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The Greater Blue Mountains World Heritage Area (GBMWHA) is biologically diverse, including many unique and rare plants and animals as well as varied ecosystems. It also contains a large body of rock art - drawings, paintings, stencils, prints and engravings - in rock shelters and on rock platforms. Research since 2001 has revealed many previously unknown rock art sites with depictions of animals, especially in Wollemi National Park, as well as greater knowledge about contemporary animal distributions. In this paper archaeological and natural history studies are brought together with contemporary Aboriginal insight in an attempt to better understand the nature of past and present mammal distributions. Discussion includes the challenges of reconciling vastly different databases, changes in knowledge systems over time and the potential knowledge such reconciling could reveal. Threats to GBMWHA cultural and natural heritage are also discussed, with hot fires resulting from changes to burning regimes and climate change a particular threat to both mammals and rock art sites.

Attenbrow, V. 2002 Sydney's Aboriginal past: investigating the archaeological and historical records. UNSW Press, Sydney.
Black, M., Mooney, S.D. and V. Attenbrow. 2008. Implications of a 14,200 year contiguous fire record for understanding human-climate relationships at Goochs Swamp, New South Wales, Australia. The Holocene 18(3):437-447.
Bradstock, R., Williams, J. and M. Gill. (eds). 2002 Flammable Australia: The fire regimes and biodiversity of a continent. Cambridge University Press, Melbourne.
Brandl, E. 1972. Thylacine designs in Arnhem Land rock paintings. Archaeology & Physical Anthropology in Oceania 7(1):24-30.
Brandt, S. and N. Carder. 1987. Pastoral rock art in the Horn of Africa: Making sense of udder chaos. World Archaeology 19 (2). Taylor and Francis, London.
Brookes, N., Drake, N.A., McLaren, S. and K.H. White 2003. Studies in Geography, Geomorphology, Environment and Climate. In: D.J.M. Mattingley, J. Dore and A.I. Wilson, Editors, The Archaeology of the Fezzan: Synthesis vol. 1, Society for Libyan Studies, London.
Brookes, N., Guagnin, M. and A. Mather. 2006. A Western Sahara Project - Report of the 4th season of archaeological fieldwork, 12-24 November 2006. http://www.cru.uea.ac.uk/~e118/WS/WSahara-2006.htm
Chaloupka, G. 1993 Journey in time: the world's longest continuing art tradition. Reed Publishing, Chatswood.
Clegg, J. 1978. Pictures of striped animals: which ones are thylacines? Archaeology & Physical Anthropology in Oceania 13(1):19-29.
DEC. 2005. Draft Recovery Plan for the Brush-tailed Rock-wallaby Petrogale penicillata. DEC Department of Environment and Conservation (NSW), Sydney.
DECC. 2007 Terrestrial vertebrate fauna of the Greater Southern Sydney region. A joint project of the Sydney Catchment Authority and the Department of Environment and Climate Change (NSW) (DECC) under the Special Areas Strategic Plan of Management (SASPoM) by the Information and Assessment Section, Metropolitan Branch, Climate Change and Environment Protection Branch, DECC, Hurstville.
Gasse, F. and J. Fontes. 1989. Palaeoenvironments and Palaeohydrology of a Tropical closed Lake (Lake Asal) Djibouti since 10,000 yr B.P. In: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., Amsterdam.
Gunderson, L.H and C.S. Holling. 2002 Panarchy: Understanding transformations in human and natural systems. Island Press, Washington, D.C.
Gunn, B. 1988. Recording and assessment of the Nganalang rock art site Keep River National Park. A report to the Conservation Commission of the Northern Territory and the Australian Heritage Commission. Unpublished.
Laws, R.J. and Goldizen, A.W. 2003. Nocturnal home ranges and social interactions of the brush-tailed rock-wallaby Petrogale penicillata at Hurdle Creek, Queensland. Australian Mammalogy 25: 169-176.
Lewis, D. 1977. More striped designs in Arnhem Land rock paintings. Archaeology & Physical Anthropology in Oceania 12(2):98-111.
Macintosh, N.W.G. 1977. Beswick Creek cave two decades later: a reappraisal. In P. Ucko (ed.), Form in Indigenous art: schematisation in the art of Aboriginal Australia and prehistoric Europe, pp. 191-197. Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies, Canberra.
McDonald, J. 1994. ‘Dreamtime Superhighway: an analysis of Sydney Basin rock art and prehistoric information exchange’. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis. Australian National University, Canberra. (soon to be published in the Terra Australis monograph series)
McMah, L. 1965. A quantitative analysis of the Aboriginal rock carvings in the District of Sydney and the Hawkesbury River. Unpublished B.A. (Hons) thesis. University of Sydney, Sydney.
Merson, J. and S. Hooper. 2006. Mapping Country Project Report, Volume 1. www.bmwhi.org.au
Merson, J. 2004. “Climate Change and Ecosystem Stress: The Impact of increased forest fire frequency and intensity on Australian protected and World Heritage areas”. In: Proceedings of the 3rd IUCN World Conservation Congress. IUCN, Geneva.
Morphy, H. (ed.). 1989 Animals into art. Unwin Hyman, London.
NSW NPWS 2001 Wollemi National Park plan of management. New South Wales National Parks and Wildlife Service, Hurstville.
Pettitt, P. and A. Pike. 2007. Dating European Palaeolithic art: progress, prospects, problems. Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory 14(1): 27-47.
Officer, K.L.C. 1984. From Tuggerah to Dharawal: variation and function within a regional art style. Unpublished B.A. (Hons) thesis. The Australian National University, Canberra.
Piggott, M.P., Banks, S. C., Stone, N., Banffy, C. and A.C. Taylor. 2006. Estimating population size of endangered brush-tailed rock-wallaby ( Petrogale penicillata) colonies using faecal DNA. Molecular Ecology 15 (1): 81-91.
Rose, D. James, D. and C. Watson. 2003. Indigenous Kinship with the Natural World. New South Wales National Parks and Wildlife Service, Hurstville.
Short, J. 1980. Ecology of the brush-tailed rock-wallaby ( Petrogale penicillata, Griffin, Smith and Pidgeon). M.Sc. thesis, Sydney University, Sydney.
Smith, L.-J. 1983. What's in the size of a macropod? A study of variance in prehistoric pictures from the Mangrove Creek area. Unpublished B.A. (Hons) thesis. Sydney, University of Sydney.
Strahan, R. (ed.). 1991 The Australian Museum complete book of Australian Mammals. Cornstalk Publishing, North Ryde.
Taçon, P.S.C. 1988. Identifying fish species in the recent rock paintings of western Arnhem Land. Rock Art Research 5(1):3-15.
Taçon, P.S.C. and C. Chippindale. 1998. An archaeology of rock-art through informed methods and formal methods. In C. Chippindale and P.S.C. Taçon (eds), The archaeology of rock-art, pp. 1-10. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Taçon, P.S.C., Mulvaney, K., Ouzman, S., Fullagar, R., Head, L., and P. Carlton. 2003. Changing ecological concerns in rock-art subject matter of north Australia's Keep River region. Before Farming 2003/3 (4):354-366.
Taçon, P.S.C., Brennan, W., Hooper, S., Kelleher, M. and D. Pross. 2005. Greater Wollemi: a new Australian rock-art area bordering Sydney. International Organisation of Rock Art (INORA) Newsletter 43:1-6.
Taçon, P.S.C., Kelleher, M., Brennan, W., Hooper, S. and D. Pross. 2006. Wollemi petroglyphs, N.S.W., Australia: an unusual assemblage with rare motifs. Rock Art Research 23(2):227-238.
Taçon, P.S.C., Kelleher, M., King, G. and W. Brennan. 2008. Eagle's Reach: a focal point for past and present social identity within the northern Blue Mountains World heritage area, New South Wales, Australia. In I. Sanz, D. Fiore and S.K. May (eds.), Archaeologies of art: time, place and identity, pp.195-214. Left Coast Press, Walnut Creek.
Taçon, P.S.C., Brennan, W., Hooper, S., Kelleher, M. and D. Pross. In press. Differential cave and rock-shelter use during the Pleistocene and Holocene. In H. Moyes, ed., Journeys into the dark zone: a cross cultural perspective on caves as sacred spaces. University of Colorado Press, Boulder.
Tasire, A. 2008 Macropod Design Elements: A study of the macropod motif from the Hawkesbury Sandstone in the Sydney region. Unpublished B.A. (Hons) thesis. University of New England, Armidale.
van der Leeuw, S. and C.L. Redman. 2002. Placing archaeology at the center of socio-natural studies. American Antiquity 67 (4): 597-605.
Vinnicombe, P. 1976 People of the eland: rock paintings of the Drakensburg Bushmen as a reflection of their life and thought. University of Natal Press, Pietermaritzburg.
Wright, B. 1972. Rock engravings of striped mammals: the Pilbara region, Western Australia. Archaeology & Physical Anthropology in Oceania 7(1):15-23.
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References

Attenbrow, V. 2002 Sydney's Aboriginal past: investigating the archaeological and historical records. UNSW Press, Sydney.
Black, M., Mooney, S.D. and V. Attenbrow. 2008. Implications of a 14,200 year contiguous fire record for understanding human-climate relationships at Goochs Swamp, New South Wales, Australia. The Holocene 18(3):437-447.
Bradstock, R., Williams, J. and M. Gill. (eds). 2002 Flammable Australia: The fire regimes and biodiversity of a continent. Cambridge University Press, Melbourne.
Brandl, E. 1972. Thylacine designs in Arnhem Land rock paintings. Archaeology & Physical Anthropology in Oceania 7(1):24-30.
Brandt, S. and N. Carder. 1987. Pastoral rock art in the Horn of Africa: Making sense of udder chaos. World Archaeology 19 (2). Taylor and Francis, London.
Brookes, N., Drake, N.A., McLaren, S. and K.H. White 2003. Studies in Geography, Geomorphology, Environment and Climate. In: D.J.M. Mattingley, J. Dore and A.I. Wilson, Editors, The Archaeology of the Fezzan: Synthesis vol. 1, Society for Libyan Studies, London.
Brookes, N., Guagnin, M. and A. Mather. 2006. A Western Sahara Project - Report of the 4th season of archaeological fieldwork, 12-24 November 2006. http://www.cru.uea.ac.uk/~e118/WS/WSahara-2006.htm
Chaloupka, G. 1993 Journey in time: the world's longest continuing art tradition. Reed Publishing, Chatswood.
Clegg, J. 1978. Pictures of striped animals: which ones are thylacines? Archaeology & Physical Anthropology in Oceania 13(1):19-29.
DEC. 2005. Draft Recovery Plan for the Brush-tailed Rock-wallaby Petrogale penicillata. DEC Department of Environment and Conservation (NSW), Sydney.
DECC. 2007 Terrestrial vertebrate fauna of the Greater Southern Sydney region. A joint project of the Sydney Catchment Authority and the Department of Environment and Climate Change (NSW) (DECC) under the Special Areas Strategic Plan of Management (SASPoM) by the Information and Assessment Section, Metropolitan Branch, Climate Change and Environment Protection Branch, DECC, Hurstville.
Gasse, F. and J. Fontes. 1989. Palaeoenvironments and Palaeohydrology of a Tropical closed Lake (Lake Asal) Djibouti since 10,000 yr B.P. In: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., Amsterdam.
Gunderson, L.H and C.S. Holling. 2002 Panarchy: Understanding transformations in human and natural systems. Island Press, Washington, D.C.
Gunn, B. 1988. Recording and assessment of the Nganalang rock art site Keep River National Park. A report to the Conservation Commission of the Northern Territory and the Australian Heritage Commission. Unpublished.
Laws, R.J. and Goldizen, A.W. 2003. Nocturnal home ranges and social interactions of the brush-tailed rock-wallaby Petrogale penicillata at Hurdle Creek, Queensland. Australian Mammalogy 25: 169-176.
Lewis, D. 1977. More striped designs in Arnhem Land rock paintings. Archaeology & Physical Anthropology in Oceania 12(2):98-111.
Macintosh, N.W.G. 1977. Beswick Creek cave two decades later: a reappraisal. In P. Ucko (ed.), Form in Indigenous art: schematisation in the art of Aboriginal Australia and prehistoric Europe, pp. 191-197. Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies, Canberra.
McDonald, J. 1994. ‘Dreamtime Superhighway: an analysis of Sydney Basin rock art and prehistoric information exchange’. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis. Australian National University, Canberra. (soon to be published in the Terra Australis monograph series)
McMah, L. 1965. A quantitative analysis of the Aboriginal rock carvings in the District of Sydney and the Hawkesbury River. Unpublished B.A. (Hons) thesis. University of Sydney, Sydney.
Merson, J. and S. Hooper. 2006. Mapping Country Project Report, Volume 1. www.bmwhi.org.au
Merson, J. 2004. “Climate Change and Ecosystem Stress: The Impact of increased forest fire frequency and intensity on Australian protected and World Heritage areas”. In: Proceedings of the 3rd IUCN World Conservation Congress. IUCN, Geneva.
Morphy, H. (ed.). 1989 Animals into art. Unwin Hyman, London.
NSW NPWS 2001 Wollemi National Park plan of management. New South Wales National Parks and Wildlife Service, Hurstville.
Pettitt, P. and A. Pike. 2007. Dating European Palaeolithic art: progress, prospects, problems. Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory 14(1): 27-47.
Officer, K.L.C. 1984. From Tuggerah to Dharawal: variation and function within a regional art style. Unpublished B.A. (Hons) thesis. The Australian National University, Canberra.
Piggott, M.P., Banks, S. C., Stone, N., Banffy, C. and A.C. Taylor. 2006. Estimating population size of endangered brush-tailed rock-wallaby ( Petrogale penicillata) colonies using faecal DNA. Molecular Ecology 15 (1): 81-91.
Rose, D. James, D. and C. Watson. 2003. Indigenous Kinship with the Natural World. New South Wales National Parks and Wildlife Service, Hurstville.
Short, J. 1980. Ecology of the brush-tailed rock-wallaby ( Petrogale penicillata, Griffin, Smith and Pidgeon). M.Sc. thesis, Sydney University, Sydney.
Smith, L.-J. 1983. What's in the size of a macropod? A study of variance in prehistoric pictures from the Mangrove Creek area. Unpublished B.A. (Hons) thesis. Sydney, University of Sydney.
Strahan, R. (ed.). 1991 The Australian Museum complete book of Australian Mammals. Cornstalk Publishing, North Ryde.
Taçon, P.S.C. 1988. Identifying fish species in the recent rock paintings of western Arnhem Land. Rock Art Research 5(1):3-15.
Taçon, P.S.C. and C. Chippindale. 1998. An archaeology of rock-art through informed methods and formal methods. In C. Chippindale and P.S.C. Taçon (eds), The archaeology of rock-art, pp. 1-10. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Taçon, P.S.C., Mulvaney, K., Ouzman, S., Fullagar, R., Head, L., and P. Carlton. 2003. Changing ecological concerns in rock-art subject matter of north Australia's Keep River region. Before Farming 2003/3 (4):354-366.
Taçon, P.S.C., Brennan, W., Hooper, S., Kelleher, M. and D. Pross. 2005. Greater Wollemi: a new Australian rock-art area bordering Sydney. International Organisation of Rock Art (INORA) Newsletter 43:1-6.
Taçon, P.S.C., Kelleher, M., Brennan, W., Hooper, S. and D. Pross. 2006. Wollemi petroglyphs, N.S.W., Australia: an unusual assemblage with rare motifs. Rock Art Research 23(2):227-238.
Taçon, P.S.C., Kelleher, M., King, G. and W. Brennan. 2008. Eagle's Reach: a focal point for past and present social identity within the northern Blue Mountains World heritage area, New South Wales, Australia. In I. Sanz, D. Fiore and S.K. May (eds.), Archaeologies of art: time, place and identity, pp.195-214. Left Coast Press, Walnut Creek.
Taçon, P.S.C., Brennan, W., Hooper, S., Kelleher, M. and D. Pross. In press. Differential cave and rock-shelter use during the Pleistocene and Holocene. In H. Moyes, ed., Journeys into the dark zone: a cross cultural perspective on caves as sacred spaces. University of Colorado Press, Boulder.
Tasire, A. 2008 Macropod Design Elements: A study of the macropod motif from the Hawkesbury Sandstone in the Sydney region. Unpublished B.A. (Hons) thesis. University of New England, Armidale.
van der Leeuw, S. and C.L. Redman. 2002. Placing archaeology at the center of socio-natural studies. American Antiquity 67 (4): 597-605.
Vinnicombe, P. 1976 People of the eland: rock paintings of the Drakensburg Bushmen as a reflection of their life and thought. University of Natal Press, Pietermaritzburg.
Wright, B. 1972. Rock engravings of striped mammals: the Pilbara region, Western Australia. Archaeology & Physical Anthropology in Oceania 7(1):15-23.
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