Skip to Main Content
Skip Nav Destination

Sodium monofluoroacetate (Compound 1080) is used to kill pest species such as foxes in Australia and possums in New Zealand. In both countries it is an essential component of conservation programmes. The poisoned animals die in considerable pain. Striking a balance between its effectiveness as a conservation tool and the animal welfare issues involved has proved to be difficult. This review examines the arguments on either side. It also raises the question of how long selection for resistance will take to develop. The presence of resistant vertebrates in Western Australia is ascribed to the selective effect of poisoned plants whose seeds and flowers contain 1080. Western vertebrate subspecies have evolved resistance which is not present in estern subspecies and so resistance can evolve within the lifetime of a species.

Arkle, P. 2002. Submission to the National Registration Authority on the Review of Sodium Monofluoroacetate (1080) by the National Farmers' Federation: Canberra.
Booth, L.H., Ogilvie, S.C., Wright, G.R. and Eason, C.T. 1999. Degradation of sodium monofluoroacetate (1080) and fluorocitrate in water. Bulletin of Environmental and Contamination Toxicology 62(1): 34-9.
Boyd, J. 2004 On the Use of 1080 for Pest Control Submission to the Animal Health Board and Department of Conservation by the Royal New Zealand Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals: Wellington.
Eason, C.T., Wright, G.R. and Fitzgerald, H. 1992. Sodium monofluoroacetate (1080) water residue analysis after large-scale possum control. New Zealand Journal of Ecology 16: 47-49.
Eason, C.T.R., Gooneratne, R., Fitzgerald, H., Wright, G. R. and Frampton, C. 1994a. Persistence of sodium monofluoroacetate in livestock animals and risk to humans. Human Experimental Toxicology 13: 119-122.
Eason, C.T., Morgan, A.J. and Wright, G.R. 1994b. The fate of sodium monofluoroacetate (1080) in stream water, and the risk to humans. Human Experimental Toxicology 13: 640-640.
Goh, C.S., Hodgson, D.R., Fearnside, S.M., Heller, J. and Malikides, N. 2005. Sodium monofluoroacetate (Compound 1080) poisoning in dogs Australian Veterinary Journal 83(8): 474-479.
Hansard 2005. Standing Committee on Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry: Impact on agriculture of pest animals. Commonwealth of Australia, Canberra, 16 March 2005.
Livingstone, P.G. and Nelson, P.C. 1994 Possum Control and the Use of 1080 in New Zealand. New Zealand Animal Health Board. ISBN 0-477-01694-4.
McIlroy, J.C. 1981. The sensitivity of Australian animals to 1080 poison II. Marsupial and eutherian carnivores. Australian Wildlife Research 6: 385-399.
McKenzie, J.A. 2000. The character or the variation: the genetic analysis of the insecticide-resistance phenotype. Bulletin of Entomological Research 90(1): 3-7.
Mead, R.J., Oliver, A.J., King, D.R. and Hubach, P.H. 1985. The co-evolutionary role of fluoroacetate in plant-animal interactions in Australia. Oikos 44: 55-60.
Oliver, A.J., King, D.R. and Mead, R.J. 1977. The evolution of resistance to fluoroacetate intoxication in mammals. Search 8: 130-132.
Possingham, H., Jarman, P. and Kearns, A. 2003. The Western Shield fauna recovery program for Western Australia. Conservation Science Western Australia 5(2): 2-18.
Sherley, M. 2004. The traditional categories of fluoroacetate poisoning signs and symptoms belie substantial underlying similarities. Toxicology Letters 151(3): 399-406.
Sinclair, E.A., Danks, A. and Wayne, A.F. 1996. Rediscovery of Gilbert's Potoroo, Potorous tridactylus. Western Australia Australian Mammalogy 19: 69-72.
Twigg, L.E. and King, D. R. 1989. Tolerance to Sodium Monofluoroacetate in Some Australian Birds. Australian Wildlife Research 16: 49-62.
Twigg, L.E. and King, D.R. 1991. The impact of fluoroacetate-bearing vegetation on native Australian fauna: a review. Oikos 61: 412-430.
Twigg, L.E., King, D.R., Bowen, L.H., Wright, G.R. and Eason, C.T. 1996. The fluoroacetate content of some species of the toxic Australian plant genus, Gastrolobium, and its environmental persistence. Natural Toxins 4: 122-127.
Twigg, L.E., Martin G.R. and Lowe, T.J. 2002. Evidence of pesticide resistance in medium-sized mammalian pests: a case study with 1080 poison and Australian rabbits. Journal of Applied Ecology 39: 549-560.
Twigg, L.E., Martin, G.R., Eastman, A.F., King, D.R. and Kirkpatrick, W.E. 2003. Sensitivity of some Australian animals to sodium fluoroacetate (1080): additional species and populations, and some ecological considerations. Australian Journal of Zoology 51: 515-531.
Weaver, S. 2003. Policy Implications of 1080 Toxicology in New Zealand. Journal of Remote Environmental Health 2: 46-49.
This content is PDF only. Please click on the PDF icon to access.

Contents

Figures & Tables

References

Arkle, P. 2002. Submission to the National Registration Authority on the Review of Sodium Monofluoroacetate (1080) by the National Farmers' Federation: Canberra.
Booth, L.H., Ogilvie, S.C., Wright, G.R. and Eason, C.T. 1999. Degradation of sodium monofluoroacetate (1080) and fluorocitrate in water. Bulletin of Environmental and Contamination Toxicology 62(1): 34-9.
Boyd, J. 2004 On the Use of 1080 for Pest Control Submission to the Animal Health Board and Department of Conservation by the Royal New Zealand Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals: Wellington.
Eason, C.T., Wright, G.R. and Fitzgerald, H. 1992. Sodium monofluoroacetate (1080) water residue analysis after large-scale possum control. New Zealand Journal of Ecology 16: 47-49.
Eason, C.T.R., Gooneratne, R., Fitzgerald, H., Wright, G. R. and Frampton, C. 1994a. Persistence of sodium monofluoroacetate in livestock animals and risk to humans. Human Experimental Toxicology 13: 119-122.
Eason, C.T., Morgan, A.J. and Wright, G.R. 1994b. The fate of sodium monofluoroacetate (1080) in stream water, and the risk to humans. Human Experimental Toxicology 13: 640-640.
Goh, C.S., Hodgson, D.R., Fearnside, S.M., Heller, J. and Malikides, N. 2005. Sodium monofluoroacetate (Compound 1080) poisoning in dogs Australian Veterinary Journal 83(8): 474-479.
Hansard 2005. Standing Committee on Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry: Impact on agriculture of pest animals. Commonwealth of Australia, Canberra, 16 March 2005.
Livingstone, P.G. and Nelson, P.C. 1994 Possum Control and the Use of 1080 in New Zealand. New Zealand Animal Health Board. ISBN 0-477-01694-4.
McIlroy, J.C. 1981. The sensitivity of Australian animals to 1080 poison II. Marsupial and eutherian carnivores. Australian Wildlife Research 6: 385-399.
McKenzie, J.A. 2000. The character or the variation: the genetic analysis of the insecticide-resistance phenotype. Bulletin of Entomological Research 90(1): 3-7.
Mead, R.J., Oliver, A.J., King, D.R. and Hubach, P.H. 1985. The co-evolutionary role of fluoroacetate in plant-animal interactions in Australia. Oikos 44: 55-60.
Oliver, A.J., King, D.R. and Mead, R.J. 1977. The evolution of resistance to fluoroacetate intoxication in mammals. Search 8: 130-132.
Possingham, H., Jarman, P. and Kearns, A. 2003. The Western Shield fauna recovery program for Western Australia. Conservation Science Western Australia 5(2): 2-18.
Sherley, M. 2004. The traditional categories of fluoroacetate poisoning signs and symptoms belie substantial underlying similarities. Toxicology Letters 151(3): 399-406.
Sinclair, E.A., Danks, A. and Wayne, A.F. 1996. Rediscovery of Gilbert's Potoroo, Potorous tridactylus. Western Australia Australian Mammalogy 19: 69-72.
Twigg, L.E. and King, D. R. 1989. Tolerance to Sodium Monofluoroacetate in Some Australian Birds. Australian Wildlife Research 16: 49-62.
Twigg, L.E. and King, D.R. 1991. The impact of fluoroacetate-bearing vegetation on native Australian fauna: a review. Oikos 61: 412-430.
Twigg, L.E., King, D.R., Bowen, L.H., Wright, G.R. and Eason, C.T. 1996. The fluoroacetate content of some species of the toxic Australian plant genus, Gastrolobium, and its environmental persistence. Natural Toxins 4: 122-127.
Twigg, L.E., Martin G.R. and Lowe, T.J. 2002. Evidence of pesticide resistance in medium-sized mammalian pests: a case study with 1080 poison and Australian rabbits. Journal of Applied Ecology 39: 549-560.
Twigg, L.E., Martin, G.R., Eastman, A.F., King, D.R. and Kirkpatrick, W.E. 2003. Sensitivity of some Australian animals to sodium fluoroacetate (1080): additional species and populations, and some ecological considerations. Australian Journal of Zoology 51: 515-531.
Weaver, S. 2003. Policy Implications of 1080 Toxicology in New Zealand. Journal of Remote Environmental Health 2: 46-49.
Close Modal

or Create an Account

Close Modal
Close Modal