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Reintroduction programs have been used to help redress serious declines across species' former ranges, but they often suffer from high expense and low success rates. Tourism is one tool that could be used to support such programs. Tourism enterprises based on reintroduced threatened native mammals cover 13% of the total land area in South Africa, compared with less than 0.2% of the total land area in Australia. There may be potential for tourism to be used more frequently to support reintroductions in Australia.

A review of tourism enterprises based on reintroduced threatened native mammals in Australia and South Africa was undertaken, to investigate the contribution of tourism to the conservation conducted by reintroduction programs in Australia and to make recommendations to help increase the involvement of tourism in reintroductions in Australia. The review shows tourism enterprises based on reintroductions in Australia make significant contributions to conservation, but face difficulties with obtaining licences, accessing threatened species, low levels of support from government, excessive competition from other tourism businesses and the death of reintroduced mammals. The paper draws out lessons that Australia can learn from the extensive South African experience to help overcome these problems.

Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. 2006 Australia Now: Australia's National Parks. Publ. Internet - http://www.dfat. gov.au/facts/national_parks.html
Figgis, P. 2004 Conservation on private lands: the Australian experience. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
Fischer, J. and Lindenmayer, D. B. 2000. An assessment of the published results of animal relocations. Biological Conservation 96: 1-11.
Fredline, L. and Faulkner, B. 2001 International market analysis of wildlife tourism. CRC for Sustainable Tourism, Queensland.
Goodman, P. S., James, B. and Carlisle, L. 2002. Wildlife utilisation: its role in fostering biodiversity conservation in KwaZulu-Natal. Pp. 21-30 in Mainstreaming biodiversity in development edited by S. Pierce, R. Cowling, T. Sandwith and K. MacKinnon. The World Bank, USA.
Griffith, B., Scott, J. M., Carpenter, J. W. and Reed, C. 1989. Translocation as a species conservation tool: status and strategy. Science 245:477-480.
Higginbottom, K. and King, N. 2004 The live trade in freeranging wildlife in South Africa, and implications for Australia. Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation, Australia.
Higginbottom, K. and Buckley, R. 2003 Terrestrial wildlife viewing in Australia. CRC for Sustainable Tourism, Australia.
Higginbottom, K., Rann, K., Moscardo, G., Davis, D. and Muloin, S. 2001a Part II: Status assessment. Status assessment of wildlife tourism in Australia: an overview. CRC for Sustainable Tourism, Australia.
Higginbottom, K., Northrope, C. and Green, R. 2001b Positive effects of wildlife tourism on wildlife. CRC for Sustainable Tourism, Australia.
IUCN/SSC. 1995 Guidelines for reintroductions. 41st Meeting of the IUCN Council. Gland, Switzerland.
King, N. 2006 Tourism based on reintroductions of threatened mammals. Unpublished PhD thesis. Griffith University, Gold Coast, Australia.
Orams, M. B. 1996. A conceptual model of tourist-wildlife interaction: the case for education as a management strategy. Australian Geographer 27:39-51.
Reading, R. P., Clark, T. W. and Griffith, B. 1997. The influence of valuational and organizational considerations on the success of rare species translocations. Biological Conservation 79:217-225.
Short, J., Bradshaw, S. D., Giles, J., Prince, R. I. T. and Wilson, G. R. 1992. Reintroduction of macropods (Marsupialia: Macropodoidea) in Australia - a review. Biological Conservation 62:189-204.
Wolf, C. M., Griffith, B., Reed, C. and Temple, S. A. 1996. Avian and mammalian translocations: update and reanalysis of 1987 data. Conservation Biology 10:1142-1154.
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References

Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. 2006 Australia Now: Australia's National Parks. Publ. Internet - http://www.dfat. gov.au/facts/national_parks.html
Figgis, P. 2004 Conservation on private lands: the Australian experience. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
Fischer, J. and Lindenmayer, D. B. 2000. An assessment of the published results of animal relocations. Biological Conservation 96: 1-11.
Fredline, L. and Faulkner, B. 2001 International market analysis of wildlife tourism. CRC for Sustainable Tourism, Queensland.
Goodman, P. S., James, B. and Carlisle, L. 2002. Wildlife utilisation: its role in fostering biodiversity conservation in KwaZulu-Natal. Pp. 21-30 in Mainstreaming biodiversity in development edited by S. Pierce, R. Cowling, T. Sandwith and K. MacKinnon. The World Bank, USA.
Griffith, B., Scott, J. M., Carpenter, J. W. and Reed, C. 1989. Translocation as a species conservation tool: status and strategy. Science 245:477-480.
Higginbottom, K. and King, N. 2004 The live trade in freeranging wildlife in South Africa, and implications for Australia. Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation, Australia.
Higginbottom, K. and Buckley, R. 2003 Terrestrial wildlife viewing in Australia. CRC for Sustainable Tourism, Australia.
Higginbottom, K., Rann, K., Moscardo, G., Davis, D. and Muloin, S. 2001a Part II: Status assessment. Status assessment of wildlife tourism in Australia: an overview. CRC for Sustainable Tourism, Australia.
Higginbottom, K., Northrope, C. and Green, R. 2001b Positive effects of wildlife tourism on wildlife. CRC for Sustainable Tourism, Australia.
IUCN/SSC. 1995 Guidelines for reintroductions. 41st Meeting of the IUCN Council. Gland, Switzerland.
King, N. 2006 Tourism based on reintroductions of threatened mammals. Unpublished PhD thesis. Griffith University, Gold Coast, Australia.
Orams, M. B. 1996. A conceptual model of tourist-wildlife interaction: the case for education as a management strategy. Australian Geographer 27:39-51.
Reading, R. P., Clark, T. W. and Griffith, B. 1997. The influence of valuational and organizational considerations on the success of rare species translocations. Biological Conservation 79:217-225.
Short, J., Bradshaw, S. D., Giles, J., Prince, R. I. T. and Wilson, G. R. 1992. Reintroduction of macropods (Marsupialia: Macropodoidea) in Australia - a review. Biological Conservation 62:189-204.
Wolf, C. M., Griffith, B., Reed, C. and Temple, S. A. 1996. Avian and mammalian translocations: update and reanalysis of 1987 data. Conservation Biology 10:1142-1154.
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