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The interaction between humans and cetaceans (dolphins and whales) is a multi-million dollar tourism industry with ever increasing popularity in Australia. This form of tourism allows unique opportunities for people to interact with animals in their natural environment. These interactions may involve observing dolphins and whales from land and boats, as well as swimming with or feeding them in controlled situations. However, while there are obvious benefits of cetacean ecotourism to local communities, there may be associated costs to the animals and their environment. Research is being undertaken in an effort to understand these costs and has indicated that interactions with cetaceans can cause short-term changes in the behaviour of animals, such as alterations to foraging strategies or reduced maternal care. These changes can ultimately lead to long-term effects to individuals and populations, for example, displacement from preferred habitats or reduced reproductive success. Further research and adaptive management will be crucial in ensuring the long-term sustainability of cetacean populations, their environment and this industry.

Allen, M.C. and Read, A.J. 2000. Habitat selection of foraging bottlenose dolphins in relation to boat density near Clearwater, Florida. Marine Mammal Science 16 815-824.
Allen, S., Constantine, R., Bejder, L., Waples, K. and Harcourt, R. in press. ‘Can't sleep, can't eat -let's split’: Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin responses to tour boats in Port Stephens, Australia. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management.
Allen, S., Harcourt, R.G. and Waples, K. 2003. Short-term responses of dolphins to boat approach, Port Stephens, NSW. Unpublished report to New South Wales National Parks and Wildlife Service & Port Stephens Commercial Dolphin Watch Association Inc.
Allen, S.J. 2005. Management of bottlenose dolphins exposed to tourism in Port Stephens, NSW, Australia. Masters Thesis, Graduate School of the Environment. Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia.
Anderson, G.R.V., Forbes, M.A. and Pirzl, R.M. 1996. A national overview of the development of whale watching in Australia. Pp 5-16 in Proceedings of Encounters with Whales, edited by K. Colgan, S. Prasser and A. Jeffery. Australian Nature Conservation Agency, Canberra.
Avecedo, A. 1991. Interactions between boats and bottlenose dolphins, Tursiops truncatus, in the entrance to Ensenada De La Paz, Mexico. Aquatic Mammals 17 120-124.
Baker, A.N. 1990 Whales and Dolphins of Australia and New Zealand: An Identification Guide. Allen and Unwin, New Zealand.
Beale, C.M. and Monaghan, P. 2004. Behavioural responses to human disturbance: a matter of choice? Animal Behaviour 68 1065-1069.
Bejder, L., Dawson, S.M. and Harraway, J.A. 1999. Responses by Hector's dolphins to boats and swimmers in Porpoise Bay, New Zealand. Marine Mammal Science 15 738-750.
Bejder, L., Samuels, A., Whitehead, H. and Gales, N. 2006a. Interpreting short-term behavioural responses to disturbance within a longitudinal perspective. Animal Behaviour 72 1149-1158.
Bejder, L., Samuels, A., Whitehead, H., Gales, N., Mann, J., Conner, R., Heithaus, M., Watson-Capps, J., Flaherty, C. and Krützen, M. 2006b. Decline in relative abundance of bottlenose dolphins exposed to long-term disturbance. Conservation Biology 20 1791-1798.
Birtles, R.A., Arnold, P.W. and Dunstan, A. 2002. Commercial swim programs with dwarf minke whales on the northern Great Barrier Reef, Australia: Some characteristics of the encounters with management implications. Australian Mammalogy 24 23-38.
Blumstein, D.T., Anthony, L.L., Harcourt, R.G. and Ross, G. 2003. Testing a key assumption of wildlife buffer zones: is flight initiation distance a species-specific trait? Biological Conservation 110 97-100.
Carwardine, M. 1995 Whales, Dolphins and Porpoises. Harper Collins, Sydney.
Conner, R.C., Mann, J., Tyack, P.L. and Whitehead, H. 1998. Social evolution in toothed whales. Trends in Evolution and Ecology 13 228-232.
Connor, R.C. and Smolker, R. 1985. Habituated dolphins ( Tursiops sp.) in Western Australia. Journal of Mammalogy 66 398-400.
Constantine, R. 2001. Increased avoidance of swimmers by wild bottlenose dolphins ( Tursiops truncatus) due to long-term exposure to swim-with-dolphin tourism. Marine Mammal Science 17 689-702.
Constantine, R., Brunton, D.H. and Dennis, T. 2004. Dolphin-watching tour boats change bottlenose dolphin ( Tursiops truncatus) behaviour. Biological Conservation 117 299-307.
Coughran, D. and Crawford, S. 1996. Marine mammal interaction: an overview of the whale watching industry in Western Australia 1989-1994. p 5-16 in Proceedings of Encounters with Whales, edited by K. Colgan, S. Prasser and A. Jeffery. Australian Nature Conservation Agency, Canberra.
David, L. 2002. Disturbance to Mediterranean cetaceans caused by vessel traffic. In: Cetaceans of the Mediterranean and Black Seas: state of knowledge and conservation strategies. G. Notarbartolo di Sciara (ed.). A report to the ACCOBAMS Secretariat, Section 11, Monaco.
de O Santos, M.C. 1997. Lone sociable bottlenose dolphin in Brazil: human fatality and management. Marine Mammal Science 13 355-356.
Garrod, B. and Fennell, D.A. 2004. An analysis of whalewatching codes of conduct. Annals of Tourism Research 31 334-352.
Gill, J.A., Norris, K. and Sutherland, W.J. 2001. Why behavioural responses may not reflect the population consequences of human disturbance. Biological Conservation 97 265-268.
Gregory, P.R. and Rowden, A.A. 2001. Behaviour patterns of bottlenose dolphins ( Tursiops truncatus) relative to tidal state, time-of-day, and boat traffic in Cardigan Bay, West Wales. Aquatic Mammals 27 105-113.
Hoyt, E. 2001. Whale watching 2001: Worldwide tourism numbers, expenditures, and expanding socioeconomic benefits. International Fund for Animal Welfare, Yarmouth, MA.
IFAW. 2004. The Growth of Whale Watching Tourism in Australia. The International Fund for Animal Welfare, Sydney, Australia.
IFAW. 2005. The Growth of Whale Watching in Sydney 2003-2004 Economic Perspectives. The International Fund for Animal Welfare, Sydney, Australia.
Janik, V.M. and Thompson, P.M. 1996. Changes in surfacing patterns of bottlenose dolphins in response to boat traffic. Marine Mammal Science 12 597-602.
Krützen, M., Sherwin, W.B., Berggren, P. and Gales, N. 2004. Population structure in an inshore cetacean revealed by microsatellite and mtDNA analysis: bottlenose dolphins ( Tursiops sp.) in Shark Bay, Western Australia. Marine Mammal Science 20 28-47.
Lemon, M. 2006. The Acoustic Behaviour of Bottlenose Dolphins in Southeastern Australia and the Effects of Anthropogenic Disturbance. Page 300. PhD Thesis, Graduate School of the Environment. Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia.
Lemon, M., Lynch, T.P., Cato, D.H. and Harcourt, R. 2006. Response of bottlenose dolphins ( Tursiops aduncus) to powerboat approaches in Jervis Bay, New South Wales, Australia. Biological Conservation 127 363-372.
Lesage, V., Barrette, C., Kingsley, M.C.S. and Sjare, B. 1999. The effect of vessel noise on the vocal behaviour of belguas in the St. Lawrence river estuary, Canada. Marine Mammal Science 15 65-84.
Lusseau, D. 2004. The hidden cost of tourism: detecting long-term effects of tourism using behavioral information. Ecology and Society 9 2.
Lusseau, D., Slooten, L. and Currey, R.J.C. 2006. Unsustainable dolphin-watching tourism in Fiordland, New Zealand. Tourism in Marine Environments 3 173-178.
Mann, J. and Kemps, C. 2003. Evaluating the effects of naturebased tourism on cetaceans. p 304-317 in Marine Mammals: Fisheries, Tourism and Management Issues, edited by N. Gales, M. Hindell and R. Kirkwood. CSIRO Publishing, Victoria.
Orams, M.B., Hill, G.J.E. and Baglioni Jr., A.J. 1996. “Pushy” behaviour in a wild dolphin feeding program at Tangalooma, Australia. Marine Mammal Science 12 107-117.
Preen, A.R., Marsh, H., Lawler, I.R., Prince, R.I.T. and Shepherd, R. 1997. Distribution and abundance of dugongs, turtles, dolphins and other megafauna in Shark Bay, Ningaloo Reef and Exmouth Gulf, Western Australia. Wildlife Research 24 185-208.
Richardson, W.J., Greene Jr., C.R., Malme, C.I. and Thomson, D.H. 1995 Marine Mammals and Noise. Academic Press, San Diego, California.
Samuels, A. and Bejder, L. 2004. Chronic interaction between humans and free-ranging bottlenose dolphins near Panama City Beach, Florida, USA. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 6 69-77.
Samuels, A., Bejder, L., Constantine, R. and Heinrich, S. 2003. Swimming with wild cetaceans, with a special focus on the Southern Hemisphere. p 277-303 in Marine Mammals: Fisheries, Tourism and Management Issues, edited by N. Gales, M. Hindell and R. Kirkwood. CSIRO Publishing, Victoria.
Scarpaci, C., Bigger, S.W., Corkeron, P.J. and Nugegoda, D. 2000. Bottlenose dolphins ( Tursiops truncatus) increase whistling in the presence ‘swim-with-dolphin’ tour operations. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 2 183-185.
Wilson, B. 1994. Review of Dolphin Management at Monkey Mia. submitted to Executive Director, Department of Conservation and Land Management, Western Australia.
Wiszniewski, J. 2004. Fine-scale genetic structure in inshore bottlenose dolphins ( Tursiops aduncus) of the Hunter Region, NSW. Page 50. Marine Science Honours Degree, Department of Biological Sciences. Macquarie University, Sydney.
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References

Allen, M.C. and Read, A.J. 2000. Habitat selection of foraging bottlenose dolphins in relation to boat density near Clearwater, Florida. Marine Mammal Science 16 815-824.
Allen, S., Constantine, R., Bejder, L., Waples, K. and Harcourt, R. in press. ‘Can't sleep, can't eat -let's split’: Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin responses to tour boats in Port Stephens, Australia. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management.
Allen, S., Harcourt, R.G. and Waples, K. 2003. Short-term responses of dolphins to boat approach, Port Stephens, NSW. Unpublished report to New South Wales National Parks and Wildlife Service & Port Stephens Commercial Dolphin Watch Association Inc.
Allen, S.J. 2005. Management of bottlenose dolphins exposed to tourism in Port Stephens, NSW, Australia. Masters Thesis, Graduate School of the Environment. Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia.
Anderson, G.R.V., Forbes, M.A. and Pirzl, R.M. 1996. A national overview of the development of whale watching in Australia. Pp 5-16 in Proceedings of Encounters with Whales, edited by K. Colgan, S. Prasser and A. Jeffery. Australian Nature Conservation Agency, Canberra.
Avecedo, A. 1991. Interactions between boats and bottlenose dolphins, Tursiops truncatus, in the entrance to Ensenada De La Paz, Mexico. Aquatic Mammals 17 120-124.
Baker, A.N. 1990 Whales and Dolphins of Australia and New Zealand: An Identification Guide. Allen and Unwin, New Zealand.
Beale, C.M. and Monaghan, P. 2004. Behavioural responses to human disturbance: a matter of choice? Animal Behaviour 68 1065-1069.
Bejder, L., Dawson, S.M. and Harraway, J.A. 1999. Responses by Hector's dolphins to boats and swimmers in Porpoise Bay, New Zealand. Marine Mammal Science 15 738-750.
Bejder, L., Samuels, A., Whitehead, H. and Gales, N. 2006a. Interpreting short-term behavioural responses to disturbance within a longitudinal perspective. Animal Behaviour 72 1149-1158.
Bejder, L., Samuels, A., Whitehead, H., Gales, N., Mann, J., Conner, R., Heithaus, M., Watson-Capps, J., Flaherty, C. and Krützen, M. 2006b. Decline in relative abundance of bottlenose dolphins exposed to long-term disturbance. Conservation Biology 20 1791-1798.
Birtles, R.A., Arnold, P.W. and Dunstan, A. 2002. Commercial swim programs with dwarf minke whales on the northern Great Barrier Reef, Australia: Some characteristics of the encounters with management implications. Australian Mammalogy 24 23-38.
Blumstein, D.T., Anthony, L.L., Harcourt, R.G. and Ross, G. 2003. Testing a key assumption of wildlife buffer zones: is flight initiation distance a species-specific trait? Biological Conservation 110 97-100.
Carwardine, M. 1995 Whales, Dolphins and Porpoises. Harper Collins, Sydney.
Conner, R.C., Mann, J., Tyack, P.L. and Whitehead, H. 1998. Social evolution in toothed whales. Trends in Evolution and Ecology 13 228-232.
Connor, R.C. and Smolker, R. 1985. Habituated dolphins ( Tursiops sp.) in Western Australia. Journal of Mammalogy 66 398-400.
Constantine, R. 2001. Increased avoidance of swimmers by wild bottlenose dolphins ( Tursiops truncatus) due to long-term exposure to swim-with-dolphin tourism. Marine Mammal Science 17 689-702.
Constantine, R., Brunton, D.H. and Dennis, T. 2004. Dolphin-watching tour boats change bottlenose dolphin ( Tursiops truncatus) behaviour. Biological Conservation 117 299-307.
Coughran, D. and Crawford, S. 1996. Marine mammal interaction: an overview of the whale watching industry in Western Australia 1989-1994. p 5-16 in Proceedings of Encounters with Whales, edited by K. Colgan, S. Prasser and A. Jeffery. Australian Nature Conservation Agency, Canberra.
David, L. 2002. Disturbance to Mediterranean cetaceans caused by vessel traffic. In: Cetaceans of the Mediterranean and Black Seas: state of knowledge and conservation strategies. G. Notarbartolo di Sciara (ed.). A report to the ACCOBAMS Secretariat, Section 11, Monaco.
de O Santos, M.C. 1997. Lone sociable bottlenose dolphin in Brazil: human fatality and management. Marine Mammal Science 13 355-356.
Garrod, B. and Fennell, D.A. 2004. An analysis of whalewatching codes of conduct. Annals of Tourism Research 31 334-352.
Gill, J.A., Norris, K. and Sutherland, W.J. 2001. Why behavioural responses may not reflect the population consequences of human disturbance. Biological Conservation 97 265-268.
Gregory, P.R. and Rowden, A.A. 2001. Behaviour patterns of bottlenose dolphins ( Tursiops truncatus) relative to tidal state, time-of-day, and boat traffic in Cardigan Bay, West Wales. Aquatic Mammals 27 105-113.
Hoyt, E. 2001. Whale watching 2001: Worldwide tourism numbers, expenditures, and expanding socioeconomic benefits. International Fund for Animal Welfare, Yarmouth, MA.
IFAW. 2004. The Growth of Whale Watching Tourism in Australia. The International Fund for Animal Welfare, Sydney, Australia.
IFAW. 2005. The Growth of Whale Watching in Sydney 2003-2004 Economic Perspectives. The International Fund for Animal Welfare, Sydney, Australia.
Janik, V.M. and Thompson, P.M. 1996. Changes in surfacing patterns of bottlenose dolphins in response to boat traffic. Marine Mammal Science 12 597-602.
Krützen, M., Sherwin, W.B., Berggren, P. and Gales, N. 2004. Population structure in an inshore cetacean revealed by microsatellite and mtDNA analysis: bottlenose dolphins ( Tursiops sp.) in Shark Bay, Western Australia. Marine Mammal Science 20 28-47.
Lemon, M. 2006. The Acoustic Behaviour of Bottlenose Dolphins in Southeastern Australia and the Effects of Anthropogenic Disturbance. Page 300. PhD Thesis, Graduate School of the Environment. Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia.
Lemon, M., Lynch, T.P., Cato, D.H. and Harcourt, R. 2006. Response of bottlenose dolphins ( Tursiops aduncus) to powerboat approaches in Jervis Bay, New South Wales, Australia. Biological Conservation 127 363-372.
Lesage, V., Barrette, C., Kingsley, M.C.S. and Sjare, B. 1999. The effect of vessel noise on the vocal behaviour of belguas in the St. Lawrence river estuary, Canada. Marine Mammal Science 15 65-84.
Lusseau, D. 2004. The hidden cost of tourism: detecting long-term effects of tourism using behavioral information. Ecology and Society 9 2.
Lusseau, D., Slooten, L. and Currey, R.J.C. 2006. Unsustainable dolphin-watching tourism in Fiordland, New Zealand. Tourism in Marine Environments 3 173-178.
Mann, J. and Kemps, C. 2003. Evaluating the effects of naturebased tourism on cetaceans. p 304-317 in Marine Mammals: Fisheries, Tourism and Management Issues, edited by N. Gales, M. Hindell and R. Kirkwood. CSIRO Publishing, Victoria.
Orams, M.B., Hill, G.J.E. and Baglioni Jr., A.J. 1996. “Pushy” behaviour in a wild dolphin feeding program at Tangalooma, Australia. Marine Mammal Science 12 107-117.
Preen, A.R., Marsh, H., Lawler, I.R., Prince, R.I.T. and Shepherd, R. 1997. Distribution and abundance of dugongs, turtles, dolphins and other megafauna in Shark Bay, Ningaloo Reef and Exmouth Gulf, Western Australia. Wildlife Research 24 185-208.
Richardson, W.J., Greene Jr., C.R., Malme, C.I. and Thomson, D.H. 1995 Marine Mammals and Noise. Academic Press, San Diego, California.
Samuels, A. and Bejder, L. 2004. Chronic interaction between humans and free-ranging bottlenose dolphins near Panama City Beach, Florida, USA. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 6 69-77.
Samuels, A., Bejder, L., Constantine, R. and Heinrich, S. 2003. Swimming with wild cetaceans, with a special focus on the Southern Hemisphere. p 277-303 in Marine Mammals: Fisheries, Tourism and Management Issues, edited by N. Gales, M. Hindell and R. Kirkwood. CSIRO Publishing, Victoria.
Scarpaci, C., Bigger, S.W., Corkeron, P.J. and Nugegoda, D. 2000. Bottlenose dolphins ( Tursiops truncatus) increase whistling in the presence ‘swim-with-dolphin’ tour operations. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 2 183-185.
Wilson, B. 1994. Review of Dolphin Management at Monkey Mia. submitted to Executive Director, Department of Conservation and Land Management, Western Australia.
Wiszniewski, J. 2004. Fine-scale genetic structure in inshore bottlenose dolphins ( Tursiops aduncus) of the Hunter Region, NSW. Page 50. Marine Science Honours Degree, Department of Biological Sciences. Macquarie University, Sydney.
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