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The most northern Australian haul-out site for the fur seal Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus is at Steamers Head, New South Wales (NSW). This study represents the first quantitative status report on the composition and abundance of seals at the Steamers Head haul-out and can be used as a baseline for future long term monitoring. Seasonal trends, environmental effects and disturbances on haul-out numbers were investigated for seals at this site. The haul-out site was occupied by both Australian A. pusillus doriferus, and New Zealand A. forsteri, fur seals, with A. pusillus doriferus the far more abundant species. For both species, adult males, sub-adults and juveniles were present, but sub-adults represented the most numerous age group. Observed numbers of hauled-out seals increased from occasional individuals during May, peaked at 135 in September, and declined during October. The seasonal occupation of the site suggests that those animals present are non-breeding. Daily haul-out numbers varied considerably. Two large declines in numbers coincided with stochastic disturbance from a landslide at the site and unusually intense naval bombardment at a nearby weapons range. No diurnal or tidal effects on haul-out behaviour were observed, though more A. pusillus doriferus hauled-out in strong winds and warm air temperatures. At the site, which is sheltered, shaded, steep and has a southerly aspect, environmental effects have different influences on the fur seals' haul-out behaviour compared to more exposed sites. Thus generalisations regarding haul-out behaviour of seal species in response to environmental conditions need to be viewed with caution.

Bradshaw, C. J. A., Lalas, C., Perriman, L., Harcourt, R.G., Best, H., and Davis, L.S. 1999. Seasonal oscillation in shore attendance and transience of New Zealand fur seals. Canadian Journal of Zoology. 77:814-823.
Brothers, N., and Pemberton, D. 1990. Status of Australian and New Zealand fur seals at Maatsuyker Island, Southwestern Tasmania. Australian Wildlife Research 17:563-569.
CSIRO. 1994 Jervis Bay Baseline Studies, Final Report. Volume 3. CSIRO Division of Fisheries. Pp. 925-962.
Gentry, R. L. 1973. Thermoregulatory behaviour of eared seals. Behaviour 46:73-93.
Goldsworthy, S. D., and Shaughnessy, P. D. 1994. Breeding biology and haul-out pattern of the New Zealand fur seal, Arctocephalus forsteri, at Cape Gantheaume, South Australia. Wildlife Research 21:365-376.
Goldsworthy, S. D., Pemberton, D., and Warneke, R. M. 1997. The field identification of Australian and New Zealand fur seals, Arctocephalus spp., based on external characters. Pp. 63-71 in Marine Mammals of the Southern Hemisphere Volume 1: Status, Ecology and Medicine, edited by M. Hindell and C. Kemper. Surrey Beatty & Sons, Chipping Norton, NSW.
Goldsworthy, S.D., Bulman, C., He, X., Larcombe, J., and C., Littnan. 2003. Trophic interactions between marine mammals and Australian fisheries: an ecosystem approach. Pp. 62-99 in Marine Mammals: Fisheries, Tourism and Management Issues, edited by N. Gales, M. Hindell and R. Kirkwood. CSIRO Publishing, Melbourne, Victoria.
González, L. M., Aguilar, A., López-Jurado, L. F., and Grau E. 1997. Status and distribution of the Mediterranean Monk Seal Monachus monachus on the Cabo Blanco Peninsula (Western Sahara-Mauritania) in 1993-1994. Biological Conservation 80:225-233.
Irvine, A., Bryden, M. M., Corkeron, P. J., and Warneke, R. M. 1997. A census of fur seals at Montagu Island, New South Wales. Pp 56-62 in Marine Mammals of the Southern Hemisphere Volume 1: Status, Ecology and Medicine, edited by M. Hindell and C. Kemper. Surrey Beatty & Sons, Chipping Norton, NSW.
Kirkwood, R., Pemberton, D. and Cospson, G. 1992 The conservation and management of seals in Tasmania. A report to the Department of Parks, Wildlife and Heritage, Tasmanian Parks, Wildlife and Heritage, Hobart, TAS.
Kirkwood, R., Gales, R., Terauds, A., Arnould, J.P.Y., Pemberton, D., Shaughnessy, P.D., Mitchell, A.T., and Gibbends, J. 2005. Pup production and population trends of the Australian fur seal ( Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus). Marine Mammal Science 21:260-282.
Lake, S. E., Burton, H. R., and Hindell, M. A. 1997. Influence of time of day and month on Weddell Seal Haul-Out Patterns at the Vestfold Hills, Antarctica. Polar Biology 18:319-324.
McNally, J. and Lynch, D.D. 1954. Notes on the food of Victorian seals. Office of the Director of Fisheries and Game, Melbourne, Fauna Report No. 1. Victorian Fisheries and Game, Melbourne, VIC.
Pauli, B. D., and Terhune, J. M. 1987. Tidal and temporal interactions on Harbour Seal Haul-Out Patterns. Aquatic Mammals 13,:93-95.
Pearse, R. J. 1978. Distribution and conservation of the Australian fur seal in Tasmania. Victorian Naturalist 96,:48-53.
Pemberton, D., and Kirkwood, R. J. 1994. Pup production and distribution of the Australian fur seal, Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus, in Tasmania. Wildlife Research 21:341-352.
Shaughnessy, P.D. 1999 The Action Plan for Australian Seals. CSIRO Wildlife and Ecology. Environment Australia, Canberra, ACT.
Shaughnessy, P. D., and Warneke, R. M. 1987. Australian fur seals, Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus. Pp. 24-36 in Status, biology and ecology of fur seals; Proceedings of an international symposium and workshop, Cambridge, England, 23-27 April 1984, edited by J.P. Croxall and R.L. Gentry. NOAA Technical Report NMFS 51.
Shaughnessy, P.D., Shaughnessy, G.L. and Fletcher, L. 1988a. Recovery of the fur-seal population at Macquarie Island. Papers and Proceedings of the Royal Society of Tasmania 122:177-87.
Shaughnessy, P.D., Shaughnessy, G.L. and Keage, P.L. 1988b. Fur-seals at Heard Island: recovery from past exploitation? Pp. 71-77 in Marine Mammals of Australia - field biology and captive management, edited by M.L. Augee,. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW.
Shaughnessy, P. D., Gales, N. J., Dennis, T. E., and Goldsworthy, S. D. 1994. Distribution and Abundance of New Zealand Fur Seals, Arctocephalus forsteri, in South Australia and Western Australia. Wildlife Research 21:667-695.
Shaughnessy, P.D., Nicholls, A.O., and Briggs, S.V. 1999 Interactions between Tourists and Wildlife at Montague Island: Fur Seals, Little Penguins and Crested Terns. CSIRO Division of Wildlife and Ecology, CSIRO, Canberra, ACT.
Shaughnessy, P.D., Briggs, S.V., and Constable, R. 2001. Observations on seals at Montague Island, New South Wales. Australian Mammalogy 23:1-7.
Shaughnessy, P.D., Dennis, T.E., and Seager, P.G. 2005. Status of Australian sea lions, Neophoca cinerea, and New Zealand fur seals, Arctocephalus fosteri, on Eyre Peninsula and the far west coast of South Australia. Wildlife Research 32:85-101.
Stamation, K. A., Shaughnessy, P. D., and Constable, A. J. 1997. Status of Australian fur seals, Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus (Carnivora: Otariidae) at Cape Bridgewater, Victoria. Australian Mammalogy 20:63-70.
Warneke, R. M. 1975. Dispersal and mortality of juvenile fur seals, Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus, in the Bass Strait, Southeastern Australia. Rapports et Proces-verbaux des Reunions Conseil International pour l'Exploration de la Mer 169,:296-302.
Warneke, R. M. 1982. The distribution and abundance of seals in the Australasian region, with summaries of biology and current research. FAO Fisheries Series (5) 4:431-475.
Warneke, R. M., and Shaughnessy, P. D. 1985. Arctocephalus pusillus. The South African and Australian fur seal: Taxonomy, Evolution, Biogeography, and Life History. Pp. 53-77 in Studies of Sea Mammals in South Latitudes, edited by J. K. Ling and M. M. Bryden. South Australian Museum, Adelaide, SA.
Wickens, P., and York, A. E. 1997. Comparative Population Dynamics of Fur Seals. Marine Mammal Science 13:241-292.
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References

Bradshaw, C. J. A., Lalas, C., Perriman, L., Harcourt, R.G., Best, H., and Davis, L.S. 1999. Seasonal oscillation in shore attendance and transience of New Zealand fur seals. Canadian Journal of Zoology. 77:814-823.
Brothers, N., and Pemberton, D. 1990. Status of Australian and New Zealand fur seals at Maatsuyker Island, Southwestern Tasmania. Australian Wildlife Research 17:563-569.
CSIRO. 1994 Jervis Bay Baseline Studies, Final Report. Volume 3. CSIRO Division of Fisheries. Pp. 925-962.
Gentry, R. L. 1973. Thermoregulatory behaviour of eared seals. Behaviour 46:73-93.
Goldsworthy, S. D., and Shaughnessy, P. D. 1994. Breeding biology and haul-out pattern of the New Zealand fur seal, Arctocephalus forsteri, at Cape Gantheaume, South Australia. Wildlife Research 21:365-376.
Goldsworthy, S. D., Pemberton, D., and Warneke, R. M. 1997. The field identification of Australian and New Zealand fur seals, Arctocephalus spp., based on external characters. Pp. 63-71 in Marine Mammals of the Southern Hemisphere Volume 1: Status, Ecology and Medicine, edited by M. Hindell and C. Kemper. Surrey Beatty & Sons, Chipping Norton, NSW.
Goldsworthy, S.D., Bulman, C., He, X., Larcombe, J., and C., Littnan. 2003. Trophic interactions between marine mammals and Australian fisheries: an ecosystem approach. Pp. 62-99 in Marine Mammals: Fisheries, Tourism and Management Issues, edited by N. Gales, M. Hindell and R. Kirkwood. CSIRO Publishing, Melbourne, Victoria.
González, L. M., Aguilar, A., López-Jurado, L. F., and Grau E. 1997. Status and distribution of the Mediterranean Monk Seal Monachus monachus on the Cabo Blanco Peninsula (Western Sahara-Mauritania) in 1993-1994. Biological Conservation 80:225-233.
Irvine, A., Bryden, M. M., Corkeron, P. J., and Warneke, R. M. 1997. A census of fur seals at Montagu Island, New South Wales. Pp 56-62 in Marine Mammals of the Southern Hemisphere Volume 1: Status, Ecology and Medicine, edited by M. Hindell and C. Kemper. Surrey Beatty & Sons, Chipping Norton, NSW.
Kirkwood, R., Pemberton, D. and Cospson, G. 1992 The conservation and management of seals in Tasmania. A report to the Department of Parks, Wildlife and Heritage, Tasmanian Parks, Wildlife and Heritage, Hobart, TAS.
Kirkwood, R., Gales, R., Terauds, A., Arnould, J.P.Y., Pemberton, D., Shaughnessy, P.D., Mitchell, A.T., and Gibbends, J. 2005. Pup production and population trends of the Australian fur seal ( Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus). Marine Mammal Science 21:260-282.
Lake, S. E., Burton, H. R., and Hindell, M. A. 1997. Influence of time of day and month on Weddell Seal Haul-Out Patterns at the Vestfold Hills, Antarctica. Polar Biology 18:319-324.
McNally, J. and Lynch, D.D. 1954. Notes on the food of Victorian seals. Office of the Director of Fisheries and Game, Melbourne, Fauna Report No. 1. Victorian Fisheries and Game, Melbourne, VIC.
Pauli, B. D., and Terhune, J. M. 1987. Tidal and temporal interactions on Harbour Seal Haul-Out Patterns. Aquatic Mammals 13,:93-95.
Pearse, R. J. 1978. Distribution and conservation of the Australian fur seal in Tasmania. Victorian Naturalist 96,:48-53.
Pemberton, D., and Kirkwood, R. J. 1994. Pup production and distribution of the Australian fur seal, Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus, in Tasmania. Wildlife Research 21:341-352.
Shaughnessy, P.D. 1999 The Action Plan for Australian Seals. CSIRO Wildlife and Ecology. Environment Australia, Canberra, ACT.
Shaughnessy, P. D., and Warneke, R. M. 1987. Australian fur seals, Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus. Pp. 24-36 in Status, biology and ecology of fur seals; Proceedings of an international symposium and workshop, Cambridge, England, 23-27 April 1984, edited by J.P. Croxall and R.L. Gentry. NOAA Technical Report NMFS 51.
Shaughnessy, P.D., Shaughnessy, G.L. and Fletcher, L. 1988a. Recovery of the fur-seal population at Macquarie Island. Papers and Proceedings of the Royal Society of Tasmania 122:177-87.
Shaughnessy, P.D., Shaughnessy, G.L. and Keage, P.L. 1988b. Fur-seals at Heard Island: recovery from past exploitation? Pp. 71-77 in Marine Mammals of Australia - field biology and captive management, edited by M.L. Augee,. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW.
Shaughnessy, P. D., Gales, N. J., Dennis, T. E., and Goldsworthy, S. D. 1994. Distribution and Abundance of New Zealand Fur Seals, Arctocephalus forsteri, in South Australia and Western Australia. Wildlife Research 21:667-695.
Shaughnessy, P.D., Nicholls, A.O., and Briggs, S.V. 1999 Interactions between Tourists and Wildlife at Montague Island: Fur Seals, Little Penguins and Crested Terns. CSIRO Division of Wildlife and Ecology, CSIRO, Canberra, ACT.
Shaughnessy, P.D., Briggs, S.V., and Constable, R. 2001. Observations on seals at Montague Island, New South Wales. Australian Mammalogy 23:1-7.
Shaughnessy, P.D., Dennis, T.E., and Seager, P.G. 2005. Status of Australian sea lions, Neophoca cinerea, and New Zealand fur seals, Arctocephalus fosteri, on Eyre Peninsula and the far west coast of South Australia. Wildlife Research 32:85-101.
Stamation, K. A., Shaughnessy, P. D., and Constable, A. J. 1997. Status of Australian fur seals, Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus (Carnivora: Otariidae) at Cape Bridgewater, Victoria. Australian Mammalogy 20:63-70.
Warneke, R. M. 1975. Dispersal and mortality of juvenile fur seals, Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus, in the Bass Strait, Southeastern Australia. Rapports et Proces-verbaux des Reunions Conseil International pour l'Exploration de la Mer 169,:296-302.
Warneke, R. M. 1982. The distribution and abundance of seals in the Australasian region, with summaries of biology and current research. FAO Fisheries Series (5) 4:431-475.
Warneke, R. M., and Shaughnessy, P. D. 1985. Arctocephalus pusillus. The South African and Australian fur seal: Taxonomy, Evolution, Biogeography, and Life History. Pp. 53-77 in Studies of Sea Mammals in South Latitudes, edited by J. K. Ling and M. M. Bryden. South Australian Museum, Adelaide, SA.
Wickens, P., and York, A. E. 1997. Comparative Population Dynamics of Fur Seals. Marine Mammal Science 13:241-292.
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