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Management of wildlife tourism is multi-faceted, requiring an understanding of the long-term biological impacts as well as the needs of tourists, industry and other stakeholders. Successful management for the sustainability of wildlife tourism is most likely to succeed under an adaptive management system. The benefits of this type of integrated and holistic approach are widely recognised but rarely adopted in the management of whale-watching. This study examines both the human and animal dimensions of whale-watching by incorporating both social and biological sciences. A framework for management of the New South Wales humpback whale-watching industry based on the findings of this research is provided. This framework aims to maximise the benefits of whale-watching for tourists, industry and conservation while minimising the adverse effects on whales. This study has identified techniques for education, research and vessel management as three fundamental components of sustainable management strategies for the whale-watching industry. Mechanisms by which management, can incorporate all three of these components, are given.

Alcock, A., Jones, B., Lane, S. and Grant, J. 1994. National Ecotourism Strategy. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra, ACT.
Baker, C.S. and Herman L.M. 1989 Behavioural responses of summering humpback whales to vessel traffic: experimental and opportunistic observations. NPS-NR-TRS-89-01. Report from Kewalo Basin Marine Mammal Laboratory, Honolulu. United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Anchorage. 50pp.
Bauer G.B. 1986. The behavior of humpback whales in Hawaii and modifications of behavior induced by human interventions. Ph.D. Thesis. University of Hawaii, Honolulu. 314pp.
Bauer, G.B. and Herman, L.M. 1986 Effects of vessel traffic on the behavior of humpback whales in Hawaii. Report from Kewalo Basin Marine Mammal Laboratory. University of Hawaii, Honolulu for the US National Marine Fisheries Services. 151pp.
Beale, C. M. and Monaghan, P. 2004. Behavioural responses to human disturbance: matter of choice? Animal Behaviour 68: 1065-1069.
Bejder, L., Dawson, S.M. and Harraway, J.A. 1999. Response by Hector's dolphins to boats and swimmers in Porpoise Bay, New Zealand. Marine Mammal Science 15: 738-750.
Bejder, L., Samuels, A., Whitehead, J., Gales, N., Mann, J., Connor, R., Heithaus, M., Watson-Capps, J., Flaherty, C. and Krutzen, M. 2006a. Decline in relative abundance of bottlenose dolphins exposed to long-term disturbance. Conservation Biology 20: 1791-1798.
Bejder, L., Samuels, A., Whitehead, H. and Gales, N. 2006b. Interpreting short-term behavioural responses to disturbance within a longitudinal perspective. Animal Behaviour 72: 1149-1158.
Berrow, S. 2003. An assessment of the framework, legislation and monitoring required to develop genuinely sustainable whalewatching. Pp 66-78, Chapter 4, in Marine Ecotourism: Issues and Experiences, edited by B. Garrod and J. Wilson. Channel View Publications, Clevedon UK.
Birtles, A., Valentine, P., Curnock, M. Arnold, P. and Dunstan, A. 2002 Incorporating visitor experiences into ecologically sustainable dwarf minke whale tourism in the northern Great Barrier Reef. CRC Reef Research Centre Technical Report No. 42. CRC Reef Research Centre Ltd., Townsville. 65pp.
Birtles, A., Valentine, P. and Curnock, M. 2001 Tourism based on free-ranging marine wildlife: opportunities and responsibilities. Wildlife Tourism Research Report Series: No. 11. Cooperative Research Centre for Sustainable Tourism, Gold Coast. 65pp.
Blane, J.M. and Jackson, R. 1994. The impact of ecotourism boats on the St Lawrence beluga whales. Environmental Conservation 21: 267-269.
Carlson, C. 2004 A review of whale watch guidelines and regulations around the world version 2004. International Fund for Animal Welfare, Yarmouth Port, MA. 133pp
Constantine, R. 2001. Increased avoidance of swimmers by wild bottlenose dolphins ( Tursiops truncatus) due to long-term exposure to swim-with dolphin tourism. Marine Mammal Science 17(4): 689-702.
Constantine, R., Brunton, D.H. and Dennis, T. 2004. Dolphin-watching tour boats change bottlenose dolphin ( Tursiops truncatus) behaviour. Biological Conservation 117: 299-307.
Corkeron, P. 1995. Humpback whales in Hervey Bay, Qld: behavior and responses to whale-watching vessels. Canadian Journal of Zoology 73: 1290-1299.
Corkeron, P. 2004. Whale watching, iconography, and marine conservation. Conservation Biology 18: 847-844.
Corkeron, P. 2006. How shall we watch whales? Pp. 161-170, Chapter 11, in Gaining Ground: In Pursuit of Ecological Sustainability, edited by D. Lavigne. International Fund for Animal Welfare, Guelph and University of Limerick, Limerick, Ireland.
Davis, D., Banks, S., Birtles, A., Valentine, P. and Cuthill, M. 1997. Whale sharks in Ningaloo Marine Park: managing tourism in an Australian marine protected area. Tourism Management 18: 259-271.
Duffus, D.A and Dearden, P. 1993. Recreational use, valuation, and management, of Killer Whales ( Orcinus orca) on Canada's Pacific Coast. Environmental Conservation 20: 149-156.
Ecotourism Australia 2006. Ecotourism Australia [WWW page]. URL http://www.ecotourism.org.au. Accessed 28/11/06.
Findlay, K. 1997. Attitudes and expenditures of whale watchers in Hermanus, South Africa. South African Journal of Wildlife Research 27: 57-62.
Forestell, P. 1993. If leviathan has a face, does Gaia have a soul?: Incorporating environmental education in marine ecotourism programs. Ocean and Coastal Management 20: 267-282.
Forestell, P. H. and Kaufman, G.D. 1990. The history of whale watching in Hawaii and its role in enhancing visitor appreciation for endangered species. In Proceedings of the 1990 Congress on Coastal and Marine Tourism (vol. 1), edited by M.L Miller and J. Auyong. National Coastal Resources Research Institute, Corvallis, OR.
Green, M. and K. Higginbottom 2001 The negative effects of wildlife tourism on wildlife. Wildlife Tourism Research Report Series: No.5. Cooperative Research Centre for Sustainable Tourism, Gold Coast. 207pp.
Hammit, W. E., Dulin, J.N. and Wells, G.R. 1993. Determinants of quality wildlife viewing in Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Wildlife Society Bulletin 21: 21-30.
Higginbottom, K. 2002 Principles for sustainable wildlife tourism with particular reference to dolphin-based boat tours in Port Phillip Bay. Report for the Victorian Department of Natural Resources and Environment. Cooperative Research Centre for Sustainable Tourism, Gold Coast. 10pp.
Higginbottom, K., Northrope, C and Green, R. 2001 Positive effects of wildlife tourism on wildlife. Wildlife Tourism Research Report Series: No. 6. Cooperative Research Centre for Sustainable Tourism, Gold Coast. 95pp.
Higginbottom, K., Rann, K., Moscardo, G., Davis, D., Muloin, S. 2001 Wildlife tourism in Australia overview. Wildlife Tourism Research Report Series: No. 1. Cooperative Research Centre for Sustainable Tourism, Gold Coast.
Higham, J. E. S., Carr, A.M. and Gale, S. 2001 Ecotourism in New Zealand: profiling visitors to New Zealand ecotourism operations. Research Paper Number 10. University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand. 56pp.
Hoyt, E. 2001 Whale watching 2001: worldwide tourism numbers, expenditures and expanding socioeconomic benefits. International Fund for Animal Welfare, Yarmouth Port. 158pp.
IFAW, 2004. From whalers to whale watchers: the growth of wildlife tourism in Australia. International Fund for Animal Welfare, Australia. 34pp.
Janik, V. M. and Thompson, P.M. 1996. Changes in surfacing patterns of bottlenose dolphins in response to boat traffic. Marine Mammal Science 12: 597-602.
Kimmel, J. R. 1999. Ecotourism as environmental learning. The Journal of Environmental Education 30: 40-44.
Lück, M. 2003. Education on marine mammal tours as agents for conservation - but do tourists want to be educated? Ocean and Coastal Management 46: 943-956.
Lusseau, D. 2003. Effects of tour boats on the behavior of bottlenose dolphins: using Markov chains to model anthropogenic impacts. Biological Conservation 17: 1785-1793.
Lusseau, D. 2005. Residency pattern of bottlenose dolphins Tursiops spp. in Milford Sound, New Zealand, is related to boat traffic. Marine Ecology Progress Series 295: 265-272.
Meinhold, S. L. 2003. Designing an education program to manage the undesirable effects of whale watching. Masters Thesis. Science, Technology and Environment. Royal Roads University, Victoria BC, Canada. 112pp.
Mobley, J.R. & Herman, L.M. 1985. Transience of social affiliations among humpback whales ( Megaptera novaeangliae) in Hawaiian wintering grounds. Canadian Journal of Zoology 63: 762-772.
Moscardo, G. & Saltzer, R. 2005 Understanding tourism wildlife interactions: visitor market analysis. Cooperative Research Centre for Sustainable Tourism, Gold Coast. 29pp.
Moscardo, G., Woods, B. and Greenwood, T. 2001 Understanding visitor perspectives on wildlife tourism. Wildlife Tourism Research Report Series: No. 2. Cooperative Research Centre for Sustainable Tourism, Gold Coast. 32pp.
Muloin, S. 1998. Wildlife tourism: The psychological benefits of whale watching. Pacific Tourism Research 2: 199-213.
Muloin, S. 2000. The psychological benefits experienced from tourist-wildlife encounters. Ph.D. Thesis. School of Business, Tourism Program James Cook University Townsville. 375+pp.
Neil, D., Orams, M. and Baglioni, A. 2003. Effect of previous whale watching experience on participants knowledge of, and response to, whales and whale watching, www.tangalooma.com/dolphinweb/research/papers/paper3.pdf. 7pp. Accessed 03/01/2005.
Newsome, D., Dowling, R. and Moore, S. 2005 Wildlife Tourism. Channel View Publications, Clevedon, UK.
O'Neill, F., Bernard, S. and Lee, D. 2004 Best Practice and interpretation in tourist/wildlife encounters: A wild dolphin swim tour example. Wildlife Tourism Research Report Series: No. 25. Cooperative Research Centre for Sustainable Tourism, Gold Coast. 59pp.
Orams, M. B. 1994. Creating effective interpretation for managing interaction between tourists and wildlife. Australian Journal of Environmental Education 10: 21-34.
Orams, M. B. 1995. Towards a more desirable form of ecotourism. Tourism Management 16(1): 3-8.
Orams, M.B. 1996. Cetacean education: Can we turn tourists into ‘greenies’? Pp. 167-177 in Proceedings of Encounters with Whales, 1995 edited by K. Colgan, S. Prasser and A. Jeffery. Australian Nature Conservation Agency, Canberra.
Orams, M.B. 1999 Marine tourism: Development, impacts and management. Routledge, London.
Orams, M. B. 2000. Tourists getting close to whales, is it what whale-watching is all about? Tourism Management 21:561-569.
Orams, M. and Hill, G. 1998. Dolphin feeding program: Is education the answer? The Journal of Environmental Education 29: 33-38.
Pearce, D. G. and P. M. Wilson 1995. Wildlife-viewing tourists in New Zealand. Journal of Travel Research 34: 19-26.
Reid, E. 1993. An environmental profile: The whale watchers of Encounter Bay, South Australia. Masters Thesis. Mawson Graduate Centre for Environmental Studies, Adelaide University, Adelaide. 103pp.
Reid, E. 1999. Of leisure learning and leviathan. PhD Thesis. Department of Geographical and Environmental Studies. University of Adelaide, Adelaide. 402pp.
Reynolds, P.C. and Braithwaite, D. 2001. Towards a conceptual framework for wildlife tourism. Tourism Management 22: 31-42.
Samuels, A. and L. Bejder 2004. Chronic interaction between humans and free-ranging bottlenose dolphins near Panama City Beach, Florida, USA. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 6: 69-77.
Scheidat, M., Castro, C., Gonzalez, J. and Williams, R. 2004. Behavioural responses of humpback whales ( Megaptera novaeangliae) to whale watching boats near Isla de la Plata, Machalilla National Park, Ecuador. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 6: 63-68.
Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity. 2004 Guidelines on Biodiversity and Tourism Development: International guidelines for activities related to sustainable tourism development in vulnerable terrestrial, marine and coastal ecosystems and habitats of major importance for biological diversity and protected areas, including fragile riparian and mountain ecosystems (CBD Guidelines). Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity, Montreal. 29pp.
Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity. 2006 Managing tourism and biodiversity. Draft user's manual on the CBD guidelines on biodiversity and tourism development. Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity, Montreal. 143pp.
UNEP MAP RAC/SPA 2003. A worldwide review of regulations, guidelines and codes of conduct for whale watching as a reference for the Mediterranean Sea. RAC/SPA, Turis, Spain. 30pp.
Valentine, P. and A. Birtles 2004. Wildlife watching. Pp 15-34, Chapter 2, in Wildlife Tourism: impacts, management and planning, edited by K. Higginbottom. Sustainable Tourism CRC, Brisbane and Common Ground Publishing, Melbourne.
Valentine, P., Birtles, A., Curnock, M., Arnold, P. and Dunstan, A. 2004. Getting closer to whales - passenger expectations and experiences and the management of swim with dwarf minke whale interactions in the Great Barrier Reef. Tourism Management 25: 647-655.
Waples, K. 2003. The role of research in the management of whale watching. Pp 62-72, in Conserving Marine Environments. Out of Sight Out of Mind, edited by P. Hutchings and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
Weiler, B. and Davis, D. 1993. An exploratory investigation into the roles of the nature-based tour leader. Tourism Management 14: 91-98.
Whitehead, H. 1983. Structure and stability of humpback whale groups off Newfoundland. Canadian Journal of Zoology 61: 1391-1397.
Williams, R., Trites, A.W. and Bain, D.E. 2002. Behavioral responses of Killer Whales ( Orcinus orca) to whale-watching boats: opportunistic observations and experimental approaches. Journal of Zoology, London 256: 255-270.
Williams, R., Lusseau, D. and Hammond, P.S. 2006. Estimating relative energetic costs of human disturbance to killer whales ( Orcinus orca). Biological Conservation 133: 301-311.
Woods, B. 2001. Wildlife tourism and the visitor experience: Flinders Chase National Park, Kangaroo Island. Pp 377-394 in CAUTHE 2001: Capitalising on research, Proceedings of the eleventh Australian Tourism and Hospitality Research Conference, edited by C. Pforr and B. Janeczko. University of Canberra, Canberra.
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References

Alcock, A., Jones, B., Lane, S. and Grant, J. 1994. National Ecotourism Strategy. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra, ACT.
Baker, C.S. and Herman L.M. 1989 Behavioural responses of summering humpback whales to vessel traffic: experimental and opportunistic observations. NPS-NR-TRS-89-01. Report from Kewalo Basin Marine Mammal Laboratory, Honolulu. United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Anchorage. 50pp.
Bauer G.B. 1986. The behavior of humpback whales in Hawaii and modifications of behavior induced by human interventions. Ph.D. Thesis. University of Hawaii, Honolulu. 314pp.
Bauer, G.B. and Herman, L.M. 1986 Effects of vessel traffic on the behavior of humpback whales in Hawaii. Report from Kewalo Basin Marine Mammal Laboratory. University of Hawaii, Honolulu for the US National Marine Fisheries Services. 151pp.
Beale, C. M. and Monaghan, P. 2004. Behavioural responses to human disturbance: matter of choice? Animal Behaviour 68: 1065-1069.
Bejder, L., Dawson, S.M. and Harraway, J.A. 1999. Response by Hector's dolphins to boats and swimmers in Porpoise Bay, New Zealand. Marine Mammal Science 15: 738-750.
Bejder, L., Samuels, A., Whitehead, J., Gales, N., Mann, J., Connor, R., Heithaus, M., Watson-Capps, J., Flaherty, C. and Krutzen, M. 2006a. Decline in relative abundance of bottlenose dolphins exposed to long-term disturbance. Conservation Biology 20: 1791-1798.
Bejder, L., Samuels, A., Whitehead, H. and Gales, N. 2006b. Interpreting short-term behavioural responses to disturbance within a longitudinal perspective. Animal Behaviour 72: 1149-1158.
Berrow, S. 2003. An assessment of the framework, legislation and monitoring required to develop genuinely sustainable whalewatching. Pp 66-78, Chapter 4, in Marine Ecotourism: Issues and Experiences, edited by B. Garrod and J. Wilson. Channel View Publications, Clevedon UK.
Birtles, A., Valentine, P., Curnock, M. Arnold, P. and Dunstan, A. 2002 Incorporating visitor experiences into ecologically sustainable dwarf minke whale tourism in the northern Great Barrier Reef. CRC Reef Research Centre Technical Report No. 42. CRC Reef Research Centre Ltd., Townsville. 65pp.
Birtles, A., Valentine, P. and Curnock, M. 2001 Tourism based on free-ranging marine wildlife: opportunities and responsibilities. Wildlife Tourism Research Report Series: No. 11. Cooperative Research Centre for Sustainable Tourism, Gold Coast. 65pp.
Blane, J.M. and Jackson, R. 1994. The impact of ecotourism boats on the St Lawrence beluga whales. Environmental Conservation 21: 267-269.
Carlson, C. 2004 A review of whale watch guidelines and regulations around the world version 2004. International Fund for Animal Welfare, Yarmouth Port, MA. 133pp
Constantine, R. 2001. Increased avoidance of swimmers by wild bottlenose dolphins ( Tursiops truncatus) due to long-term exposure to swim-with dolphin tourism. Marine Mammal Science 17(4): 689-702.
Constantine, R., Brunton, D.H. and Dennis, T. 2004. Dolphin-watching tour boats change bottlenose dolphin ( Tursiops truncatus) behaviour. Biological Conservation 117: 299-307.
Corkeron, P. 1995. Humpback whales in Hervey Bay, Qld: behavior and responses to whale-watching vessels. Canadian Journal of Zoology 73: 1290-1299.
Corkeron, P. 2004. Whale watching, iconography, and marine conservation. Conservation Biology 18: 847-844.
Corkeron, P. 2006. How shall we watch whales? Pp. 161-170, Chapter 11, in Gaining Ground: In Pursuit of Ecological Sustainability, edited by D. Lavigne. International Fund for Animal Welfare, Guelph and University of Limerick, Limerick, Ireland.
Davis, D., Banks, S., Birtles, A., Valentine, P. and Cuthill, M. 1997. Whale sharks in Ningaloo Marine Park: managing tourism in an Australian marine protected area. Tourism Management 18: 259-271.
Duffus, D.A and Dearden, P. 1993. Recreational use, valuation, and management, of Killer Whales ( Orcinus orca) on Canada's Pacific Coast. Environmental Conservation 20: 149-156.
Ecotourism Australia 2006. Ecotourism Australia [WWW page]. URL http://www.ecotourism.org.au. Accessed 28/11/06.
Findlay, K. 1997. Attitudes and expenditures of whale watchers in Hermanus, South Africa. South African Journal of Wildlife Research 27: 57-62.
Forestell, P. 1993. If leviathan has a face, does Gaia have a soul?: Incorporating environmental education in marine ecotourism programs. Ocean and Coastal Management 20: 267-282.
Forestell, P. H. and Kaufman, G.D. 1990. The history of whale watching in Hawaii and its role in enhancing visitor appreciation for endangered species. In Proceedings of the 1990 Congress on Coastal and Marine Tourism (vol. 1), edited by M.L Miller and J. Auyong. National Coastal Resources Research Institute, Corvallis, OR.
Green, M. and K. Higginbottom 2001 The negative effects of wildlife tourism on wildlife. Wildlife Tourism Research Report Series: No.5. Cooperative Research Centre for Sustainable Tourism, Gold Coast. 207pp.
Hammit, W. E., Dulin, J.N. and Wells, G.R. 1993. Determinants of quality wildlife viewing in Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Wildlife Society Bulletin 21: 21-30.
Higginbottom, K. 2002 Principles for sustainable wildlife tourism with particular reference to dolphin-based boat tours in Port Phillip Bay. Report for the Victorian Department of Natural Resources and Environment. Cooperative Research Centre for Sustainable Tourism, Gold Coast. 10pp.
Higginbottom, K., Northrope, C and Green, R. 2001 Positive effects of wildlife tourism on wildlife. Wildlife Tourism Research Report Series: No. 6. Cooperative Research Centre for Sustainable Tourism, Gold Coast. 95pp.
Higginbottom, K., Rann, K., Moscardo, G., Davis, D., Muloin, S. 2001 Wildlife tourism in Australia overview. Wildlife Tourism Research Report Series: No. 1. Cooperative Research Centre for Sustainable Tourism, Gold Coast.
Higham, J. E. S., Carr, A.M. and Gale, S. 2001 Ecotourism in New Zealand: profiling visitors to New Zealand ecotourism operations. Research Paper Number 10. University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand. 56pp.
Hoyt, E. 2001 Whale watching 2001: worldwide tourism numbers, expenditures and expanding socioeconomic benefits. International Fund for Animal Welfare, Yarmouth Port. 158pp.
IFAW, 2004. From whalers to whale watchers: the growth of wildlife tourism in Australia. International Fund for Animal Welfare, Australia. 34pp.
Janik, V. M. and Thompson, P.M. 1996. Changes in surfacing patterns of bottlenose dolphins in response to boat traffic. Marine Mammal Science 12: 597-602.
Kimmel, J. R. 1999. Ecotourism as environmental learning. The Journal of Environmental Education 30: 40-44.
Lück, M. 2003. Education on marine mammal tours as agents for conservation - but do tourists want to be educated? Ocean and Coastal Management 46: 943-956.
Lusseau, D. 2003. Effects of tour boats on the behavior of bottlenose dolphins: using Markov chains to model anthropogenic impacts. Biological Conservation 17: 1785-1793.
Lusseau, D. 2005. Residency pattern of bottlenose dolphins Tursiops spp. in Milford Sound, New Zealand, is related to boat traffic. Marine Ecology Progress Series 295: 265-272.
Meinhold, S. L. 2003. Designing an education program to manage the undesirable effects of whale watching. Masters Thesis. Science, Technology and Environment. Royal Roads University, Victoria BC, Canada. 112pp.
Mobley, J.R. & Herman, L.M. 1985. Transience of social affiliations among humpback whales ( Megaptera novaeangliae) in Hawaiian wintering grounds. Canadian Journal of Zoology 63: 762-772.
Moscardo, G. & Saltzer, R. 2005 Understanding tourism wildlife interactions: visitor market analysis. Cooperative Research Centre for Sustainable Tourism, Gold Coast. 29pp.
Moscardo, G., Woods, B. and Greenwood, T. 2001 Understanding visitor perspectives on wildlife tourism. Wildlife Tourism Research Report Series: No. 2. Cooperative Research Centre for Sustainable Tourism, Gold Coast. 32pp.
Muloin, S. 1998. Wildlife tourism: The psychological benefits of whale watching. Pacific Tourism Research 2: 199-213.
Muloin, S. 2000. The psychological benefits experienced from tourist-wildlife encounters. Ph.D. Thesis. School of Business, Tourism Program James Cook University Townsville. 375+pp.
Neil, D., Orams, M. and Baglioni, A. 2003. Effect of previous whale watching experience on participants knowledge of, and response to, whales and whale watching, www.tangalooma.com/dolphinweb/research/papers/paper3.pdf. 7pp. Accessed 03/01/2005.
Newsome, D., Dowling, R. and Moore, S. 2005 Wildlife Tourism. Channel View Publications, Clevedon, UK.
O'Neill, F., Bernard, S. and Lee, D. 2004 Best Practice and interpretation in tourist/wildlife encounters: A wild dolphin swim tour example. Wildlife Tourism Research Report Series: No. 25. Cooperative Research Centre for Sustainable Tourism, Gold Coast. 59pp.
Orams, M. B. 1994. Creating effective interpretation for managing interaction between tourists and wildlife. Australian Journal of Environmental Education 10: 21-34.
Orams, M. B. 1995. Towards a more desirable form of ecotourism. Tourism Management 16(1): 3-8.
Orams, M.B. 1996. Cetacean education: Can we turn tourists into ‘greenies’? Pp. 167-177 in Proceedings of Encounters with Whales, 1995 edited by K. Colgan, S. Prasser and A. Jeffery. Australian Nature Conservation Agency, Canberra.
Orams, M.B. 1999 Marine tourism: Development, impacts and management. Routledge, London.
Orams, M. B. 2000. Tourists getting close to whales, is it what whale-watching is all about? Tourism Management 21:561-569.
Orams, M. and Hill, G. 1998. Dolphin feeding program: Is education the answer? The Journal of Environmental Education 29: 33-38.
Pearce, D. G. and P. M. Wilson 1995. Wildlife-viewing tourists in New Zealand. Journal of Travel Research 34: 19-26.
Reid, E. 1993. An environmental profile: The whale watchers of Encounter Bay, South Australia. Masters Thesis. Mawson Graduate Centre for Environmental Studies, Adelaide University, Adelaide. 103pp.
Reid, E. 1999. Of leisure learning and leviathan. PhD Thesis. Department of Geographical and Environmental Studies. University of Adelaide, Adelaide. 402pp.
Reynolds, P.C. and Braithwaite, D. 2001. Towards a conceptual framework for wildlife tourism. Tourism Management 22: 31-42.
Samuels, A. and L. Bejder 2004. Chronic interaction between humans and free-ranging bottlenose dolphins near Panama City Beach, Florida, USA. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 6: 69-77.
Scheidat, M., Castro, C., Gonzalez, J. and Williams, R. 2004. Behavioural responses of humpback whales ( Megaptera novaeangliae) to whale watching boats near Isla de la Plata, Machalilla National Park, Ecuador. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 6: 63-68.
Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity. 2004 Guidelines on Biodiversity and Tourism Development: International guidelines for activities related to sustainable tourism development in vulnerable terrestrial, marine and coastal ecosystems and habitats of major importance for biological diversity and protected areas, including fragile riparian and mountain ecosystems (CBD Guidelines). Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity, Montreal. 29pp.
Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity. 2006 Managing tourism and biodiversity. Draft user's manual on the CBD guidelines on biodiversity and tourism development. Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity, Montreal. 143pp.
UNEP MAP RAC/SPA 2003. A worldwide review of regulations, guidelines and codes of conduct for whale watching as a reference for the Mediterranean Sea. RAC/SPA, Turis, Spain. 30pp.
Valentine, P. and A. Birtles 2004. Wildlife watching. Pp 15-34, Chapter 2, in Wildlife Tourism: impacts, management and planning, edited by K. Higginbottom. Sustainable Tourism CRC, Brisbane and Common Ground Publishing, Melbourne.
Valentine, P., Birtles, A., Curnock, M., Arnold, P. and Dunstan, A. 2004. Getting closer to whales - passenger expectations and experiences and the management of swim with dwarf minke whale interactions in the Great Barrier Reef. Tourism Management 25: 647-655.
Waples, K. 2003. The role of research in the management of whale watching. Pp 62-72, in Conserving Marine Environments. Out of Sight Out of Mind, edited by P. Hutchings and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
Weiler, B. and Davis, D. 1993. An exploratory investigation into the roles of the nature-based tour leader. Tourism Management 14: 91-98.
Whitehead, H. 1983. Structure and stability of humpback whale groups off Newfoundland. Canadian Journal of Zoology 61: 1391-1397.
Williams, R., Trites, A.W. and Bain, D.E. 2002. Behavioral responses of Killer Whales ( Orcinus orca) to whale-watching boats: opportunistic observations and experimental approaches. Journal of Zoology, London 256: 255-270.
Williams, R., Lusseau, D. and Hammond, P.S. 2006. Estimating relative energetic costs of human disturbance to killer whales ( Orcinus orca). Biological Conservation 133: 301-311.
Woods, B. 2001. Wildlife tourism and the visitor experience: Flinders Chase National Park, Kangaroo Island. Pp 377-394 in CAUTHE 2001: Capitalising on research, Proceedings of the eleventh Australian Tourism and Hospitality Research Conference, edited by C. Pforr and B. Janeczko. University of Canberra, Canberra.
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