Skip to Main Content
Skip Nav Destination

There is a deep need within humans to be in contact with animals and feeding has arisen as a means of achieving this as well as fostering a sense of nurture and even assistance to wild animals. In tourism situations feeding is frequently used in order to enhance visitor satisfaction through delivering a good sighting and close contact as well as through improved opportunities to photograph wildlife. Wildlife feeding activities comprise one or a combination of being inadvertent and accidental, a result of deliberate habitat modification to attract wildlife, unstructured, namely the intentional provisioning of food for wildlife without any form of management or structured where wildlife are deliberately fed via formal supervised arrangement. All of these situations have the potential to have both positive and negative impacts on wildlife. Recognised advantages of intentional feeding can be divided into two categories. The first relates to visitor experience and tourism product while the second involves animal welfare issues. Potential and realised problems associated with the feeding of wildlife include habituation and attraction, disruption of normal activities, increased aggregation of animals at feeding sites and nutritional problems. Management strategies aim to control access, visitor numbers, the nature and quality of provisioned food and the educational value of the viewing experience. Management styles cater for different circumstances and include wild bird feeding operations, wildlife restaurants, structured fish feeding and highly managed dolphin feeding. All of these involve a specific feeding area, controls over the feeding activity and educational programmes. It seems that on, a global scale, birds appear the most suitable candidates for structured feeding operations. Caution must be exercised in developing a feeding situation for tourism purposes and be subject to review in the light of new information on the benefits or otherwise of the feeding situation. Feeding operations should also be based upon the fostering of respect and appreciation of natural values and not entertainment.

Ayeni, J. S. O. 1977. Waterholes in Tsavo National Park, Kenya. Journal of Applied Ecology, 14, 369-378.
Bejder, L. & Samuels, A. 2003. Evaluating the Effects of Nature-based Tourism on Cetaceans. In N. Gales, M. Hindell & R. Kirkwood (eds.), Marine Mammals: Fisheries, Tourism and Management Issues. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, VIC.
Benn, B., & Herrero, S. 2005. Grizzly Bear Mortality and Human Acces in Banff and Yoho National Parks, 1971-98. pp. 63-72. Final Report of the Eastern Slopes Grizzly Bear Project In B. Benn & S. Herrero (Eds.): Eastern Slopes Grizzly Bear Project.
Bentrupperbaumer, J. 2005. Human Dimensions of Wildlife Interactions. pp.82-112. In. Wildlife Tourism. Edited by D. Newsome, R. Dowling & S. A. Moore Clevedon: Channel View Publications.
Braithwaite, D. 2001. Tourism, role of. Encyclopedia of Biodiversity, 5, 667-679
Burns, G. L., & Howard, P. 2003. When Wildlife Tourism Goes Wrong: a case study of stakeholder and management issues regarding Dingoes on Fraser Island, Australia. Tourism Management, 24, 699-712.
CALM. 1993. Monkey Mia Reserve: Draft Management Plan. Department of Conservation and Land Management, Perth, WA.
CALM. 1996. Shark Bay Marine Reserves Management Plan 1996-2006. Department of Conservation and Land Management, Perth, WA.
Chirgwin, S., & Harvey, K. 1998/1999. ‘Top-End’ Crocodile Tourism: CRC for Sustainable Tourism.
Croft, D. B., & Leiper, N. 2001. Assessment of Opportunities for Overseas Tourism Based on Wild Kangaroos, Wildlife Tourism Research Report No. 17. Gold Coast, Queensland: CRC for Sustainable Tourism.
Crome, F. H. J., & Moore, L. A. 1990. Cassowaries in North-eastern Queensland: Report of a Survey and a review and Assessment of their Status and Conservation and Management Needs. Australian Wildlife Research, 17, 369-85.
Duffus, D. A., & Dearden, P. 1990. Non-consumptive wildlife orientated recreation: A conceptual framework. Biological Conservation, 53, 213-231.
EPA 2001. Fraser Island Dingo Management Strategy: Queensland Parks and Wildlife Services, Environmental Protection Agency, Queensland Government.
Frost, F. A., & Shanka, T. Undated. Tourism Strategies and Opportunities in Kenya and Ethiopia - A Case Approach (pp. 2369-2382): Curtin University of Technology, Western Australia.
Gill, R. B. 2002. Build and Experience and They Will Come: Managing the Biology of Wildlife Viewing for Benefits to People and Wildlife. Pp. 218-251 in Wildlife Viewing: A Management Handbook, edited by M. J. Manfredo(). Corvallis: Oregon State University Press.
GBRMPA. 1999. Guidelines for Fish Feeding on the Great Barrier Reef. Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority, Townesville (Queensland), Australia.
Green, R. J., & Higginbottom, K. 2000. The effects of non-consumptive wildlife tourism on free-ranging wildlife: a review. Pacific Conservation Biology, 6, 183-197.
Green, R., & Higginbottom, K. 2001. The Negative Effects of Wildlife Tourism on Wildlife, Wildlife Tourism Series Report No. 5. Gold Coast, Queensland: Cooperative Research Centre for Sustainable Tourism.
Harriott, V.J. 2002. Marine tourism impacts and their management on the Great Barrier Reef. CRC Reef research Centre Technical Report No. 46. CRC Reef Research Centre, Townsville.
Herbert, C. 2007. From the urban fringe to the Abrolhos Islands: management challenges of burgeoning marsupial populations Pp. 129-141 Pest or guest: the zoology of overabundance, edited by D. Lunney, P. Hutchings and S. Burgine. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, New South Wales.
Higginbottom, K. 2004 Wildlife Tourism: Impacts, Management and Planning. Altona, VIC: Common Ground Publishing.
Higginbottom, K., Green, R.and Northrope, C. 2003. A framework for managing the negative impacts of wildlife tourism on wildlife. Human Dimensions of Wildlife 8, 1-24.
Hodgson, A. J., Marsh, H., & Corkeron, P. J. 2004. Provisioning by tourists affects the behaviour but not the body condition of Mareeba rock-wallabies ( Petrogale mareeba). Wildlife Research, 31, 451-456.
Howard, P., & Jones, D. N. 2004. A Qualitative Study of Wildlife Feeding in South-east Queensland. Pp 55-62 in Urban Wildlife: more than meets the eye, edited by D. Lunney & S. Burgin. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
Hughes, M., Newsome, D., & Macbeth, J. 2005. Case Study: Visitor Perceptions of Captive Wildlife Tourism in a Western Australian Natural Setting. Journal of Ecotourism, 4, 73-91.
Hundloe, T. and Hamilton, C. 1997 Koalas and Tourism: An Economic Evaluation (Discussion Paper No. 13) Canberra: The Australian Institute.
Ishigame, G., Baxter, G. S. and Lisle, A. T. 2006 Effects of artificial foods on the blood chemistry of the Australian Magpie. Austral Ecology 31, 199-207.
Jones, D. N., & Howard, P. 2001. Feeding wildlife in urban areas: An indecent obsession. Wildlife Australia, 18-20.
Knight, R. L., & Temple, S. A. 1995. Origin of wildlife responses to recreationists. Pp 81-91in Wildlife and Recreationists: Coexistence through Management and Research, edited by R. L. Knight & K. J. Gutzwiller. Washington, DC: Island Press.
Lewis, A., & Newsome, D. 2003. Planning for stingray tourism at Hamelin Bay, Western Australia: The Importance of stakeholders perspectives. International Journal of Tourism Research 5, 331-346.
Mann, J., & Kemps, C. 2003. The Effects of Provisioning on Maternal Care in Wild Bottlenose Dolphins, Shark Bay, Australia. Pp. 305-317 in Marine Mammals: Fisheries, Tourism and Management Issues, edited by N. Gales, M. Hindell & R. Kirkwood.: CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Victoria.
Marzluff, J. M., & Neatherlin, E. 2006. Corvid Response to Human Settlements and Campgrounds: Causes, Consequences, and Challenges for Conservation. Biological Conservation 130, 301-314.
Milazzo, M., Badalamenti, T., Fernandez, V. & Chemello, R. 2005. Effects of fish feeding by snorkellers on the density and size distribution of fishes in a Mediterranean marine protected area. Marine Biology, 146, 1213-1222.
Milazzo, M., Anastasi, I. & Willis, T.J. 2006. Recreational fish feeding affects coastal fish behavior and increases frequency of predation on damselfish Chromis chromis nests. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 310, 165-172.
Ministry of Natural Resources, Ontario. Undated. Guidelines for Winter Feeding of Deer in Ontario: Why, When, What, and How of Winter Feeding: Wildlife Winter Feeding Program Inc., Ontario Federation of Anglers and Hunters.
Mooney, N. 2005. Creative wildlife interpretation. Second Annual Workshop (17-19 April). Wildlife Tourism and Conservation: the perfect marriage, Wildlife Tourism Australia, Queensland, Australia.
Moore, P. & Jones, D. Undated. Wildlife Feeding: RSPCA QLD, Griffith University.
Moscardo, G., Woods, B., & Greenwodd, T. 2001. Understanding Visitor Perspectives on Wildlife Tourism, Wildlife Tourism Research Report Series: No 2. Gold Coast, Queensland: CRC for Sustainable Tourism.
Muloin, S. 1998. Wildlife Tourism: the psychological benefits of whale watching. Pacific Tourism Review, 2, 199-213.
Neil, D.T. & Brieze, I. 1998. Wild Dolphin Provisioning at Tangalooma, Moreton Island: An Evaluation. Pp.-. in Moreton Bay and Catchment, edited by I.R. Tibbetts, N.J. Hall & W.D. Dennison. School of Marine Science, The University of Queensland, Brisbane.
Newsome, D., Moore, S. and Dowling, R. 2002 Natural Area Tourism: Ecology, Impacts and Management. Channel View Publications, Clevedon.
Newsome, D., Dowling, R., & Moore, S. 2005 Wildlife Tourism. Channel View Publications, Clevedon.
Newsome, D., Lewis, A., & Moncrieff, D. 2004. Impacts and Risks Associated with Developing, but Unsupervised. Stingray Tourism at Hamelin Bay, Western Australia. International Journal of Tourism Research, 6, 305-232
O'Leary, R., & Jones, D. N. 2006. The use of supplementary foods by Australian magpies Gymnorhina tibicen: Implications for wildlife feeding in suburban environments. Austral Ecology, 31, 208-216.
Orams, M. B. 1996. A conceptual model of tourist-wildlife interactions: The case for education as a management strategy. Australian Geographer, 27, 39-51.
Orams, M.B. 1997. Historical accounts of human-dolphin interaction and recent developments in wild dolphin based tourism in Australasia. Tourism Management, 18(5), 317-326.
Orams, M.B. 2002. Feeding wildlife as a tourism attraction: a review of issues and impacts. Tourism Management, 23, 281-293.
Rodger, K., Moore, S. A., & Newsome, D. 2007. Wildlife Tours in Australia: Characteristics, the Place of Science and Sustainable Futures. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 15, 160-179.
Roe, D., Leader-Williams, N., & Dalal-Clayton, D. 1997. Take Only Photographs, Leave Only Footprints: The Environmental Impacts of Wildlife Tourism. London: Environmental Planning Group, International Institute for Environment and Development.
Ryan, C. 1998. Saltwater Crocodiles as Tourist Attractions. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 6, 314-327.
Schanzel, H. A., & McIntosh, A. J. 2000. An insight into the personal and emotive context of wildlife viewing at the Penguin Place, Otago Peninsula, New Zealand. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 8, 36-52.
Seminuk, C. A. D., Peers-Roesch, B. and Rothley, K. 2007 Using fatty acid profiles as an ecological indicator in the management of tourist impacts on marine wildlife: a case of stingray-feeding in the caribbean. Environmental Management. 40, 499-507.
Shackley, M. 1998. ‘Stingray City’ - Managing the Impact of Underwater Tourism in the Cayman Islands. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 6, 328-338.
Smith, A., Newsome, D., Lee, D., & Stoeckl, N. 2006. The Role of Wildlife Icons as Major Tourist Attractions: Case Studies: Monkey Mia and Hervey Bay whale watching. Gold Coast, Queensland: CRC for Sustainable Tourism.
Sweatman, H. 1996. Impact of tourist pontoons on fish assemblages on the Great Barrier Reef. CRC Reef research Centre Technical Report No. 5. CRC Reef Research Centre, Townsville.
Tisdell, C. & Wilson, C. 2004. Economics, Wildlife Tourism and Conservation. Gold Coast, Queensland, CRC for Sustainable Tourism.
Thompson, J., Shirreffs, L., & McPhail, I. 2003. Dingoes on Fraser Island - Tourism Dream or Management Nightmare. Human Dimensions of Wildlife, 8, 37-47.
Tourism Tasmania and Parks and Wildlife Services Tasmania. 2005 Tasmanian Wildlife Tourism Strategy. Department of Tourism, Parks, Heritage and the Arts.
Walpole, M. J. 2001. Feeding Dragons in Komodo National Park: a tourism tool with conservation complications. Animal Conservation, 4, 67-73.
Ward, J. M., & Kennedy, P. L. 1996. Effects of Supplemental food on Size and Survival of Juvenile Northern Goshawks. The Auk, 113, 200-208.
Wilbur, S. R., Carrier, W. D., & Borneman, J. C. 1974. Supplementary feeding program for California condors. Journal of Wildlife Management, 38, 343-346.
Wilson, B. 1994. Review of Dolphin Management at Monkey Mia. Perth, Western Australia: Unpublished report to Department of Conservation and Land Management.
Wilson, W. H. 2001. The effects of supplementary feeding on wintering black-capped chickadess ( Poecile atricapilla) in central Maine: population and individual responses. The Wilson Bulletin, 113, 65-72.
Whittaker, D and Knight, R. L. 1998 Understanding wildlife responses to humans. Wildlife Society Bulletin 26, 312-317.
This content is PDF only. Please click on the PDF icon to access.

Contents

Figures & Tables

References

Ayeni, J. S. O. 1977. Waterholes in Tsavo National Park, Kenya. Journal of Applied Ecology, 14, 369-378.
Bejder, L. & Samuels, A. 2003. Evaluating the Effects of Nature-based Tourism on Cetaceans. In N. Gales, M. Hindell & R. Kirkwood (eds.), Marine Mammals: Fisheries, Tourism and Management Issues. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, VIC.
Benn, B., & Herrero, S. 2005. Grizzly Bear Mortality and Human Acces in Banff and Yoho National Parks, 1971-98. pp. 63-72. Final Report of the Eastern Slopes Grizzly Bear Project In B. Benn & S. Herrero (Eds.): Eastern Slopes Grizzly Bear Project.
Bentrupperbaumer, J. 2005. Human Dimensions of Wildlife Interactions. pp.82-112. In. Wildlife Tourism. Edited by D. Newsome, R. Dowling & S. A. Moore Clevedon: Channel View Publications.
Braithwaite, D. 2001. Tourism, role of. Encyclopedia of Biodiversity, 5, 667-679
Burns, G. L., & Howard, P. 2003. When Wildlife Tourism Goes Wrong: a case study of stakeholder and management issues regarding Dingoes on Fraser Island, Australia. Tourism Management, 24, 699-712.
CALM. 1993. Monkey Mia Reserve: Draft Management Plan. Department of Conservation and Land Management, Perth, WA.
CALM. 1996. Shark Bay Marine Reserves Management Plan 1996-2006. Department of Conservation and Land Management, Perth, WA.
Chirgwin, S., & Harvey, K. 1998/1999. ‘Top-End’ Crocodile Tourism: CRC for Sustainable Tourism.
Croft, D. B., & Leiper, N. 2001. Assessment of Opportunities for Overseas Tourism Based on Wild Kangaroos, Wildlife Tourism Research Report No. 17. Gold Coast, Queensland: CRC for Sustainable Tourism.
Crome, F. H. J., & Moore, L. A. 1990. Cassowaries in North-eastern Queensland: Report of a Survey and a review and Assessment of their Status and Conservation and Management Needs. Australian Wildlife Research, 17, 369-85.
Duffus, D. A., & Dearden, P. 1990. Non-consumptive wildlife orientated recreation: A conceptual framework. Biological Conservation, 53, 213-231.
EPA 2001. Fraser Island Dingo Management Strategy: Queensland Parks and Wildlife Services, Environmental Protection Agency, Queensland Government.
Frost, F. A., & Shanka, T. Undated. Tourism Strategies and Opportunities in Kenya and Ethiopia - A Case Approach (pp. 2369-2382): Curtin University of Technology, Western Australia.
Gill, R. B. 2002. Build and Experience and They Will Come: Managing the Biology of Wildlife Viewing for Benefits to People and Wildlife. Pp. 218-251 in Wildlife Viewing: A Management Handbook, edited by M. J. Manfredo(). Corvallis: Oregon State University Press.
GBRMPA. 1999. Guidelines for Fish Feeding on the Great Barrier Reef. Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority, Townesville (Queensland), Australia.
Green, R. J., & Higginbottom, K. 2000. The effects of non-consumptive wildlife tourism on free-ranging wildlife: a review. Pacific Conservation Biology, 6, 183-197.
Green, R., & Higginbottom, K. 2001. The Negative Effects of Wildlife Tourism on Wildlife, Wildlife Tourism Series Report No. 5. Gold Coast, Queensland: Cooperative Research Centre for Sustainable Tourism.
Harriott, V.J. 2002. Marine tourism impacts and their management on the Great Barrier Reef. CRC Reef research Centre Technical Report No. 46. CRC Reef Research Centre, Townsville.
Herbert, C. 2007. From the urban fringe to the Abrolhos Islands: management challenges of burgeoning marsupial populations Pp. 129-141 Pest or guest: the zoology of overabundance, edited by D. Lunney, P. Hutchings and S. Burgine. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, New South Wales.
Higginbottom, K. 2004 Wildlife Tourism: Impacts, Management and Planning. Altona, VIC: Common Ground Publishing.
Higginbottom, K., Green, R.and Northrope, C. 2003. A framework for managing the negative impacts of wildlife tourism on wildlife. Human Dimensions of Wildlife 8, 1-24.
Hodgson, A. J., Marsh, H., & Corkeron, P. J. 2004. Provisioning by tourists affects the behaviour but not the body condition of Mareeba rock-wallabies ( Petrogale mareeba). Wildlife Research, 31, 451-456.
Howard, P., & Jones, D. N. 2004. A Qualitative Study of Wildlife Feeding in South-east Queensland. Pp 55-62 in Urban Wildlife: more than meets the eye, edited by D. Lunney & S. Burgin. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
Hughes, M., Newsome, D., & Macbeth, J. 2005. Case Study: Visitor Perceptions of Captive Wildlife Tourism in a Western Australian Natural Setting. Journal of Ecotourism, 4, 73-91.
Hundloe, T. and Hamilton, C. 1997 Koalas and Tourism: An Economic Evaluation (Discussion Paper No. 13) Canberra: The Australian Institute.
Ishigame, G., Baxter, G. S. and Lisle, A. T. 2006 Effects of artificial foods on the blood chemistry of the Australian Magpie. Austral Ecology 31, 199-207.
Jones, D. N., & Howard, P. 2001. Feeding wildlife in urban areas: An indecent obsession. Wildlife Australia, 18-20.
Knight, R. L., & Temple, S. A. 1995. Origin of wildlife responses to recreationists. Pp 81-91in Wildlife and Recreationists: Coexistence through Management and Research, edited by R. L. Knight & K. J. Gutzwiller. Washington, DC: Island Press.
Lewis, A., & Newsome, D. 2003. Planning for stingray tourism at Hamelin Bay, Western Australia: The Importance of stakeholders perspectives. International Journal of Tourism Research 5, 331-346.
Mann, J., & Kemps, C. 2003. The Effects of Provisioning on Maternal Care in Wild Bottlenose Dolphins, Shark Bay, Australia. Pp. 305-317 in Marine Mammals: Fisheries, Tourism and Management Issues, edited by N. Gales, M. Hindell & R. Kirkwood.: CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Victoria.
Marzluff, J. M., & Neatherlin, E. 2006. Corvid Response to Human Settlements and Campgrounds: Causes, Consequences, and Challenges for Conservation. Biological Conservation 130, 301-314.
Milazzo, M., Badalamenti, T., Fernandez, V. & Chemello, R. 2005. Effects of fish feeding by snorkellers on the density and size distribution of fishes in a Mediterranean marine protected area. Marine Biology, 146, 1213-1222.
Milazzo, M., Anastasi, I. & Willis, T.J. 2006. Recreational fish feeding affects coastal fish behavior and increases frequency of predation on damselfish Chromis chromis nests. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 310, 165-172.
Ministry of Natural Resources, Ontario. Undated. Guidelines for Winter Feeding of Deer in Ontario: Why, When, What, and How of Winter Feeding: Wildlife Winter Feeding Program Inc., Ontario Federation of Anglers and Hunters.
Mooney, N. 2005. Creative wildlife interpretation. Second Annual Workshop (17-19 April). Wildlife Tourism and Conservation: the perfect marriage, Wildlife Tourism Australia, Queensland, Australia.
Moore, P. & Jones, D. Undated. Wildlife Feeding: RSPCA QLD, Griffith University.
Moscardo, G., Woods, B., & Greenwodd, T. 2001. Understanding Visitor Perspectives on Wildlife Tourism, Wildlife Tourism Research Report Series: No 2. Gold Coast, Queensland: CRC for Sustainable Tourism.
Muloin, S. 1998. Wildlife Tourism: the psychological benefits of whale watching. Pacific Tourism Review, 2, 199-213.
Neil, D.T. & Brieze, I. 1998. Wild Dolphin Provisioning at Tangalooma, Moreton Island: An Evaluation. Pp.-. in Moreton Bay and Catchment, edited by I.R. Tibbetts, N.J. Hall & W.D. Dennison. School of Marine Science, The University of Queensland, Brisbane.
Newsome, D., Moore, S. and Dowling, R. 2002 Natural Area Tourism: Ecology, Impacts and Management. Channel View Publications, Clevedon.
Newsome, D., Dowling, R., & Moore, S. 2005 Wildlife Tourism. Channel View Publications, Clevedon.
Newsome, D., Lewis, A., & Moncrieff, D. 2004. Impacts and Risks Associated with Developing, but Unsupervised. Stingray Tourism at Hamelin Bay, Western Australia. International Journal of Tourism Research, 6, 305-232
O'Leary, R., & Jones, D. N. 2006. The use of supplementary foods by Australian magpies Gymnorhina tibicen: Implications for wildlife feeding in suburban environments. Austral Ecology, 31, 208-216.
Orams, M. B. 1996. A conceptual model of tourist-wildlife interactions: The case for education as a management strategy. Australian Geographer, 27, 39-51.
Orams, M.B. 1997. Historical accounts of human-dolphin interaction and recent developments in wild dolphin based tourism in Australasia. Tourism Management, 18(5), 317-326.
Orams, M.B. 2002. Feeding wildlife as a tourism attraction: a review of issues and impacts. Tourism Management, 23, 281-293.
Rodger, K., Moore, S. A., & Newsome, D. 2007. Wildlife Tours in Australia: Characteristics, the Place of Science and Sustainable Futures. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 15, 160-179.
Roe, D., Leader-Williams, N., & Dalal-Clayton, D. 1997. Take Only Photographs, Leave Only Footprints: The Environmental Impacts of Wildlife Tourism. London: Environmental Planning Group, International Institute for Environment and Development.
Ryan, C. 1998. Saltwater Crocodiles as Tourist Attractions. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 6, 314-327.
Schanzel, H. A., & McIntosh, A. J. 2000. An insight into the personal and emotive context of wildlife viewing at the Penguin Place, Otago Peninsula, New Zealand. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 8, 36-52.
Seminuk, C. A. D., Peers-Roesch, B. and Rothley, K. 2007 Using fatty acid profiles as an ecological indicator in the management of tourist impacts on marine wildlife: a case of stingray-feeding in the caribbean. Environmental Management. 40, 499-507.
Shackley, M. 1998. ‘Stingray City’ - Managing the Impact of Underwater Tourism in the Cayman Islands. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 6, 328-338.
Smith, A., Newsome, D., Lee, D., & Stoeckl, N. 2006. The Role of Wildlife Icons as Major Tourist Attractions: Case Studies: Monkey Mia and Hervey Bay whale watching. Gold Coast, Queensland: CRC for Sustainable Tourism.
Sweatman, H. 1996. Impact of tourist pontoons on fish assemblages on the Great Barrier Reef. CRC Reef research Centre Technical Report No. 5. CRC Reef Research Centre, Townsville.
Tisdell, C. & Wilson, C. 2004. Economics, Wildlife Tourism and Conservation. Gold Coast, Queensland, CRC for Sustainable Tourism.
Thompson, J., Shirreffs, L., & McPhail, I. 2003. Dingoes on Fraser Island - Tourism Dream or Management Nightmare. Human Dimensions of Wildlife, 8, 37-47.
Tourism Tasmania and Parks and Wildlife Services Tasmania. 2005 Tasmanian Wildlife Tourism Strategy. Department of Tourism, Parks, Heritage and the Arts.
Walpole, M. J. 2001. Feeding Dragons in Komodo National Park: a tourism tool with conservation complications. Animal Conservation, 4, 67-73.
Ward, J. M., & Kennedy, P. L. 1996. Effects of Supplemental food on Size and Survival of Juvenile Northern Goshawks. The Auk, 113, 200-208.
Wilbur, S. R., Carrier, W. D., & Borneman, J. C. 1974. Supplementary feeding program for California condors. Journal of Wildlife Management, 38, 343-346.
Wilson, B. 1994. Review of Dolphin Management at Monkey Mia. Perth, Western Australia: Unpublished report to Department of Conservation and Land Management.
Wilson, W. H. 2001. The effects of supplementary feeding on wintering black-capped chickadess ( Poecile atricapilla) in central Maine: population and individual responses. The Wilson Bulletin, 113, 65-72.
Whittaker, D and Knight, R. L. 1998 Understanding wildlife responses to humans. Wildlife Society Bulletin 26, 312-317.
Close Modal

or Create an Account

Close Modal
Close Modal