Skip to Main Content
Skip Nav Destination

The management history of the Koala Phascolarctos cinereus in Victoria is unique and spectacular. Management of Koala populations began in Victoria in about 1910, at which time the species was undergoing a severe decline in population number and distribution. The fortuitous transfer of small numbers of Koalas to two coastal islands in the late 19th Century allowed intensive conservation management to begin in 1923, and it has continued almost unabated for the subsequent 84 years. Initially, Koalas were marooned for conservation purposes on four other large coastal islands, and several smaller ones, including two in the Murray River. These island populations were then used to re-introduce the species to remaining habitat across the former natural range of the species in Victoria and south-east South Australia. In the process intractable over-browsing problems were inadvertently created at ten sites. Since about 1985, the sole reason for translocation has been to protect natural values from the impacts of Koala over-browsing. Since 1995, considerable research effort has been directed at finding suitable in-situ population control mechanisms. During the 84 year program more than 24 000 Koalas were translocated to about 250 release sites and Koala populations have been successfully re-established in most areas of suitable habitat in Victoria. The genetic costs of using inbred populations as the source of animals for re-introduction are perhaps yet to be fully realised.

Abbot, I. 2000. Improving the conservation of threatened and rare mammal species through translocation to islands: case study Western Australia. Biological Conservation 93: 195-2001.
Anderson, I. 1996. First catch your koala… New Scientist (Australian edition), 28 September 1996.
Anonymous 1944. Last scene of all… Wild Life 6: 278-279.
Anonymous 1945. The tragedy of the koala bear. Picture Post, March 10 1945:16-17.
ANZECC 1998. National Koala Conservation Strategy. Environment Australia, Canberra.
Backhouse, G. B. and Crouch, A. 1991. Koala management in the Western Port region, Victoria. Pp. 313-317 in Biology of the Koala ed. by A. K. Lee, K. A. Handasyde and G. D. Sanson. Surrey Beatty and Sons, Chipping Norton, NSW.
Barrett, C. 1937 Koala: the story of Australia's native bear. Robertson and Mullens, Melbourne.
Braithwaite, R. W., Lumsden, L. F. and Dixon, J. M. 1980. A short history of Quail Island. Pp. 44-48 in Sites of Zoological Significance in the Westernport Region, Interim report ‘Top of the Bay Area’. National Museum of Victoria, Melbourne.
Butler, D. 1989 Quest for the Kakapo: The full story of New Zealand's most remarkable bird. Heinemann Reed, Auckland.
Department of Environment and Heritage, 2006. Advice for the Minister for the Environment and Heritage from the Threatened Species Scientific Committee on amendments to the list of threatened species under Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999. 1. Phascolarctos cinereus (Koala). Accessed from http://www.environment.gov.au(biodiversity/threatened/species/pubs/koala) on 27 February 2007.
Dingle, T. 1984 The Victorians: Settling. Fairfax, Syme and Weldon, Sydney.
Duka, T. and Masters, P. 2005. Confronting a tough issue: Fertility control and translocation for over-abundant Koalas on Kangaroo Island, South Australia. Ecological Management and Restoration 6(3): 172-181.
Emmins, J. J. 1996 The Victorian Koala: Genetic heterogeneity, immune responsiveness and epizootiology of Chlamydiosis. Unpublished PhD thesis, Department of Pathology and Immunology, Monash University, Melbourne.
Fisheries and Game Department, 1956 The Koala in Victoria. Roneoed pamphlet, 2 foolscap pages, issued May 1956.
Garnett, J. Ros, 1971. National Parks and Nature Conservation Reserves in Victoria. Pp. 151-159 in The Last of Lands Ed by L. J. Webb, D. Whitelock and J. Le Guy Brereton. Frederick Warne and Co., London.
Herbert, C. A. 2007. From the urban fringe to the Abrolhos Islands: management challenges of burgeoning marsupial populations. Pp 129-141 in Pest or Guest: the zoology of overabundance, edited by D. Lunney, P. Eby, P. Hutchings and S. Burgin. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
Hindell, M. A. and Lee A. K. 1991. Tree preferences of the Koala. Pp. 117-121 in Biology of the Koala ed. by A. K. Lee, K. A. Handasyde and G. D. Sanson. Surrey Beatty and Sons, Chipping Norton, NSW.
Houlden, B. A., England, P. R., Taylor, A. C., Greville, W. D. and Sherwin, W. B. 1996. Low genetic variability of the koala Phascolarctos cinereus in south-eastern Australia following a severe population bottleneck. Molecular Ecology 5:269-281.
Houlden, B. A., Costello, B. H., Sharkey, D., Fowler, E., Melzer, A., Ellis, W., Carrick, F., Baverstock, P. and Elphinstone, M. S. 1999. Phylogenetic differentiation in the mitochondrial control region in the koala, Phascolarctos cinereus (Goldfuss 1817). Molecular Ecology 8: 999-1011.
Hrdina, F. and Gordon, G. 2004. The koala and possum trade in Queensland, 1906-1936. Australian Zoologist 32: 543-585.
Hundloe T. and Hamilton C. 1997 Koalas and Tourism: An economic evaluation. Discussion paper 13. The Australia Institute, Canberra.
IUCN 1998 Guidelines for Re-introduction. Prepared by the IUCN/SSC Re-introduction Specialist Group. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.
Kershaw, J. A. 1906. Excursion to Wilson's Promontory - General Zoology (except Mollusca). Victorian Naturalist 22: 197-203.
Kershaw, J. A. 1915. Excursion to National Park, Wilsons Promontory. Victorian Naturalist 31: 143-152.
Kershaw, J.A. 1934. The koala on Wilson's Promontory. Victorian Naturalist 51: 76-77.
Koala Management Task Force. 1996. Final report. Unpublished report to the Government of South Australia, November 1996.
Lee, A. K. and Martin, R. W. 1988 The Koala: A natural history. University of New South Wales Press, Sydney.
Lee, A. K., Martin, R. W. and Handasyde, K. A. 1991. Experimental translocation of Koalas to new habitat. Pp. 299-312 in Biology of the Koala ed. by A. K. Lee, K. A. Handasyde and G. D. Sanson. Surrey Beatty and Sons, Chipping Norton, NSW.
Le Souef, A. S. 1925. The Australian native animals. How they stand today and the cause of the scarcity of certain species. Pp. 175-184 in Barrett, Sir J. (Ed) ‘Save Australia: A plea for the right use of our flora and fauna’. McMillan and Co., Melbourne.
Le Souef, A. S. and Burrell, H. 1926 The Wild Animals of Australia, embracing the mammals of New Guinea and the nearer Pacific Islands. George G. Harrap and Co., Sydney.
Lewis, F. 1934. The Koala in Victoria. Victorian Naturalist 51: 73-76.
Lewis, F. 1954. The rehabilitation of the Koala in Victoria. Victorian Naturalist 70: 197-200.
Lunney, D. and Leary, T. 1988. The impact on native animals of land use changes and exotic species in the Bega district, New South Wales, since settlement. Australian Journal of Ecology 13: 67-92.
Lydekker, R. 1894 A Handbook to the Marsupialia and Monotremata. W. H. Allen and Co., London.
Martin, R.W. 1985a. Overbrowsing and decline of a population of the koala, Phascolarctos cinereus, in Victoria. I. Food preference and food tree defoliation. Wildlife Research 12: 355-365.
Martin, R.W. 1985b. Overbrowsing and decline of a population of the koala, Phascolarctos cinereus, in Victoria. III. Population condition. Wildlife Research 12: 377-385.
Martin, R.W. 1989. Draft management plan for the conservation of the koala ( Phascolarctos cinereus) in Victoria. Arthur Rylah Institute for Environmental Research Technical Report Series Number 99, Department of Conservation, Forests and Lands, Melbourne.
Martin, R.W. 1997. Managing over-abundance in koala populations in south-eastern Australia - future options. Australian Biologist 10: 57-63.
Martin, R. and Handasyde, K. 1991. Population dynamics of the Koala ( Phascolarctos cinereus) in southeastern Australia. Pp. 75-84 in Biology of the Koala ed. by A. K. Lee, K. A. Handasyde and G. D. Sanson. Surrey Beatty and Sons, Chipping Norton, NSW.
Martin, R. and Handasyde, K. 1999 The Koala: Natural history, conservation and management. University of New South Wales Press, Sydney.
Masters, P., Duka, T., Berris, S. and Moss, G. 2004. Koalas on Kangaroo Island: from introduction to pest status in less than a century. Wildlife Research 31: 267-272.
McLean, N. 2003 Ecology and management of overabundant koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) populations. Unpublished PhD thesis, Department of Zoology, The University of Melbourne.
McNally, J. 1957. A field survey of a koala population, Proceedings of the Zoological Society of New South Wales, 1955-56: 18-27.
McNally, J. 1969. Koala management in Victoria. The Australian Museum Magazine 13(6).
Melzer, A., Carrick, F., Menkhorst, P., Lunney, D. and St John, B. 2000. Overview, critical assessment and conservation implications of Koala distribution and abundance. Conservation Biology 14: 619-628.
Menkhorst, P.W. (Ed.) 1996 Mammals of Victoria: Distribution, ecology and conservation. Second, revised edition. Melbourne, Oxford University Press.
Menkhorst, P. 2004 Victoria's Koala Management Strategy. Department of Sustainability and Environment, East Melbourne.
Menkhorst, P., Middleton, D. and Walters, B. 1998. Managing over-abundant Koalas ( Phascolarctos cinereus) in Victoria: A brief history and some potential new directions. In Managing Marsupial Abundance for Conservation Benefits. Occasional Papers of the Marsupial CRC No. 1. Proceedings of a symposium held at the Society for Conservation Biology Conference, Sydney, July 1998. Pp. 19-29.
Middleton, D. 1996a Fertility control in the management of free-ranging populations of the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) in south-eastern Australia. Part One. Fertility Control Options, Techniques and Recommendations. Unpublished report to Department of Natural Resources and Environment, Victoria by Ecoplan Australia, Lilydale.
Middleton, D. 1996b Fertility control in the management of free-ranging populations of the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) in south-eastern Australia. Part Two. Fertility control trials, plan for implementation. Unpublished report to Department of Natural Resources and Environment, Victoria by Ecoplan Australia, Lilydale.
Middleton, D. R., Walters, B, Menkhorst, P. and Wright, P. 2003. Fertility control in the koala, Phascolarctos cinereus: The impact of slow-release implants containing levonorgestrel or oestradiol on the production of pouch young. Wildlife Research 30: 207-212.
Parks Victoria, 2003a Post-release monitoring of surgically sterilised and relocated Koalas, Mt Eccles National Park, Victoria. Unpublished report, Parks Victoria, Melbourne.
Parks Victoria, 2003b The impact of relocation on the health and survival of sterilised adult female Koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) at Snake Island and Gellions Run, Nooramunga Marine and Coastal Park. Unpublished report, Parks Victoria, Melbourne.
Parris, H. S. 1948. Koalas on the lower Goulburn. Victorian Naturalist 64: 192-193.
Parsons, G. 1990. Narrandera koala colony: a brief history of the Koalas in the Narrandera Nature Reserve. P. 69 in Koala Summit: Managing Koalas in New South Wales ed by D. Lunney, C. A. Urquhart and P. Reed. New South Wales National Parks and Wildlife Service, Sydney.
Phillips, S. 2000. Population trends and the Koala conservation debate. Conservation Biology 14: 650-659.
Phillips, W. 1990 Koalas: the little Australian we'd all hate to lose. Australian National Parks and Wildlife Service, Canberra.
Pratt, A. 1937 The Call of the Koala. Robertson and Mullen, Melbourne.
Robertson, A. C. 1978. The Koala in South Australia. In: T.J. Bergin, Ed. The Koala: Proceedings of the Taronga Symposium. Sydney, Zoological Parks Board of NSW. Pp. 132-143.
Santamaria, F. 2002 Outcomes and implications of a Koala translocation in the Ballarat region. Unpublished PhD thesis, University of Ballarat, Ballarat, Victoria.
Seebeck, J. H. 1988 The Victorian mammal fauna: development of a conservation perspective. Unpublished MSc thesis, Department of Zoology, The University of Melbourne.
Seymour, A. M., Montgomery, M. E., Costello, B. H., Ihle, S., Johnsson, G., St John, B., Taggart, D. and Houlden, B. A. 2001. High effective inbreeding coefficients correlate with morphological abnormalities in populations of South Australian koalas ( Phascolarctos cinereus). Animal Conservation 4: 211-219.
Sherwin, W. B., Timms, P., Wilcken, J. and Houlden, B. 2000. Analysis and conservation implications of Koala genetics. Conservation Biology 14: 639-649.
Strahan, R. and Martin, R. W. 1982. The Koala: Little fact, much emotion. Pp 147-155 in Species at Risk: Research in Australia. Ed. by R. H. Groves and W. D. L. Ride. Australian Academy of Science, Canberra.
St John, B. 1997. Risk assessment and Koala management in South Australia. Australian Biologist 10(1): 47-56.
Tabart, D. 1996. The Australian Koala Foundation's role in Koala conservation. Pp 178-184 in Koalas - research for management. Proceedings of the Brisbane Koala Symposium, 22-23 September 1990.
Tabart, D. 1997. Why the Koala should not be culled, when the real problems are poor land management and land degradation. Australian Biologist 10(1): 40-46.
Todd, C. R., Forsythe, D, M. and Choquenot, D. 2008. Modelling the effects of fertility control on koala-forest dynamics. Journal of Applied Ecology 45: 568-578.
Troughton, E. 1941 Furred Animals of Australia. Angus and Robertson Ltd, Sydney.
Tyndale-Biscoe, H. 1997. Culling Koalas with kindness. Search 28: 250-251.
US Fish and Wildlife Service. 2000. Final determination of threatened status for the Koala. Federal Register 65(90): 26762-26771.
Warneke, R.M. 1978. The status of the koala in Victoria. Pp. 109-114 in The Koala: Proceedings of the Taronga Symposium, edited by T.J. Bergin. Sydney, Zoological Parks Board of NSW.
Widdowson, P. E. 1947. Koalas thrive in new home. Wildlife, Aug: 299-302.
Williams, G. R. 1977. Marooning - a technique for saving threatened species from extinction. International Zoo Yearbook 17: 102-106.
Wood, M. 2004. Mt Eccles National Park Koala population survey, September 2004. Unpublished report to Parks Victoria by Australian Ecological Research Services, Portland.
This content is PDF only. Please click on the PDF icon to access.

Contents

Figures & Tables

References

Abbot, I. 2000. Improving the conservation of threatened and rare mammal species through translocation to islands: case study Western Australia. Biological Conservation 93: 195-2001.
Anderson, I. 1996. First catch your koala… New Scientist (Australian edition), 28 September 1996.
Anonymous 1944. Last scene of all… Wild Life 6: 278-279.
Anonymous 1945. The tragedy of the koala bear. Picture Post, March 10 1945:16-17.
ANZECC 1998. National Koala Conservation Strategy. Environment Australia, Canberra.
Backhouse, G. B. and Crouch, A. 1991. Koala management in the Western Port region, Victoria. Pp. 313-317 in Biology of the Koala ed. by A. K. Lee, K. A. Handasyde and G. D. Sanson. Surrey Beatty and Sons, Chipping Norton, NSW.
Barrett, C. 1937 Koala: the story of Australia's native bear. Robertson and Mullens, Melbourne.
Braithwaite, R. W., Lumsden, L. F. and Dixon, J. M. 1980. A short history of Quail Island. Pp. 44-48 in Sites of Zoological Significance in the Westernport Region, Interim report ‘Top of the Bay Area’. National Museum of Victoria, Melbourne.
Butler, D. 1989 Quest for the Kakapo: The full story of New Zealand's most remarkable bird. Heinemann Reed, Auckland.
Department of Environment and Heritage, 2006. Advice for the Minister for the Environment and Heritage from the Threatened Species Scientific Committee on amendments to the list of threatened species under Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999. 1. Phascolarctos cinereus (Koala). Accessed from http://www.environment.gov.au(biodiversity/threatened/species/pubs/koala) on 27 February 2007.
Dingle, T. 1984 The Victorians: Settling. Fairfax, Syme and Weldon, Sydney.
Duka, T. and Masters, P. 2005. Confronting a tough issue: Fertility control and translocation for over-abundant Koalas on Kangaroo Island, South Australia. Ecological Management and Restoration 6(3): 172-181.
Emmins, J. J. 1996 The Victorian Koala: Genetic heterogeneity, immune responsiveness and epizootiology of Chlamydiosis. Unpublished PhD thesis, Department of Pathology and Immunology, Monash University, Melbourne.
Fisheries and Game Department, 1956 The Koala in Victoria. Roneoed pamphlet, 2 foolscap pages, issued May 1956.
Garnett, J. Ros, 1971. National Parks and Nature Conservation Reserves in Victoria. Pp. 151-159 in The Last of Lands Ed by L. J. Webb, D. Whitelock and J. Le Guy Brereton. Frederick Warne and Co., London.
Herbert, C. A. 2007. From the urban fringe to the Abrolhos Islands: management challenges of burgeoning marsupial populations. Pp 129-141 in Pest or Guest: the zoology of overabundance, edited by D. Lunney, P. Eby, P. Hutchings and S. Burgin. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
Hindell, M. A. and Lee A. K. 1991. Tree preferences of the Koala. Pp. 117-121 in Biology of the Koala ed. by A. K. Lee, K. A. Handasyde and G. D. Sanson. Surrey Beatty and Sons, Chipping Norton, NSW.
Houlden, B. A., England, P. R., Taylor, A. C., Greville, W. D. and Sherwin, W. B. 1996. Low genetic variability of the koala Phascolarctos cinereus in south-eastern Australia following a severe population bottleneck. Molecular Ecology 5:269-281.
Houlden, B. A., Costello, B. H., Sharkey, D., Fowler, E., Melzer, A., Ellis, W., Carrick, F., Baverstock, P. and Elphinstone, M. S. 1999. Phylogenetic differentiation in the mitochondrial control region in the koala, Phascolarctos cinereus (Goldfuss 1817). Molecular Ecology 8: 999-1011.
Hrdina, F. and Gordon, G. 2004. The koala and possum trade in Queensland, 1906-1936. Australian Zoologist 32: 543-585.
Hundloe T. and Hamilton C. 1997 Koalas and Tourism: An economic evaluation. Discussion paper 13. The Australia Institute, Canberra.
IUCN 1998 Guidelines for Re-introduction. Prepared by the IUCN/SSC Re-introduction Specialist Group. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.
Kershaw, J. A. 1906. Excursion to Wilson's Promontory - General Zoology (except Mollusca). Victorian Naturalist 22: 197-203.
Kershaw, J. A. 1915. Excursion to National Park, Wilsons Promontory. Victorian Naturalist 31: 143-152.
Kershaw, J.A. 1934. The koala on Wilson's Promontory. Victorian Naturalist 51: 76-77.
Koala Management Task Force. 1996. Final report. Unpublished report to the Government of South Australia, November 1996.
Lee, A. K. and Martin, R. W. 1988 The Koala: A natural history. University of New South Wales Press, Sydney.
Lee, A. K., Martin, R. W. and Handasyde, K. A. 1991. Experimental translocation of Koalas to new habitat. Pp. 299-312 in Biology of the Koala ed. by A. K. Lee, K. A. Handasyde and G. D. Sanson. Surrey Beatty and Sons, Chipping Norton, NSW.
Le Souef, A. S. 1925. The Australian native animals. How they stand today and the cause of the scarcity of certain species. Pp. 175-184 in Barrett, Sir J. (Ed) ‘Save Australia: A plea for the right use of our flora and fauna’. McMillan and Co., Melbourne.
Le Souef, A. S. and Burrell, H. 1926 The Wild Animals of Australia, embracing the mammals of New Guinea and the nearer Pacific Islands. George G. Harrap and Co., Sydney.
Lewis, F. 1934. The Koala in Victoria. Victorian Naturalist 51: 73-76.
Lewis, F. 1954. The rehabilitation of the Koala in Victoria. Victorian Naturalist 70: 197-200.
Lunney, D. and Leary, T. 1988. The impact on native animals of land use changes and exotic species in the Bega district, New South Wales, since settlement. Australian Journal of Ecology 13: 67-92.
Lydekker, R. 1894 A Handbook to the Marsupialia and Monotremata. W. H. Allen and Co., London.
Martin, R.W. 1985a. Overbrowsing and decline of a population of the koala, Phascolarctos cinereus, in Victoria. I. Food preference and food tree defoliation. Wildlife Research 12: 355-365.
Martin, R.W. 1985b. Overbrowsing and decline of a population of the koala, Phascolarctos cinereus, in Victoria. III. Population condition. Wildlife Research 12: 377-385.
Martin, R.W. 1989. Draft management plan for the conservation of the koala ( Phascolarctos cinereus) in Victoria. Arthur Rylah Institute for Environmental Research Technical Report Series Number 99, Department of Conservation, Forests and Lands, Melbourne.
Martin, R.W. 1997. Managing over-abundance in koala populations in south-eastern Australia - future options. Australian Biologist 10: 57-63.
Martin, R. and Handasyde, K. 1991. Population dynamics of the Koala ( Phascolarctos cinereus) in southeastern Australia. Pp. 75-84 in Biology of the Koala ed. by A. K. Lee, K. A. Handasyde and G. D. Sanson. Surrey Beatty and Sons, Chipping Norton, NSW.
Martin, R. and Handasyde, K. 1999 The Koala: Natural history, conservation and management. University of New South Wales Press, Sydney.
Masters, P., Duka, T., Berris, S. and Moss, G. 2004. Koalas on Kangaroo Island: from introduction to pest status in less than a century. Wildlife Research 31: 267-272.
McLean, N. 2003 Ecology and management of overabundant koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) populations. Unpublished PhD thesis, Department of Zoology, The University of Melbourne.
McNally, J. 1957. A field survey of a koala population, Proceedings of the Zoological Society of New South Wales, 1955-56: 18-27.
McNally, J. 1969. Koala management in Victoria. The Australian Museum Magazine 13(6).
Melzer, A., Carrick, F., Menkhorst, P., Lunney, D. and St John, B. 2000. Overview, critical assessment and conservation implications of Koala distribution and abundance. Conservation Biology 14: 619-628.
Menkhorst, P.W. (Ed.) 1996 Mammals of Victoria: Distribution, ecology and conservation. Second, revised edition. Melbourne, Oxford University Press.
Menkhorst, P. 2004 Victoria's Koala Management Strategy. Department of Sustainability and Environment, East Melbourne.
Menkhorst, P., Middleton, D. and Walters, B. 1998. Managing over-abundant Koalas ( Phascolarctos cinereus) in Victoria: A brief history and some potential new directions. In Managing Marsupial Abundance for Conservation Benefits. Occasional Papers of the Marsupial CRC No. 1. Proceedings of a symposium held at the Society for Conservation Biology Conference, Sydney, July 1998. Pp. 19-29.
Middleton, D. 1996a Fertility control in the management of free-ranging populations of the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) in south-eastern Australia. Part One. Fertility Control Options, Techniques and Recommendations. Unpublished report to Department of Natural Resources and Environment, Victoria by Ecoplan Australia, Lilydale.
Middleton, D. 1996b Fertility control in the management of free-ranging populations of the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) in south-eastern Australia. Part Two. Fertility control trials, plan for implementation. Unpublished report to Department of Natural Resources and Environment, Victoria by Ecoplan Australia, Lilydale.
Middleton, D. R., Walters, B, Menkhorst, P. and Wright, P. 2003. Fertility control in the koala, Phascolarctos cinereus: The impact of slow-release implants containing levonorgestrel or oestradiol on the production of pouch young. Wildlife Research 30: 207-212.
Parks Victoria, 2003a Post-release monitoring of surgically sterilised and relocated Koalas, Mt Eccles National Park, Victoria. Unpublished report, Parks Victoria, Melbourne.
Parks Victoria, 2003b The impact of relocation on the health and survival of sterilised adult female Koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) at Snake Island and Gellions Run, Nooramunga Marine and Coastal Park. Unpublished report, Parks Victoria, Melbourne.
Parris, H. S. 1948. Koalas on the lower Goulburn. Victorian Naturalist 64: 192-193.
Parsons, G. 1990. Narrandera koala colony: a brief history of the Koalas in the Narrandera Nature Reserve. P. 69 in Koala Summit: Managing Koalas in New South Wales ed by D. Lunney, C. A. Urquhart and P. Reed. New South Wales National Parks and Wildlife Service, Sydney.
Phillips, S. 2000. Population trends and the Koala conservation debate. Conservation Biology 14: 650-659.
Phillips, W. 1990 Koalas: the little Australian we'd all hate to lose. Australian National Parks and Wildlife Service, Canberra.
Pratt, A. 1937 The Call of the Koala. Robertson and Mullen, Melbourne.
Robertson, A. C. 1978. The Koala in South Australia. In: T.J. Bergin, Ed. The Koala: Proceedings of the Taronga Symposium. Sydney, Zoological Parks Board of NSW. Pp. 132-143.
Santamaria, F. 2002 Outcomes and implications of a Koala translocation in the Ballarat region. Unpublished PhD thesis, University of Ballarat, Ballarat, Victoria.
Seebeck, J. H. 1988 The Victorian mammal fauna: development of a conservation perspective. Unpublished MSc thesis, Department of Zoology, The University of Melbourne.
Seymour, A. M., Montgomery, M. E., Costello, B. H., Ihle, S., Johnsson, G., St John, B., Taggart, D. and Houlden, B. A. 2001. High effective inbreeding coefficients correlate with morphological abnormalities in populations of South Australian koalas ( Phascolarctos cinereus). Animal Conservation 4: 211-219.
Sherwin, W. B., Timms, P., Wilcken, J. and Houlden, B. 2000. Analysis and conservation implications of Koala genetics. Conservation Biology 14: 639-649.
Strahan, R. and Martin, R. W. 1982. The Koala: Little fact, much emotion. Pp 147-155 in Species at Risk: Research in Australia. Ed. by R. H. Groves and W. D. L. Ride. Australian Academy of Science, Canberra.
St John, B. 1997. Risk assessment and Koala management in South Australia. Australian Biologist 10(1): 47-56.
Tabart, D. 1996. The Australian Koala Foundation's role in Koala conservation. Pp 178-184 in Koalas - research for management. Proceedings of the Brisbane Koala Symposium, 22-23 September 1990.
Tabart, D. 1997. Why the Koala should not be culled, when the real problems are poor land management and land degradation. Australian Biologist 10(1): 40-46.
Todd, C. R., Forsythe, D, M. and Choquenot, D. 2008. Modelling the effects of fertility control on koala-forest dynamics. Journal of Applied Ecology 45: 568-578.
Troughton, E. 1941 Furred Animals of Australia. Angus and Robertson Ltd, Sydney.
Tyndale-Biscoe, H. 1997. Culling Koalas with kindness. Search 28: 250-251.
US Fish and Wildlife Service. 2000. Final determination of threatened status for the Koala. Federal Register 65(90): 26762-26771.
Warneke, R.M. 1978. The status of the koala in Victoria. Pp. 109-114 in The Koala: Proceedings of the Taronga Symposium, edited by T.J. Bergin. Sydney, Zoological Parks Board of NSW.
Widdowson, P. E. 1947. Koalas thrive in new home. Wildlife, Aug: 299-302.
Williams, G. R. 1977. Marooning - a technique for saving threatened species from extinction. International Zoo Yearbook 17: 102-106.
Wood, M. 2004. Mt Eccles National Park Koala population survey, September 2004. Unpublished report to Parks Victoria by Australian Ecological Research Services, Portland.
Close Modal

or Create an Account

Close Modal
Close Modal