart, P.J. 1997. Some aspects of the ecology of the urban corvid: The Australian Raven ( Corvus coronoides) in metropolitan Perth. Unpublished Honours Thesis, Edith Cowan University, Perth, Western Australia.
Tabachnick, B.G. and Fidell, L.S. 1996. Using multivariate statistics. Harper Collins Publishers, New York.
Thackway, R. and Cresswell, I.D. 1994 Toward an interim biogeographic regionalisation for Australia: a framework for setting priorities in the national reserves system cooperative program. Reserve Systems Unit, ANCA, Canberra.
Thomas, J.W., DeGraaf, R.M. and Mawson, J.C. 1977. Determination of habitat requirements of birds in suburban areas. U.S.D.A. Forest Service Research Paper NE 3578.
Thorington, K.K. and Bowman, R. 2003. Predation rate on artificial nests increases with human housing density in suburban habitats. Ecography 26: 188-196.
Vale, T.R. and Vale, G.R. 1976. Suburban bird populations in west-central California. Jounal of Biogeography 3: 157-165.
Van der Ree, R. 2004. The impact of urbanisation on the mammals of Melbourne - do atlas records tell the whole story or just some of the chapters? Pp. 195-204 in Urban Wildlife: more than mets the eye, edited by D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, New South Wales.
Watson, J., Freudenberger, D. and Paull, D. 2001. An assessment of the focal-species approach for conserving birds in variegated landscapes in south-eastern Australia. Conservation Biology 15: 1364-1373.
Woodall, P. 2002. The Birds Queensland garden bird survey, 1999-2000. Sunbird 32: 37-51.
Woods, M., McDonald, R.A. and Harris, S. 2003. Predation of wildlife by domestic cats Felis catus in Great Britain. Mammal Review 33: 174-188.
Yarrow, S. 1980 City of Light: the Stories Behind 265 Place Names of Metropolitan Perth. Regency Publications, Girrawheen, Western Australia
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References

Armstrong, J.A. and Abbott, I. 1995. Sustainable conservation - a practical approach to conserving biodiversity in Western Australia. Pp. 21-28 in Conservation through sustainable use of wildlife, edited by G. Grigg, P. Hale and D. Lunney. Centre for Conservation Biology, The University of Queensland.
Atkinson, P.I. 2003 Edge effects and birds across karri forest (Eucalyptus diversicolor) edges: a study of theory and conservation management. Ph.D. Thesis. Murdoch University: Perth, Western Australia. http://wwwlib.murdoch.edu.au/find/theses/
Barker, R.D. and Vestjens, W.J.M. 1990 The Food of Australian Birds. Volume 2 -Passerines. CSIRO, Melbourne.
Barratt, D.G. 1995. Ecological impact of domestic cats. Pp. 181-187 in People and Nature Conservation: perspectives on private land use and endangered species recovery, edited by A. Bennett, G. Backhouse and T. Clark. Surrey Beatty and Sons, Chipping Norton, New South Wales.
Barratt, D.G. 1997. Predation by house cats Felis catus (L) in Canberra, Australia. I. Prey composition and preference. Wildlife Research 24: 263-277.
Barratt, D.G. 1998. Predation by house cats Felis catus (L) in Canberra, Australia. II. Factors affecting the amount of prey caught and estimates of the impact on wildlife. Wildlife Research 25: 475-487.
Bezzel, E. 1985. Birdlife in intensively used rural and urban environments. Ornis Fennica 62: 90-95.
Bhullar, S. and Majer, J. 2000. Arthropods on street trees: a food resource for wildlife. Pacific Conservation Biology 6: 171-173.
Bray, J.R. and Curtis, J.T. 1957. An ordination of the upland forest communities of southern Wisconsin. Ecological Monographs 27: 325-349.
Burbidge, A.A. and Manly, B.F.J. 2002. Mammal extinctions on Australian islands: causes and conservation implications. Journal of Biogeography 29: 465-473.
Catterall, C.P. 2004. Birds, garden plants and suburban bushlots: where good intentions meet unexpected outcomes. Pp. 21-31 in: Urban Wildlife: more than meets the eye, edited by D. Lunney and S. Burgin. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, New South Wales.
Catterall, C.P, Green, R.J. and Jones, D.N. 1989. The occurrence of birds in relation to plants in a subtropical city. Australian Wildlife Research 16: 289-305.
Catterall, C.P, Green, R.J. and Jones, D.N. 1991. Habitat use by birds across a forest-suburb interface in Brisbane: implications for corridors. Pp. 247-258 in: Nature Conservation 2, the Role of Corridors, edited by D.A. Saunders and R. Hobbs. Surrey Beatty and Sons, Chipping Norton, New South Wales.
Catterall, C.P., Piper, S. and Goodall, K. 2002. Noisy miner irruptions associated with land use by humans in south-east Queensland: causes, effects and management implications. Pp. 117-127 in: Landscape Health of Queensland, edited by A. Franks, J. Playford and A. Shapcott. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Queensland, Brisbane.
Chaseling, S. 2001. Pet populations in Australia. Dogs increasing and cats decreasing - why is it so? 10th Urban Animal Management Conference, Melbourne. http://www.iimage.com.au/ava.com.au/UAM/proceed%20intro.htm
Churcher, P.B. and Lawton J.H. 1987. Predation by domestic cats in an English village. Journal of Zoology (London) 212: 439-455.
Clarke, K.R. and Gorley, R.N. 2001 PRIMER v5: user manual/tutorial. PRIMER-E, Plymouth.
Clergeau, P., Jokimaki, J. and Savard, J.L. 2001. Are urban bird communities influenced by the bird diversity of adjacent landscapes? Journal of Applied Ecology 38: 1122-1134.
Courchamp, F., Langlais, M. and Sugihara, G. 2000. Rabbits killing birds: modelling the hyperpredation process. Journal of Animal Ecology 69: 154-164.
Craig, M. 2002. Comparative ecology of four passerine species in jarrah forest used for timber production in southwestern Western Australia. Conservation Biology 16: 1609-1619.
Crookes, K.R., Suarez, A.V. and Bolger, D.T. 2004. Avian assemblages along a gradient of urbanisation in a highly fragmented landscape. Biological Conservation 115: 451-462.
Department for Planning and Infrastructure. 2000. www.dpi.wa.gov.au
Dickman, C.R. 2002. The cat and its prey in Australia: behavioural, population and community-level interactions. In: Wildlife Management: vertebrate pest control. Module 4, Edited by A. Newsome and A. English. University of Sydney, Sydney.
Fernandez-Juricic, E. 2000. Avifaunal use of wooded streets in an urban landscape. Conservation Biology 14: 513-521.
Fitzgerald, B.M. 1990. Is cat control needed to protect urban wildlife? Environmental Conservation 17: 168-169.
Fitzgerald, B.M. and Turner D.C. 2000. Hunting behaviour of domestic cats and their impact on prey populations. Pp 151-175 in: The Domestic Cat: the biology of its behaviour, edited by D. C. Turner and P. Bateson. Cambridge Universtiy Press, New York.
Ford, H. 1989 Ecology of Birds: an Australian perspective. Surrey Beatty and Sons, Chipping Norton NSW.
Forman, T. and Deblinger, R. 2000. The ecological road-effect zone of a Massachusetts (U.S.A.) suburban highway. Conservation Biology 14: 36-46.
Forman, T., Reineking, B. and Hersperger, A. 2002. Road traffic and nearby grassland bird patterns in a suburbanizing landscape. Environmental Management 29: 782-800.
Freudenberger, D., Noble, J. and Morton, S. 1997 A consultancy report prepared for the NSW Department of Land and Water Conservation and the Southern Mallee Regional Planning Committee. CSIRO Wildlife and Ecology, Lyneham, ACT.
Germaine, S., Rosenstock, S., Schweinsburg, R. and Richardson, W. 1998. Relationships among breeding birds, habitat and residential development in Greater Tucson, Arizona. Ecological Applications 8: 680-691.
Gillies, C. and Clout, M., 2003. The prey of domestic cats ( Felis catus) in two suburbs of Auckland City, New Zealand. Journal of Zoology (London) 259: 309-315.
Goldstein, E. L., Gross M. and DeGraff, R M. 1981. Explorations in bird-land ecology. Urban Ecology 5: 113-124.
Grayson, J. and Calver M.C. 2004. Regulation of domestic cat ownership to protect urban wildlife: a justification based on the precautionary principle. Pp. 169-178 in: Urban Wildlife: more than meets the eye, edited by D. Lunney and S. Burgin. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, New South Wales.
Grayson, J., Calver, M.C. and Styles, I., 2002. Suburban West Australians support most aspects of cat control legislation. Australian Veterinary Journal 80: 536-543.
Green, R.J. 1984. Native and exotic birds in a suburban habitat. Australian Wildlife Research 11: 181-190.
Green, R., Catterall, C.P and Jones, D.N. 1989. Foraging and other behaviour of birds in subtropical and temperate suburban habitats. Emu 89: 216-222.
How, R.A. and Dell, J. 1994. The zoogeographic significance of urban bushland remnants to reptiles in the Perth region, Western Australia. Pacific Conservation Biology 1: 132-140.
How, R. A. and Dell, J. 2000. Ground vertebrate fauna of Perth's vegetation remnants: impact of 170 years of urbanization. Pacific Conservation Biology 6: 198-217.
Krebs, C.J. 1999 Ecological Methodology. Benjamin/Cummings, Menlo Park, California.
Lancaster, R.K. and Rees, W.E. 1979. Bird communities and the structure of urban habitats. Canadian Journal of Zoology 57: 2358-2368.
Lepczyk, C.A., Mertig, A.G. and Liu, J. 2004a. Landowners and cat predation across rural-to-urban landscapes. Biological Conservation 115: 191-201
Lepczyk, C.A., Mertig, A.G. and Liu, J. 2004b. Assessing landowner activities related to birds across rural-to-urban landscapes. Environmental Management 33: 110-125.
Lilith, M., Calver, M.C., Styles, I. and Garkaklis, M. 2006. Protecting wildlife from predation by owned domestic cats: application of a precautionary approach to the acceptability of proposed cat regulations. Austral Ecology 31: 176-189.
Loyn, R.H. 1987. Effects of patch area and habitat on bird abundances, species numbers and tree health in fragmented Victoria forests. Pp. 65-77 in: Nature Conservation: the role of remnants of native vegetation, edited by D. Saunders, G. Arnold, A. Burbidge and A. Hopkins. Chipping Norton, Surrey Beatty and Sons.
Low, T. 1994. Invasion of the savage honeyeaters. Australian Natural History 24/10: 27-34.
Low, T. 2002 The New Nature. Penguin Books Australia.
Majer, J.D., Recher, H. and Keals, N. 2000. Canopy arthropod faunas in fragmented agricultural landscapes. Pp. 235-247 in: Temperate Eucalypt Woodlands in Australia, edited by R. J. Hobbs and C. J. Yates, Surrey Beatty and Sons.
Majer, J., Recher, H. F., Graham, R. and Watson, A. 2001. The potential of revegetation programs to encourage invertebrates and insectivorous birds. Curtin University Department of Environmental Biology Bulletin 20: 32pp.
Marzluff, J., Bowman, R. and Donnelly, R. 2001. A historical perspective on urban bird research: trends, terms and approaches. Pp. 1-18 in: Avian Ecology and Conservation in an Urbaninsing World, edited by J. Marzluff, R. Bowman and R. Donnelly. Kluwer Academic.
Mead, C. 1982. Ringed birds killed by cats. Mammal Review 12: 183-186.
Melles, S., Glenn, S. and Martin, K. 2003. Urban bird diversity and landscape complexity: species-environment associations along a multiscale habitat gradient. Conservation Ecology 7(1), Article 5. http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol7/iss1/art5/
Mills, G., Dunning, J. and Bates, J. 1989. Effects of urbanisation on breeding bird conmmunity structure in southwestern desert habitats. The Condor 91: 416-428.
Munyenyembe, F., Harris, J. and Hone, J. 1989. Determinants of bird populations in an urban area. Australian Journal of Ecology 14: 549-557.
Nattrass, R. 1992. Wildlife conservation in the urban environment: are pets a threat? 1st Urban Animal Management Conference. http://www.iimage.com.au/ava.com.au/UAM/proceed%20intro.htm
Nealon, C. 1996. Suburban bird survey. Supplement to Western Australian Bird Notes 77.
Nelson, S.H., Evans, A.D. and Bradbury, R.B. 2005. The efficacy of collar-mounted devices in reducing the rate of predation of wildlife by domestic cats. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 94: 273-285.
Paton, D.C. 1994 Ecology of cats in South Australia and testing possible methods of control. Department of Zooology, University of Adelaide.
Patronek, G.J. 1998. Free-roaming and feral cats - their impact on wildlife and human beings. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 212: 218-226.
Penland, S. 1986. Public attitudes toward birds. Pp. 77-82 in: Intergrating man and nature in the metropolitan environment. Proceedings of a National Symposium on urban wildlife, edited by L.W. Adams and D.L. Leedy. National Institute of Urban Wildlife, Chevy Chase, Maryland, USA.
Quinn, G.P. and Keough, M.J. 2002. Experimental Design and Data Analysis for Biologists. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Recher, H.F. 1996. Conservation and management of eucalypt forest vertebrates. Pp. 339-388 in: Conservation of Faunal Diversity in Forested Landscapes, edited by R.M. DeGraaf and R.I. Miller. Chapman and Hall, London.
Recher, H.F. 2004. The Kings Park avifauna: keeping birds in the city. Pp. 8-20 in: Urban Wildlife: more than meets the eye, edited by D. Lunney and S. Burgin. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, New South Wales.
Risbey, D.A., Calver, M.C., Short, J., Bradley, J.S. and Wright, I.W. 2000. The impact of cats and foxes on the small vertebrate fauna of Heirisson Prong, Western Australia: II. A field experiment. Wildlife Research 27: 223-235.
Schodde, R. and Mason, I.J. 1999 The directory of Australian birds: passerines. CSIRO Publishiing, Collingwood, Victoria.
Sewell, S.R. and Catterall, C.P. 1998. Bushland modification and styles of urban development: their effects on birds in south-east Queensland. Wildlife Research 25: 41-63.
Statsoft 1999 Statistica. Statsoft Inc., Tulsa, Oklahoma.
Stewart, P.J. 1997. Some aspects of the ecology of the urban corvid: The Australian Raven ( Corvus coronoides) in metropolitan Perth. Unpublished Honours Thesis, Edith Cowan University, Perth, Western Australia.
Tabachnick, B.G. and Fidell, L.S. 1996. Using multivariate statistics. Harper Collins Publishers, New York.
Thackway, R. and Cresswell, I.D. 1994 Toward an interim biogeographic regionalisation for Australia: a framework for setting priorities in the national reserves system cooperative program. Reserve Systems Unit, ANCA, Canberra.
Thomas, J.W., DeGraaf, R.M. and Mawson, J.C. 1977. Determination of habitat requirements of birds in suburban areas. U.S.D.A. Forest Service Research Paper NE 3578.
Thorington, K.K. and Bowman, R. 2003. Predation rate on artificial nests increases with human housing density in suburban habitats. Ecography 26: 188-196.
Vale, T.R. and Vale, G.R. 1976. Suburban bird populations in west-central California. Jounal of Biogeography 3: 157-165.
Van der Ree, R. 2004. The impact of urbanisation on the mammals of Melbourne - do atlas records tell the whole story or just some of the chapters? Pp. 195-204 in Urban Wildlife: more than mets the eye, edited by D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, New South Wales.
Watson, J., Freudenberger, D. and Paull, D. 2001. An assessment of the focal-species approach for conserving birds in variegated landscapes in south-eastern Australia. Conservation Biology 15: 1364-1373.
Woodall, P. 2002. The Birds Queensland garden bird survey, 1999-2000. Sunbird 32: 37-51.
Woods, M., McDonald, R.A. and Harris, S. 2003. Predation of wildlife by domestic cats Felis catus in Great Britain. Mammal Review 33: 174-188.
Yarrow, S. 1980 City of Light: the Stories Behind 265 Place Names of Metropolitan Perth. Regency Publications, Girrawheen, Western Australia
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