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The Greater Blue Mountains World Heritage Area (GBMWHA) is biologically diverse, including many unique and rare plants and animals as well as varied ecosystems. It also contains a large body of rock art - drawings, paintings, stencils, prints and engravings - in rock shelters and on rock platforms. Research since 2001 has revealed many previously unknown rock art sites with depictions of animals, especially in Wollemi National Park, as well as greater knowledge about contemporary animal distributions. In this paper archaeological and natural history studies are brought together with contemporary Aboriginal insight in an attempt to better understand the nature of past and present mammal distributions. Discussion includes the challenges of reconciling vastly different databases, changes in knowledge systems over time and the potential knowledge such reconciling could reveal. Threats to GBMWHA cultural and natural heritage are also discussed, with hot fires resulting from changes to burning regimes and climate change a particular threat to both mammals and rock art sites.

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