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Vehicles and Koalas Phascolarctos cinereus collide frequently where the Pacific Highway crosses a 3.5 km stretch of forest in Bongil Bongil National Park. Despite the number of road-kills, resident Koalas survive in a 200-500m wide area of forest that lies between the highway and a parallel powerline easement, and seldom cross either boundary. Home ranges of radio-collared animals (which included some overlap) were 22.7 (± 5.1 s.e.) hectares for males and 9.7 (± 1.1 s.e.) hectares for females and extended to the very edge of the highway. Most road deaths, which peaked in September and October, therefore result from young, dispersing animals attempting to cross the highway. Moreover, the locations of fatalities coincide with the intersection of side-tracks and the highway suggesting that some animals are dispersing along the tracks until they meet the highway. Realignment of the highway will reduce habitat for Koalas and is likely to affect some resident animals. After construction of the upgrade is complete, which will include over- and underpasses and associated exclusion fencing to cater for dispersing animals, we predict that Koalas will re-establish home ranges to the edge of the realigned highway.

Bali, R. and Delaney, R. 1996 A Review of Koala Radiocollaring Research. A draft report for NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service.
Bennett, A.F. 1991. Roads, roadsides and wildlife conservation: a review. Pp. 99-118 in Nature Conservation 2: The role of corridors, edited by D. A. Saunders and R. J. Hobbs. Surrey Beatty and Sons, Sydney.
Boulanger, J.G. and White, G.C. 1990. A comparison of home-range estimators using Monte Carlo simulation. Journal of Wildlife Management 54: 310-15.
Coulson, G. 1985. Road kills: wheels v wildlife. Wildlife Australia (Summer): 26-8.
Dickman, C.R. 1987. Habitat fragmentation and vertebrate species richness in an urban environment. Journal of Applied Ecology 24: 337-51.
Dique, D.S., Thompson, J., Preece, H.J., de Villiers, D., and Carrick, F.N. 2003a. Dispersal patterns in a regional koala population in south-east Queensland. Wildlife Research 30: 281-90.
Dique, D.S., Thompson, J., Preece, H.J., Penfold, G.C., de Villiers, D.L., and Leslie, R.S. 2003b. Koala mortality on roads in south-east Queensland: the koala speed-zone trial. Wildlife Research 30: 419-26.
Fisher, J. and Murray, J. (eds.) 2000. Koala management plan Pine Creek State Forest. State Forests of NSW, North East region.
Gordon, G. 1991. Estimation of the age of the koala, Phascolarctos cinereus (Marsupialia: Phascolarctidae) from tooth wear and growth. Australian Mammalogy 14: 5-12.
Harris, S., Cresswell, W.J., Forde, P.G., Trewhella, W.J., Woollard, T. and Wray, S. 1990. Home-range analysis using radio-tracking data - a review of problems and techniques particularly as applied to the study of mammals. Mammal Review 20: 97-123.
Hasegawa, M. and Carrick, F.N. 1995. First catch your koala! Use of a trap to capture koalas Phascolarctos cinereus for ecological studies. Australian Zoologist 30: 68-70.
Hooge, P.N. and B. Eichenlaub, B. 1997. Animal movement extension to arcview. ver. 1.1. Alaska Science Center - Biological Science Office, U.S. Geological Survey, Anchorage, AK, USA.
Hume, I. D. 1990. Biological basis for the vulnerability of koalas to fragmentation. Pp. 32-5 in Koala Summit: Managing Koalas in New South Wales edited by D. Lunney, C. A. Urquhart and P. Reed. NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service, Sydney.
Martin, R. and Handasyde, K. 1990. Population dynamics of the koala. ( Phascolarctos cinereus) in southeastern Australia. Pp. 75-84 in Biology of the Koala, edited by A. K. Lee, K. A. Handasyde and G. D. Sanson. Surrey Beatty and Sons, Chipping Norton, NSW.
Martin, R. and Handasyde, K. 1999 The Koala: Natural History, Conservation and Management. University of New South Wales Press, Sydney.
Mitchell, P. 1990a. Social behaviour and communication of koalas. Pp.151-70 in Biology of the Koala, edited by A. K. Lee, K. A. Handasyde and G. D. Sanson. Surrey Beatty and Sons, Chipping Norton, NSW.
Mitchell, P. 1990b. The home ranges and social activity of koalas- a quantitative analysis. Pp. 171-87 in Biology of the Koala, edited by A. K. Lee, K. A. Handasyde and G. D. Sanson. Surrey Beatty and Sons, Chipping Norton, NSW.
Moore, B.D. and Foley, W.J. 2000. A review of feeding and diet selection in koalas ( Phascolarctos cinereus). Australian Journal of Zoology 48: 317-33.
Nattrass, A.E.O. and Fiedler, K.B. 1996. Koala rescue - the perception and the reality. Pp.129-36 in Koalas - Research for Management. Proceedings of the Brisbane Koala Symposium, 22nd-23rdSeptember 1990, edited by G. Gordon. World Koala Research Inc., Brisbane.
Prevett, P. 1996. Biology and management of an urban population of Koalas at Ballarat in Victoria. Pp 137-47 in Koalas - Research for Management. Proceedings of the Brisbane Koala Symposium, 22nd-23rd September 1990, edited by G. Gordon. World Koala Research Inc., Brisbane.
Radford, S.L., McKee, J., Goldingay, R.L. and Kavanagh, R.P. 2006. The protocols for koala research using radio-collars: a review based on its application in a tall coastal forest in New South Wales and the implications for future research. Australian Mammalogy 28:187-200.
Rhodes, J.R., Tyre, A.J., Jonzen, N., McAlpine, C.A. and Possingham, H.P. 2006. Optimizing presence-absence surveys for detecting population trends. Journal of Wildlife Management 70: 8-18.
Seaman, D.E., Millspaugh, J.J., Kernohan, B.J., Brundige, G.C., Raedeke, K.J. and Gitzen, R.A. 1999. Effects of sample size on Kernel home range estimates. The Journal of Wildlife Management 63: 739-47.
Seaman, D.E. and Powell, R.A. 1996. An evaluation of the accuracy of kernel density estimators for home range analysis. Ecology 77: 2075-85.
Smith, A. P. 2004. Koala conservation and habitat requirements in a timber production forest in north-east New South Wales. Pp 591-611 in Conservation of Australia's Forest Fauna (second edition), edited by D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Smith, A.P. and Andrews, S. 1997 Koala Habitat, Abundance and Distribution in the Pine Creek Study area. Unpublished report to State Forests of NSW.
Sullivan, B.J., Baxter, G.S., Lisle, A.T., Pahl, L. and Norris, W.M. 2004. Low-density koala ( Phascolarctcos cinereus) populations in the mulgalands of south-west Queensland. IV. Abundance and conservation status. Wildlife Research 31: 19-29.
Taylor, B.D. and Goldingay, R.L. 2004. Wildlife road-kills on three major roads in north-eastern New South Wales. Wildlife Research 31 83-91.
Ward, S.J. 2002 Koalas and the community: a study of low density populations in southern Sydney. Unpublished PhD thesis, University of Western Sydney.
Ward, S.J. and Close, R.L. 1998. Community assistance with koala Phascolarctos cinereus sightings from a low density population in the south-west Sydney region. Pp. 97-102 in Ecology for Everyone edited by R. Willis and R. Hobbs. Surrey Beatty and Sons, Chipping Norton, NSW.
White, N.A. 1999. Ecology of the koala ( Phascolarctos cinereus) in rural south-east Queensland, Australia. Wildlife Research 26: 731-4.
White, N.A. and Kunst, N.D. 1990. Aspects of the ecology of the koala in southeastern Queensland. Pp. 109-16 in Biology of the Koala, edited by A. K. Lee, K. A. Handasyde and G. D. Sanson. Surrey Beatty and Sons, Chipping Norton, NSW.
Wilkins, K.T. 1982. Highways as barriers to rodent dispersal. Southwestern Naturalist 27: 459-60.
Yanes, M., Velasco, J.M. and Suarez, F. 1995. Permeability of roads and railways to vertebrates: the importance of culverts. Biological Conservation 71: 217-22.
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Bali, R. and Delaney, R. 1996 A Review of Koala Radiocollaring Research. A draft report for NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service.
Bennett, A.F. 1991. Roads, roadsides and wildlife conservation: a review. Pp. 99-118 in Nature Conservation 2: The role of corridors, edited by D. A. Saunders and R. J. Hobbs. Surrey Beatty and Sons, Sydney.
Boulanger, J.G. and White, G.C. 1990. A comparison of home-range estimators using Monte Carlo simulation. Journal of Wildlife Management 54: 310-15.
Coulson, G. 1985. Road kills: wheels v wildlife. Wildlife Australia (Summer): 26-8.
Dickman, C.R. 1987. Habitat fragmentation and vertebrate species richness in an urban environment. Journal of Applied Ecology 24: 337-51.
Dique, D.S., Thompson, J., Preece, H.J., de Villiers, D., and Carrick, F.N. 2003a. Dispersal patterns in a regional koala population in south-east Queensland. Wildlife Research 30: 281-90.
Dique, D.S., Thompson, J., Preece, H.J., Penfold, G.C., de Villiers, D.L., and Leslie, R.S. 2003b. Koala mortality on roads in south-east Queensland: the koala speed-zone trial. Wildlife Research 30: 419-26.
Fisher, J. and Murray, J. (eds.) 2000. Koala management plan Pine Creek State Forest. State Forests of NSW, North East region.
Gordon, G. 1991. Estimation of the age of the koala, Phascolarctos cinereus (Marsupialia: Phascolarctidae) from tooth wear and growth. Australian Mammalogy 14: 5-12.
Harris, S., Cresswell, W.J., Forde, P.G., Trewhella, W.J., Woollard, T. and Wray, S. 1990. Home-range analysis using radio-tracking data - a review of problems and techniques particularly as applied to the study of mammals. Mammal Review 20: 97-123.
Hasegawa, M. and Carrick, F.N. 1995. First catch your koala! Use of a trap to capture koalas Phascolarctos cinereus for ecological studies. Australian Zoologist 30: 68-70.
Hooge, P.N. and B. Eichenlaub, B. 1997. Animal movement extension to arcview. ver. 1.1. Alaska Science Center - Biological Science Office, U.S. Geological Survey, Anchorage, AK, USA.
Hume, I. D. 1990. Biological basis for the vulnerability of koalas to fragmentation. Pp. 32-5 in Koala Summit: Managing Koalas in New South Wales edited by D. Lunney, C. A. Urquhart and P. Reed. NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service, Sydney.
Martin, R. and Handasyde, K. 1990. Population dynamics of the koala. ( Phascolarctos cinereus) in southeastern Australia. Pp. 75-84 in Biology of the Koala, edited by A. K. Lee, K. A. Handasyde and G. D. Sanson. Surrey Beatty and Sons, Chipping Norton, NSW.
Martin, R. and Handasyde, K. 1999 The Koala: Natural History, Conservation and Management. University of New South Wales Press, Sydney.
Mitchell, P. 1990a. Social behaviour and communication of koalas. Pp.151-70 in Biology of the Koala, edited by A. K. Lee, K. A. Handasyde and G. D. Sanson. Surrey Beatty and Sons, Chipping Norton, NSW.
Mitchell, P. 1990b. The home ranges and social activity of koalas- a quantitative analysis. Pp. 171-87 in Biology of the Koala, edited by A. K. Lee, K. A. Handasyde and G. D. Sanson. Surrey Beatty and Sons, Chipping Norton, NSW.
Moore, B.D. and Foley, W.J. 2000. A review of feeding and diet selection in koalas ( Phascolarctos cinereus). Australian Journal of Zoology 48: 317-33.
Nattrass, A.E.O. and Fiedler, K.B. 1996. Koala rescue - the perception and the reality. Pp.129-36 in Koalas - Research for Management. Proceedings of the Brisbane Koala Symposium, 22nd-23rdSeptember 1990, edited by G. Gordon. World Koala Research Inc., Brisbane.
Prevett, P. 1996. Biology and management of an urban population of Koalas at Ballarat in Victoria. Pp 137-47 in Koalas - Research for Management. Proceedings of the Brisbane Koala Symposium, 22nd-23rd September 1990, edited by G. Gordon. World Koala Research Inc., Brisbane.
Radford, S.L., McKee, J., Goldingay, R.L. and Kavanagh, R.P. 2006. The protocols for koala research using radio-collars: a review based on its application in a tall coastal forest in New South Wales and the implications for future research. Australian Mammalogy 28:187-200.
Rhodes, J.R., Tyre, A.J., Jonzen, N., McAlpine, C.A. and Possingham, H.P. 2006. Optimizing presence-absence surveys for detecting population trends. Journal of Wildlife Management 70: 8-18.
Seaman, D.E., Millspaugh, J.J., Kernohan, B.J., Brundige, G.C., Raedeke, K.J. and Gitzen, R.A. 1999. Effects of sample size on Kernel home range estimates. The Journal of Wildlife Management 63: 739-47.
Seaman, D.E. and Powell, R.A. 1996. An evaluation of the accuracy of kernel density estimators for home range analysis. Ecology 77: 2075-85.
Smith, A. P. 2004. Koala conservation and habitat requirements in a timber production forest in north-east New South Wales. Pp 591-611 in Conservation of Australia's Forest Fauna (second edition), edited by D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Smith, A.P. and Andrews, S. 1997 Koala Habitat, Abundance and Distribution in the Pine Creek Study area. Unpublished report to State Forests of NSW.
Sullivan, B.J., Baxter, G.S., Lisle, A.T., Pahl, L. and Norris, W.M. 2004. Low-density koala ( Phascolarctcos cinereus) populations in the mulgalands of south-west Queensland. IV. Abundance and conservation status. Wildlife Research 31: 19-29.
Taylor, B.D. and Goldingay, R.L. 2004. Wildlife road-kills on three major roads in north-eastern New South Wales. Wildlife Research 31 83-91.
Ward, S.J. 2002 Koalas and the community: a study of low density populations in southern Sydney. Unpublished PhD thesis, University of Western Sydney.
Ward, S.J. and Close, R.L. 1998. Community assistance with koala Phascolarctos cinereus sightings from a low density population in the south-west Sydney region. Pp. 97-102 in Ecology for Everyone edited by R. Willis and R. Hobbs. Surrey Beatty and Sons, Chipping Norton, NSW.
White, N.A. 1999. Ecology of the koala ( Phascolarctos cinereus) in rural south-east Queensland, Australia. Wildlife Research 26: 731-4.
White, N.A. and Kunst, N.D. 1990. Aspects of the ecology of the koala in southeastern Queensland. Pp. 109-16 in Biology of the Koala, edited by A. K. Lee, K. A. Handasyde and G. D. Sanson. Surrey Beatty and Sons, Chipping Norton, NSW.
Wilkins, K.T. 1982. Highways as barriers to rodent dispersal. Southwestern Naturalist 27: 459-60.
Yanes, M., Velasco, J.M. and Suarez, F. 1995. Permeability of roads and railways to vertebrates: the importance of culverts. Biological Conservation 71: 217-22.
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