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Animal-vehicle collisions occur daily on roads around the world, putting drivers and passengers at risk of trauma and death. There is limited routine information about the incidence of such collisions and their resultant trauma and healthcare burden in Australia. Without this information it is difficult to quantify the magnitude of the problem, identify contributing factors or prioritise potential solutions. One source of data is the Traffic Accident Database System of NSW that is maintained by the NSW Roads and Traffic Authority. We queried this database for crashes involving animals in NSW over ten years from 1996 to 2005. In this paper we summarise the temporal and spatial patterns that emerge from these crashes and use the findings to highlight the ramifications for those seeking preventative solutions. We advocate a strategic cross-sectoral approach to understanding animal-vehicle crashes, particularly for improving the health status of our rural communities.

Abu-Zidan, F.M., Parmar, K.A., Rao, S. 2002. Kangaroo-related motor vehicle collisions. Journal of Trauma-Injury Infection and Critical Care 53: 360-363.
Attewell, R., Glase, K. 2000. Bull bars and road trauma. Australian Transport Safety Bureau, Report No. CR200, Australia.
Conn, J.M., Annest, J.L., Dellinger, A. 2004. Nonfatal motor-vehicle animal crash-related injuries - United States, 2001-2002. Journal of Safety Research 35: 571-574.
Cook, K.E., Daggett, P.M. 1995. Highway roadkill: associated issues of safety and impacts on highway ecotones. Task force on natural resources. Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, Washington, DC, USA.
ESRI 2004. ArcGIS 9.1. ESRI, Redlands, USA.
Groot Bruinderink, G.W.T.A., Hazebroek, E. 1996. Ungulate traffic collisions in Europe. Conservation Biology 10: 1059-1067.
Grzebieta, R.H., Rechnitzer, G. 2001. Crashworthy systems - a paradigm shift in road safety design (part II). Transport Engineering in Australia, IE Aust, Vol. 7, Nos. 1&2, Australia.
Haikonen, H., Summala, H. 2001. Deer-vehicle crashes - Extensive peak at 1 hour after sunset. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 21: 209-213.
Khattak, A.J. 2003. Human fatalities in animal-related highway crashes. Pp. 158-166 in Statistical Methods and Modeling and Safety Data, Analysis, and Evaluation, edited by Transportation Research Board, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, USA.
Lee, E., Ramp, D., Croft, D.B. In Review. Flight response as a causative factor in kangaroo-vehicle collisions. Pp. Macropods, edited by G. Coulson. Surrey-Beatty, Chipping Norton, Australia.
Morrissey, V.K. 2003. Wildlife-vehicle collisions in the Royal National Park, Sydney. Honours Thesis, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia.
NRMA 2003. Animals on a collision course. NRMA Media release (http://www.nrma.com.au/pub/nrma/about_us/media_releases/20030801b.shtml, Accessed 2/10/2007).
NSW Roads and Traffic Authority. 2003. Traffic Accident Database System Data Manual. NSW Roads and Traffic Authority, Sydney, Australia.
Putman, R.J. 1997. Deer and road traffic accidents: Options for management. Journal of Environmental Management 51: 43-57.
Ramp, D. 2005. A new frontier: the road environment and its impact on kangaroos. Pp. 155-167 in Kangaroos: Myths and Realities, edited by M. Wilson, D. B. Croft. Australian Wildlife Protection Council, Sydney, Australia.
Ramp, D., Caldwell, J., Edwards, K.A., Warton, D., Croft, D.B. 2005. Modelling of wildlife fatality hotspots along the Snowy Mountain Highway in New South Wales, Australia. Biological Conservation 126: 474-490.
Rechnitzer, G., Grzebieta, R.H. 1999. Crashworthy systems - a paradigm shift in road safety design. Transport Engineering in Australia, IE Aust, Vol. 5, No. 2, Australia.
Romin, L.A., Bissonette, J.A. 1996. Deer-vehicle collisions - status of state monitoring activities and mitigation efforts. Wildlife Society Bulletin 24: 276-283.
Weinstein, N.D. 1989. Effects of personal experience on self-reported behaviour. Psychological Bulletin 105: 31-50.
Williams, A.F., Wells, J.K. 2005. Characteristics of vehicle-animal crashes in which vehicle occupants are killed. Traffic Injury Prevention 6: 56-59.
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References

Abu-Zidan, F.M., Parmar, K.A., Rao, S. 2002. Kangaroo-related motor vehicle collisions. Journal of Trauma-Injury Infection and Critical Care 53: 360-363.
Attewell, R., Glase, K. 2000. Bull bars and road trauma. Australian Transport Safety Bureau, Report No. CR200, Australia.
Conn, J.M., Annest, J.L., Dellinger, A. 2004. Nonfatal motor-vehicle animal crash-related injuries - United States, 2001-2002. Journal of Safety Research 35: 571-574.
Cook, K.E., Daggett, P.M. 1995. Highway roadkill: associated issues of safety and impacts on highway ecotones. Task force on natural resources. Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, Washington, DC, USA.
ESRI 2004. ArcGIS 9.1. ESRI, Redlands, USA.
Groot Bruinderink, G.W.T.A., Hazebroek, E. 1996. Ungulate traffic collisions in Europe. Conservation Biology 10: 1059-1067.
Grzebieta, R.H., Rechnitzer, G. 2001. Crashworthy systems - a paradigm shift in road safety design (part II). Transport Engineering in Australia, IE Aust, Vol. 7, Nos. 1&2, Australia.
Haikonen, H., Summala, H. 2001. Deer-vehicle crashes - Extensive peak at 1 hour after sunset. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 21: 209-213.
Khattak, A.J. 2003. Human fatalities in animal-related highway crashes. Pp. 158-166 in Statistical Methods and Modeling and Safety Data, Analysis, and Evaluation, edited by Transportation Research Board, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, USA.
Lee, E., Ramp, D., Croft, D.B. In Review. Flight response as a causative factor in kangaroo-vehicle collisions. Pp. Macropods, edited by G. Coulson. Surrey-Beatty, Chipping Norton, Australia.
Morrissey, V.K. 2003. Wildlife-vehicle collisions in the Royal National Park, Sydney. Honours Thesis, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia.
NRMA 2003. Animals on a collision course. NRMA Media release (http://www.nrma.com.au/pub/nrma/about_us/media_releases/20030801b.shtml, Accessed 2/10/2007).
NSW Roads and Traffic Authority. 2003. Traffic Accident Database System Data Manual. NSW Roads and Traffic Authority, Sydney, Australia.
Putman, R.J. 1997. Deer and road traffic accidents: Options for management. Journal of Environmental Management 51: 43-57.
Ramp, D. 2005. A new frontier: the road environment and its impact on kangaroos. Pp. 155-167 in Kangaroos: Myths and Realities, edited by M. Wilson, D. B. Croft. Australian Wildlife Protection Council, Sydney, Australia.
Ramp, D., Caldwell, J., Edwards, K.A., Warton, D., Croft, D.B. 2005. Modelling of wildlife fatality hotspots along the Snowy Mountain Highway in New South Wales, Australia. Biological Conservation 126: 474-490.
Rechnitzer, G., Grzebieta, R.H. 1999. Crashworthy systems - a paradigm shift in road safety design. Transport Engineering in Australia, IE Aust, Vol. 5, No. 2, Australia.
Romin, L.A., Bissonette, J.A. 1996. Deer-vehicle collisions - status of state monitoring activities and mitigation efforts. Wildlife Society Bulletin 24: 276-283.
Weinstein, N.D. 1989. Effects of personal experience on self-reported behaviour. Psychological Bulletin 105: 31-50.
Williams, A.F., Wells, J.K. 2005. Characteristics of vehicle-animal crashes in which vehicle occupants are killed. Traffic Injury Prevention 6: 56-59.
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